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2010 CPR Guidelines

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A-B-C is for babies; now it's C-AB! It used to be follow your ABC's: airway, breathing and chest compressions. Now, Compressions come first, only then do you focus on Airway and Breathing. The only exception to the rule will be newborn babies, but everyone else -- whether it's infant CPR, child CPR or adult CPR -- will get chest compressions before 7/3/12 you worry about the airway.

In the A-B-C sequence chest compressions are often delayed while the responder opens the airway to give mouth-to-mouth breaths or retrieves a barrier device or other ventilation equipment. By changing the sequence to C-A-B, chest compressions will be initiated sooner and ventilation only minimally 7/3/12

No more looking, listening and feeling. The key to saving a cardiac arrest victim is action, not assessment. Call 911 the moment you realize the victim won't wake up and doesn't seem to be breathing right. Trust your gut. If you have to hold your cheek over the victim's mouth and carefully try to detect a puff of 7/3/12

Push a little harder. How deep you should push on the chest has changed for adult CPR. It was 1 1/2 to 2 inches, but now the Heart Association wants you to push at least 2 inches deep on the chest.


Push a little faster. AHA changed the wording here, too. Instead of pushing on the chest at about 100 compressions per minute, AHA wants you to push at least 100 compressions per minute. At that rate, 30 compressions should take you 18 seconds.

Besides the changes under the 2010 CPR Guidelines, AHA continues to emphasize some important points:

Hands Only CPR. This is technically a change from the 2005 Guidelines, but AHA endorsed this form of CPR in 2008. The Heart Association still wants untrained lay rescuers to do Hands Only CPR on adult victims who collapse in front of them. My biggest problem with this campaign is what's left unsaid. What does AHA want untrained lay rescuers to do with all 7/3/12 the other victims? In other words,

Recognize sudden cardiac arrest. CPR is the only treatment for sudden cardiac arrest and AHA wants you to notice when it happens.


Don't stop pushing. Every interruption in chest compressions interrupts blood flow to the brain, which leads to brain death if the blood flow stops too long. It takes several chest compressions to get blood moving again. AHA wants you to keep pushing as long as you can. Push until the AED is in place and 7/3/12

even the AHA recognizes that if you only know Hands-Only CPR and you discover an adult already unconscious, you will need to do something. The organization recommends Hands-Only CPR in that case, but it ignores the issues of kids and drowning victims. There's no substitute for proper CPR training, but not everybody has that. 7/3/12

There is a significant amount of oxygen in the bloodstream capable of sustaining brain tissue for several minutes, even without breathing. Proponents of doing CPR without rescue breathing argue that continuous chest compressions get blood flowing better than chest compressions interrupted by rescue breaths, and that blood flow is the only way oxygen can reach vital organs such as the brain. Proof that circulated blood holds enough oxygen to sustain life without taking a breath lies in examples of breath-holding. 7/3/12 Freediver Tom Sietas of Germany holds

How To Perform Adult Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation(CPR)


These are the steps to perform adult CPR: Difficulty: Easy Time Required: CPR should start as soon as possible Here's How: Attempt to wake victim. If the victim is not breathing (or is just gasping for breath), call 911 immediately and go to step 2. If someone else is there to help, one of you call 911 while the other moves on to step 2. If the victim is breathing, see the Tips section at the bottom of this page for what to do. Begin chest compressions. If the victim is not breathing, place the heel of your hand in the middle of his chest. Put your other hand on top of the first with your fingers interlaced. Compress the chest at least 2 inches (4-5 cm). Allow the chest to completely recoil before the next compression. Compress the chest at a rate of at least 100 pushes per minute. Perform 30 compressions at this rate (should take you about 18 seconds). If you are not trained in CPR, continue to do chest compressions until help arrives or the victim wakes up. It's normal to feel pops and snaps when you first begin chest compressions - DON'T STOP! You're not going to make the victim worse. Begin rescue breathing. If you have been trained in CPR, after 30 compressions, open the victim's airway using the head-tilt, chin-lift method. Pinch the victim's nose and make a seal over the victim's mouth with yours. Use a CPR mask if available. Give the victim a breath big enough to make the chest rise. Let the chest fall, then repeat the rescue breath once more. If the chest doesn't rise on the first breath, reposition the head and try again. Whether it works on the second try or not, go to step 4. If you don't feel comfortable with this step, just continue to do chest compressions at a rate of at least 100/minute. Repeat chest compressions. Do 30 more chest compressions just like you did the first time. Repeat rescue breaths. Give 2 more breaths just like you did in step 3 (unless you're skipping the rescue breaths). Keep going. Repeat steps 4 and 5 for about two minutes (about 5 cycles of 30 compressions and 2 rescue breaths). If you have access to an automated external defibrillator (AED), continue to do CPR until you can attach it to the victim and turn it on. If you saw the victim collapse, put the AED on right away. If not, attach it after approximately one minute of CPR (chest compressions and rescue breaths). After 2 minutes of chest compressions and rescue breaths, stop compressions and recheck victim for breathing. If the victim is still not breathing, continue CPR starting with chest compressions.


How To Do InfantCPR


There is no substitute for proper training. However, emergencies wait for no one. Use these steps to provide CPR to babies under 1 year old. Time Required: As long as it takes Here's How: Stay Safe Children may be infected with contagious diseases. If you are concerned about possible exposure to contagious disease, practice universal precautions and wear personal protective equipment, if 7/3/12 available.

How To Do CPR on aChild


Stay Safe Children may be infected with contagious diseases. If you are concerned about possible exposure to contagious disease, practice universal precautions and wear personal protective equipment, if available. Try to Wake the Child Gently tap or shake the child's shoulders and call out his or her name in a loud voice. Don't hurt the child, but be aggressive -- you're trying to wake her 7/3/12

The AHA now recommends that a series of 30 compressions followed by two breaths (compression-ventilation ratio of 30:2) be given to all persons, regardless of age. Continue the cycle of compressions and rescue breathing until professional help arrives or until the person recovers and begins breathing. In children age one to eight, use one or two hands as necessary to compress the chest one-third to one-half the depth of the chest. For the unresponsive infant or child, perform five cycles of 30 7/3/12 compressions and two breaths for about