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SELF DEVELOPMENT & INTER PERSONAL SKILLS

Dr. Ashok K Chauhan, Founder President, RBEF & CEO Amity Group, strongly believes that Human Behaviour determines the success & excellence of an individual. In his words My target is to equip each and every student of the Amity Institutions with the best education and infrastructure to help them achieve nothing but the best in life. Not only do we inculcate in them the best of creative and technical qualifications we, also teach them Indispensable Human Qualities.

We nurture Talent

AUM

1
INTRODUCTION, COURSE REVIEW & SHARING OF SESSION PLAN

BS Continuous EVALUATION METHODOLOGY

BS Evaluation Break Up
Components Internal Assessment Components
SAP

External Assessment Components


Journal for Success BS Viva Voce Attendance

Mid Term Test

Weightage

20

20

25

30

SAP ASSIGNMENT
FORGIVENESS LEADS TO ANGER MANAGEMENT FOR HEALTHY LIVING
TRANSFORMING AGGRESSION INTO COMPASSION

SELF DEVELOPMENT

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UNDERSTANDING SELF

UNDERSTANDING SELF
Todays human being in IT world to be constantly in pursuit of information, knowledge, wealth, name and fame can claim to know practically everything but the one person we are constantly getting out of touch is our own self. We need to understand ourselves and our true potential for that we need to understand our true self-our sacred core Live life more wholesomely and handsomely by achieving personal and professional excellence. There is only one corner of universe you can be certain of improving i.e. your own self

The understanding of self enables awareness and self-acceptance Still the mind and be a silent witness to ones thoughts, attitudes, emotions and behavior. There are two people within us real me and role me . The behavior we display to others( Overt self) whether verbal, non verbal, conscious or unconscious is like tip of an iceberg but the major part( covert self) is below the surface that is not visible in the form of thoughts, feelings, attitudes, values and beliefs etc

SELF AWARENESS
WHO AM I ? Where have I come from ? Where am I going ? What is stopping me ? How will I get there ? What help do I need ? What will it be like when I get there ? ACTIVITY:

Try thinking about following questions: What do you think about life ? What would you want other people to think about you? What do you think about others ? How do you interpret messages ?

SELF ACCEPTANCE

After becoming aware of who you rally are the next step in the self concept journey is to accept yourself

You have to accept and be responsible for your TEA system i.e. thoughts, emotions and actions Start introspecting and have courage to accept your self, the way you are the high point that gives you self realization' that helps us to realize your inner potentialities Most of us are not aware of our hidden talents. Albert Einstein once said that only one-tenth of our brain is utilized. The tragedy is that we are not aware of major portion of our hidden talents

Self-Monitoring
Definition
Your ability to identify, analyze, and modify your thoughts and feelings accurately
1. You can accurately and objectively identify your thoughts & feelings, strengths & weaknesses 2. You can accurately observe and analyze how others react to your comments, appearance, and behavior, 3. You can use such observations to modify how you present yourself.
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 13

How effectively We manage Self PHYSICAL SPIRITUAL MENTAL

SOCIAL
Managing Life depends upon how efficiently we allocate our time in to the above four parts

PHYSICAL
Involves caring effectively for our physical body eating right kind of foods, getting sufficient rest and relaxation, and exercising on a regular basis. Physical Exercise promotes us to live a healthier life and most of us think we do not have enough time to exercise. Is it so ? We do not have time to better living ? Why should we live then ?

Spiritual
It is your core, your center, your commitment to your value system. It is a very private area of life and supremely important. Prayerful meditation on the scriptures. Immersion in great literature. Or great music can provide renewal. There are others who find it in Nature.

Mental Dimension
As soon as we leave school, we do not do serious reading, any more. We do not explore new subjects in any real depth outside our field of action. We do not write; at least not critically. Keeping a journal of your thoughts, experiences, insights and learning promote mental clarity. Write good letters communicating deeper level thoughts, feelings. Organizing and planning represent other form of mental renewal.

Social/Emotional Dimension
This is centered on the principles of interpersonal leadership, empathic communication and creative cooperation. Our emotional life is primarily developed out of and manifested in our relationships with others. Think win/win, Seek first to understand then to be understood and synergize.

Self-Concept
The sum total of beliefs you have about yourself
Self-Concept Questions: Who are you? What makes you you?

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved

20

ACTIVITY

ME COMMERCIAL

ACTIVITY
Module : 1 Activity 1 Create a "Me" Commercial Part 1: Each student will write a two- to three-minute television commercial. The topic is why someone should hire him or choose him for any job. The commercial will depict the student's special qualities, traits, interests in a persuasive way. All students should have in their mind where they would address for hiring them (in what kind of company) in order to achieve their goal. After they work on these, the students present their commercials in front of the class circularly. Part 2: Afterwards, they write to their Journal the reason they choose this or that characteristic, or that interest. Time required: 10 minutes

SELF ESTEEM

Self-Esteem: What am I worth? Self-Confidence: What can I do? Self esteem: Affects our appearance. Affects our health. Makes us vulnerable.

