Anda di halaman 1dari 27


Whats Dyslexia Strengths and weaknesses Simulation Test Role and Responsibilities of the SNO Teaching Suggestions Successful Dyslexics

An Introduction to Dyslexia
Greek term
It means difficulty(dys) with words (lexis) Also known as Specific Developmental Dyslexia

Whats Dyslexia?
A neurological- based specific learning difficulty

that is characterised by difficulties in one or more of reading, writing and spelling.

Accompanying weaknesses may be identified in

areas of language acquisition, phonological

processing, working memory, and sequencing.

Occur in learners with normal intelligence.

What Causes Dyslexia?

Many theories but no consensus on the exact

cause Research confirms that it can run in the family More common in males than females (4:1)

Areas of Weaknesses
Language Acquisition
There is evidence to suggest that dyslexics have difficulty

Phonological Processing Difficulty


learning additional languages.

Most common difficulty in dyslexics Difficulty in learning the relationship between letters and

Working Memory

Poor ability to hold information in their short term memory May affect mental arithmetic, remembering long list of


instructions, learning phonics and developing vocabulary

Problem sequencing letters and sounds

Areas of Strengths
Good reasoning skills

Think in big picture and multi-dimensional way Visual and kinaesthetic learners

Indicators of Dyslexia in Primary Learners

Poor processing speed for spoken and/or written

language Poor concentration Difficulty following instructions Forgetful of words

Indicators of Dyslexia in Primary Learners

Written work
Poor standard of written work compared to oral

ability Poor penmanship Messy work with many cancellations Letter reversals Inconsistent spelling of the same word Letter confusion Unusual sequencing of letters or words

Indicators of Dyslexia in Primary Learners

Slow, inaccurate or labored oral reading Difficulty in blending letters together Difficulty in establishing syllable division Strange pronunciation of words Expressionless reading Deletion/addition of words Failure to recognise familiar words Poor comprehension of text

Indicators of Dyslexia in Primary Learners

Number order and/or symbols confusion Difficulty with information in sequential order Difficulty in memorising formulae Find mental arithmetic at speed very difficult

Indicators of Dyslexia in Primary Learners

Difficulty learning how to tell time Poor general awareness of time and time-keeping Confuse concept such as yesterday, today or

tomorrow Poor personal organisation

Indicators of Dyslexia in Primary Learners

Employ work avoidance tactics Tend to dream in class Easily distracted Disruptive or withdrawn Show excessive tiredness

Simulation Test

Have a go. The big brown fox had no dinner. Such was the quality of his existence

Approach to learning
As learners with dyslexia are often whole picture

thinkers ,they need to know how their new learning fit in with what they already know. They often have excellent visual spatial skills, and like to attach information to images They learn best through multisensory approach

Role and Responsibilities of SNO

Provides specialized remediation in withdrawal

setting Provides in-class support Screening of at risk pupils using Dyslexia Screening Kit (Junior) Sets Individualised Education Plan

Role and Responsibilities of SNO

Remediation Programme
Based on Orton-Gillingham principles Language based Cognitive Structured, sequential and cumulative Simultaneously Multisensory Diagnostic and prescriptive Emotionally sound

Role and Responsibilities of SNO

In-class Support
Remind/prompt pupil to stay on-task, pay

attention and participate Help pupil to follow class routine Help pupil to understand lesson content Withdraw pupil for time-out if disruptive Communicate pupils need to teachers

Role and Responsibilities of SNO

Screening Test (Dyslexia)
Use DST-J (Dyslexia screening toolkit-Junior) Collect supporting documents including work

samples, checklist or other informal assessment done Work closely with EP, LSC, teachers involved and level head for special needs

Role and Responsibilities of SNO

Provision of skill training to pupils
Provision of peer training and support Communicate with parents of childs progress Prepare teaching and learning resources Share/discuss with teachers about strategies,

support and creating a special needs friendly environment for the pupils

Pre-Screening Procedures
Get samples of pupils work
Issue teacher and parents checklist Issue consent form to parents for approval to

conduct screening Dyslexic at risk will be referred to EP

Teaching Suggestions
Sit the child in front
Provide structure of lesson in advance Instructions should be sequenced clearly. Do not

give too many instructions at once. Avoid giving instructions while pupils are reading or copying. Get pupils to use highlighters to highlight key points Provide time to think, organise and complete

Teaching Suggestions
Provide positive feedback encouragement and

praise to boost self-esteem Involve peers who are -mature -helpful and sympathetic -willing -able to work within capabilities

Successful Dyslexics
Leornardo da Vinci Believed to suffer from dyslexia & ADD. He wrote his notes backwards,right to left in mirror image and his manuscript contain many spelling errors characteristic of dyslexia Thomas Edison Was thrown out of school at 12 because he was thought to be dumb. Terrible in maths, words and speech and unable to focus.

Successful Dyslexics
She remembers being called dumb and stupid because she had a lot of problems reading. She went on to be nominated for an Oscar

Whoopi Goldberg