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POWER SYSTEM ISLANDING

Tasks sequence identified


1. power system islanding 2. intentional & unintentional islanding 3. effects of islanding 4. islanding detection ( active & passive techniques ) 5. merits 6. demerits

What is islanding ?
Islanding Condition where a portion of grid is continuously energized by DGs (distributed generators) even after that portion is electrically separated from rest of the power system

Islanding refers to the condition in which a distributed generation (DG) continues to power a location even though electrical grid power from the electric utility is no longer present. Islanding can be dangerous to utility workers, who may not realize that a circuit is still powered, and it may prevent automatic re-connection of devices. For that reason, distributed generators must detect islanding and immediately stop producing power; this is referred to as anti-islanding.

Intentional islanding for maintenance purpose Non- Intentional islanding occurs due to faults

Islanding consequences
Safety hazard for utility repair personnel and public Serious damage to DG equipments after utility restoration due to variation in freq, phase & magnitude (mismatch or loss of synchronism) Quality of power delivered by DGs decreases Delay in utility power restoration

Islanding detection
Islanding detection plays a vital role in todays power distribution system & several techniques have been developed
Islanding detection techniques

Active

Passive

Passive technique
- Due to islanding variation in VMF (voltage magnitude & freq.) - Measuring VMF at interconnection point of DG serves detection . HOW ? - Measuring system parameters - Use of voltage & frequency relays Demerit : NDZ (non detection zones ) islanding occurs & is not noticed ---- this may be bcoz of PBLG state (power balanced load generation) where a DGs output matches the load demand ---- hence no variation in VMF

Active technique
Here DGs interface is tuned
islanding detection when islanded, inverter is tuned operate @ freq. other than nominal freq. (set/tuned by using converter-inverter set) When Utility signal is present inverter is forced (by +ve feedback signal) to operate @ nominal freq. As islanding occurs inverter drifts to natural (tuned) freq. internal freq. relay trips ( set for deviation from nominal) islanding is detected

Merits & demerits


Merits : - Reduces power transmission cost & losses - Improves Reliability Demerits : - Safety threat to operating personel - Devices get damaged due to poor power quality - DG also may be damaged - When large loads are disconnected from the main grid, DG must adjusted system frequency and voltage to the appropriate levels quickly - Fault ride through issues .

References
[1]

[2]

[3] [4]

[5]

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL.22, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2007 A Hybrid Islanding Detection Technique Using Voltage Unbalance and Frequency Set Point S.-I. Jang and K.-H. Kim, An islanding detection method for distributed generations using voltage unbalance and total harmonic distortion of current, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 745752, Apr. 2004. 1547TM IEEE Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems Reliability Effects of Intentional Islanding on Backup Distributed Generation Systems Control Of Power Conversion Systems For The Intentional Islanding Of Distributed Generation Units
by Timothy N.Thacker

[6]

Islanding detection in power electronic converter based distributed generation