SELF-ESTEEM AND SELF-CONFIDENCE

Self esteem

Self Concept

Self Image

Essence of self Esteem is compassion for yourself It is the way of thinking, feeling, and acting that implies that you accept, respect, trust and believe in yourself

Self Concept
self-awareness influence of others past experience cultural background

Actual performance Social comparison

Essence of self esteem is that it tends to come from within and it is truly loving and valuing yourself Growing in self esteem means developing confidence and strength from within. The basis for your self worth is internal. Self esteem has two interrelated aspects:

1.
2.

Self efficacy: Confidence in the functioning of your mind, your ability to think, analyze, judge & choose. Self respect: assurance of your value and net-worth

SELF ESTEEM
Self image- way a person sees one self Self -esteem is the mental picture one has of him or herself. could be positive or negative. Self-esteem is the level of belief in one self.

It is an indication of the level of self acceptance.


It is a way of measuring how worthwhile you judge yourself to be.

It is a way of monitoring psychological well being of an individual.


Self-esteem is related to concepts such as self-confidence and self-respect.

SELF ESTEEM FACTS


These facts do not describe who you really are or how you feel about yourself. Self-esteem and self-image go far beyond just your skills and abilities. Your physical characteristics and your activities may not necessarily reflect things you have chosen for yourself: equally, they may not be a true representation of your unique identity. Self-esteem determines how you live your life and the depth of satisfaction and joy you derive from different experiences in life; in learning, working and playing.

However, the level of self esteem varies with how one relates with others or the environment; this is the sense of well being within you, and also in response to interaction with the other people or environment.

HEALTHY SELF ESTEEM


Having a healthy level of self-esteem does not mean you are a perfect person with no room for change. You still make mistakes, but are ready to remedy the situation Do not feel destroyed when you fail, or when someone gives you negative criticism.

Whole Person
Psychologists indicate that a whole person consists of the following forms of being: The physical being (what is seen through the eyes) The emotional being (what we feel) The rational being (the thoughts that run through our mind the choice we make) The spiritual being (the spirit within us which is eternal)

SELF-IMAGE
How You See Yourself It is the way you perceive yourself; the projection or opinion of you as internalised by yourself. It is different from how others see you. It is how you would like to be seen by others. Self image is difficult to change or influence, since it is set at the very early stage in life. You start valuing and devaluing yourself and these messages are embedded within yourself. They also add to the messages and statements about you received from those around you. Self-image radically affects your self-esteem. A negative self-image can be a crippling handicap and can inhibit your ability to relate to other people. A healthy self-image on the other hand, is a precious commodity. People with a good self-image see themselves as being liked, wanted, able, worthy, acceptable as having choices and being capable of understanding. Although difficult to change, self-image can be altered in a variety of ways so that it can be consolidated into more healthy reflection of your true self. You do not need to remain trapped in a prison of negative self-image.

FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE SELFESTEEM


Parents and family For youth, physical contact such as time spent in holding, talking, meeting their needs on time and spontaneously socialising pass the message of acceptance or rejection to the youth. In addition, youth value encouragement as well as affirming ideas or creativity that helps to build a positive self-esteem. The feelings of self-assuredness, confidence, and security are some attributes that indicate and nurture healthy self-esteem. Even at the youth stage of life, a parent or a friend of the opposite sex has more significant role in psychological development of the personality. The youth needs a lot of nurturing, attention and affection from the parent/teachers/peers. Homes where there is violence, drug abuse, sexual abuse, incest are destructive and costly for nurturing self-esteem. Further, homes where there is too much comparisons and competition between the siblings are unhealthy. Absent parents, isolation or poor socialisation can adversely affect self-esteem.

Physical Appearance
Physical appearance is a highly valued personal attribute. The praises or ridicule of others regarding ones appearance formulates a persons mental image of him or herself, including height, weight, complexion or other physical features. Men and women are mostly admired by their physical appearances, especially film stars or athletes. An evaluation of your physical appearances is usually dependent on the reaction of others or what those you interact with imply. The modern society takes physical appearance as big business, sometimes without regard for the outcome of such enhancements. People spend lots of money and time on cosmetics and lessons to enhance appearances, especially demeanour and attire in pursuit of acceptance or appreciation.

Education
Education is critical for an individual in the development of perceptions about you oneself. Such mental pictures are based on success and failures in the eyes of parents, peers and authority figures. Performance in school affects the view of oneself. Poor performance will increase inferiority complex while good performance enhances positive self-image.

Lack of skills or competence in a certain field or profession also tends to lower ones self esteem.

