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Pelaksanaan Kurikulum di Sekolah


Peembangunan kurikulum terdiri daripada beberapa peringkat; 1. Perancangan (pemilihan matlamat & objektif, pemilihan dan penyusunan pengalaman pembelajaran dan pemilihan kaedah penilaian) pada tahap ini melibatkan penilaian formatif 2. Pelaksanaan kurikulum 3. Penilaian (melibatkan penilaian sumatif)

Pelaksanaan Kurikulum
Sifat Semulajadi Pelaksanaan Kurikulum: Satu Proses Perubahan Pelaksanaan kurikulum memerlukan penstrukturan semula dan penggantian (replacement) kepada program sedia ada. Ia memerlukan pengubahsuaian/adaptasi dalam tingkahlaku dan personaliti, penekanan program, ruang pembelajaran, jadual dan pengisian sedia ada. Dalam kata lain, pelaksanaan kurikulum memerlukan pendidik berubah dari program sedia ada kepada program yang baru, pembaharuan yang dapat dicapai hanya dengan melalui banyak halangan.

Pelaksanaan Kurikulum
Supaya pelaksanaan kurikulum boleh berlaku, mereka yang terlibat seperti penggubal/perancang kurikulum, para pentadbir dan guru-guru perlu boleh melihat gambaran menyeluruh tentang program/kurikulum yang baru itu. Mereka perlu jelas tentang matlamat/tujuan program dan kepentingan/manafaat yang boleh diperolehi daripada program/kurikulum baru itu. Mereka juga perlu bersetuju dengan tujuan yang disasarkan.

Pelaksanaan Kurikulum
Fullan & Pomfret ada menyatakan; Effective implementation of innovations requires time, personal interaction and contacts, in-service training, and other forms of people-based support. Research has shown time and again that there is no substitute for the primacy of personal contact among implementers and planners/consultants, if the difficult process of unlearning old roles and learning new ones is to occur.

Pelaksanaan Kurikulum
Pelaksanaan kurikulum memerlukan masa kerana perlu mempengaruhi dan memenangi hati manusia yang terlibat agar mahu mengubah cara mereka bekerja. Oleh itu, perlu ada pengiktirafan atau pengukuhan agar mereka mahu berubah bagi menjayakan kurikulum yang baru. Pengukuhan dalaman adalah lebih baik untuk dibangunkan berbanding pengukuhan/reward luaran (contoh imbuhan duit kepada mereka yang mahu berubah).

Kaitan antara Perancangan Kurikulum dan Pelaksanaan Kurikulum


Pelaksanaan kurikulum yang berjaya terhasil dari perancangan yang rapi. Proses perancangan yang mengambilkira keperluan dan sumber-sumber asas dalam melaksanakan tingkah laku yang diharapkan. Ia melibatkan menentukan dan menghasilkan polisi bagi mengawal tingkah laku/pelaksanaan yang dirancangkan.

Kaitan antara Perancangan Kurikulum dan Pelaksanaan Kurikulum


Matthew dan Karen menyatakan agar perancangan kurikulum dapat dilaksanakan seharusnya ada vision building/pembentukan wawasan/visi. Pelaksanaan kurikulum perlu difokuskan kepada 3 faktor: manusia, program (pembinaan/perancangan program baru) dan proses.

Komunikasi
Saluran komunikasi harus disediakan agar program baru tidak datang secara mengejut. Perbincangan yang kerap berhubung program yang baru ini dalam kalangan guru, pengetua dan mereka yang terlibat dalam penggubalan program/kurikulum ini menjadi kunci kejayaan pelaksanaannya.

Sokongan
Perancang kurikulum perlu menyediakan sokongan yang diperlukan agar pelaksanaan dapat dilakukan dengan cepat. Sokongan diperlukan untuk memberi keyakinan kepada mereka yang terlibat. Guru-guru biasanya memerlukan latihan dalaman agar merasa selesa dengan program/kurikulum yang baru dirancangkan. Perbincangan secara terbuka berhubung program baru juga diperlukan ketika kurikulum dilaksanakan. Latihan dalaman mestilah dilaksanakan bagi mencapai objektif program yang baru dirancangkan dan berharmoni/selari dengan falsafah program baru tersebut.

Sokongan
Sokongan dari segi kewaagan juga diperlukan. Wang diperlukan untuk bahan dan peralatan program yang baru. Juga diperlukan untuk bayaran perkhidmatan/tenaga manusia yang tidak disedari ketika di awal perancangan. Perhubungan yang baik dan percaya mempercayai juga diperlukan sebagai human support. The principal is a key guarantor of successful innovation and implementation those considered to be successful principals are knowledgeable of and and committed to the curriculum; they also view their role as providing encouragement for it, on one continuum, and to serving as the curriculum leader, on the other end of the continuum. Implementation is a collaborative and emotional effort. Peer support is vital if implementation is to be successful.

Strategi Perubahan/Pelaksanaan Kurikulum


1. Clarifying lines of authority 2. Involving affected parties in goal setting, staff selection and evaluation 3. Specifying roles and responsibilities for teachers 4. Training personnel in change strategies and conflict-resolution techniques 5. Furnishing impacted parties with necessary support

Implementing change in any organization, and schools are no exception, requires a multitask approach. Implementing has essentially three stages; initiation, implementation and maintenance. Initiation of change refers to setting the stage for the implementation process, getting the school culture receptive to the planned innovation. At this stage, planners raise the essential questions about who will be involved, what the expected level of support is, and what is the state of readiness of persons for the innovation. Ideally, these questions relating to the initiation phase were asked when the parties were involved in the curriculum development activities.

Change Approach/Pendekatan Perubahan

Change Approach/Pendekatan Perubahan


The implementation stage involves presenting innovation and getting people to try it out in their classrooms or other appropriate educational spaces. It is the doing phase of implementation. It puts into action the various models or approaches to implementation. The third phase is maintenance or institutionalization, which essentially is the monitoring of the innovation after it has been introduced. If maintenance is not planned for, innovations that get introduced often fade or are altered to such degree that they cease to exist.

Model Pelaksanaan Kurikulum


Concern-Based Adoption Model (CBAM) 1. All change originates with individuals; individual change, and, through their changed behaviors, institutions change. 2. Change occurs when individuals concern are made known. 3. All change is personal, and for individual to be involved into change, they must have ownership of both the concern and the process. 4. Because change starts with individuals and involves individuals throughout the change process, it needs time to take shape; individuals need time to learn new skills, formulate new attitudes.

Model Pelaksanaan Kurikulum


5. This model focuses on the adoption phase, the implementation phase instead of the development and design phases of curricular activity. It assumes that the teachers have already selected a curriculum for the school or the school district. The focus here involves enabling teachers to adopt this curriculum and to view it as their own. The model is solely an implementation model. It views the curriculum as a resource ready for use and the teachers as part of a user system. To get the users ready to teach the curriculum, those charge with curriculum implementation must find out and then address teachers concern. This requires gathering data.

Model Pelaksanaan Kurikulum


F.F. Fullers research work on the pre-service teachers had showed the Concern Stages Relating to Implementing an Innovation. 1. Awareness of innovation 2. Awareness of information level 3. Concern for self 4. Concern for teaching 5. Concern for students

Model Pelaksanaan Kurikulum


Awareness of innovation being aware of the innovation Awareness of information level possessing levels of information that trigger in persons in persons some interest in learning about the innovation, while not realizing that the innovation may have a direct impact on them Concern for self teachers wonder whether they have the skills and knowledge to actually implement the innovation

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