Friends and Peers

Friends play a very big role in forming your self esteem, especially during teenage.
Fear of rejection or in-thing effect compels teenagers to join fit in a peer group, evidenced by mode of dress and talk (using slang ). Peer influence confirms or destroys values and mannerisms youth may have been taught at home. If one is sensitive, the wound of rejection and criticism would be deeper for isolated and neglected young people. A casual humour would be interpreted to be taken in bad taste, often to undermine integrity. Nicknames and jokes not only hurt, but also appear to dig deeper into the character, thus offending the person, and ultimately affecting self-esteem. This is usually called character assassination that destroys the positive aspect of self-image. It can also happen with group members.

Symptoms of Low Self-Esteem


Feeling of inadequacy, inconsistent, incomplete. Lack of self-confidence, self-pity, self-control, self-discipline, selfregulation Doubt, uncomfortable or mistrust about being appreciated by others Unsure of oneself Fearful Angry, resentful, arrogance, aggressive, violent Feelings of shame, guilt, detached and not able to explain the reason why

EFFECTS OF POOR SELFESTEEM


Poor self-esteem distorts message people receive, and the way people interpret events in life. Poor self-esteem breeds unhealthy relationships because one is unable to relate with people without fear of rejection. It leads to poor performance, whether in school or at work. Poor choice of marriage partners is common. A very educated man who has a poor self-esteem may choose to marry a woman with very inferior education so that he can be able to control her. This will help him also feel very superior

Poor self-esteem results in feelings of fear and guilt that cripples advancement in life. Such a person never realizes his or her full potential because often the person is withdrawn or reserved. Poor self-esteem increases personality disorder. One takes alcohol to win approval from other people

Further Results of Poor Selfesteem


Difficulty to make contact or deal with other people. Wastage of energy and time in making decisions or doing certain tasks or work generally. Difficulty of developing or marshalling practical action. Insecurity and indifference since the world around seems hostile and unsafe. Difficulty to listen, communicate or decipher messages of love and appreciation by others. Depression and stress after spending a lot of time on anxious and worrying about trivial issues, such as what other people think of you.

EFFECTS OF HIGH SELF ESTEEM


Being active; energetic and alive; you feel alive and kicking Exuding confidence; competence or ability; you believe in yourself Solution; ready with a solution to a problems that arises; confidence and competent when handling issues; you feel at your best and can fix it. Generous; having much more to give to other people; you share with others and appreciate their inputs. Feedback; exchange and consultations with others; you are open to suggestions from others, and are willing to accept criticism and suggestions for positive change.

BUILDING A POSITIVE SELFESTEEM


Every one wants to be attractive and feel appreciated. One wants to be the best; in character and achievement, in mannerism and merit. Self-esteem is a lifelong struggle and is pursued for the sake of happiness and good life. A person draws self-esteem from a sense of own values. These are the qualities you use to judge yourself and others. Self-esteem is maintained and supported by selectively interpreting facts, standards and situations; it depends on how good one wants to be. Self-esteem involves choices. People with limited choices are more likely to have chronic low self-esteem, often called inferiority complex. Of course everybody feels inferior in some ways or the other. Equally, all of us feel worthwhile at times. With the help of a counsellor, a counselee is made to face up with the problematic self-image. The counselee is able to examine the problem and issues realistically and come up with possible solutions. The counselee may work through the problem and attempt at the solution with the assistance of the parent, a peer or a person of significant authority, especially a teacher or clergy.

SOME MORE SELF ESTEEM BOOSTERS


Keep an Ideas Diary days planner. Keep a People Diary the significant people you meet, daily or regularly. Keep a Knowledge Diary: Literature materials, including magazines and newspapers peruse through the content. Cut out articles or pages that interest you. We all have flushes of inspiration from time to time. Keep reminding yourself

Be tidy . Do not mix papers tidiness/cleanliness helps you to remain focused and orderly.
Learn to say no

FILM
MY PPTs ( REBIRTH OF AN EAGLE )
A CASE OF SELF RENEWAL

4
UNDERSTANDING BEHAVIOR & INTER PERSONAL BEHAVIOR

BEHAVIOR

HUMAN BEHAVIOR
Functioning of an organization depends upon how people work or behave in an organization. Why do people behave the way they behave ? What influences peoples behavior at work.? BEHAVIOR = Personality x Environment / situation Behavior is what a person actually does OVERT BEHAVIOR : Observable & measurable activity ( Decision making, physical activity ) COVERT BEHAVIOR : Non- observable & non measurable ( Feelings, Attitudes, Perceptions) Human behavior can be understood easily if causes behind behavior are analyzed and can be controlled by manipulating these causes. One persons behavior is affected by others behavior and also affects others behavior. Human beings are not self contained entities or autonomous bodies but are affected by large systems- group, family, society Human behavior should be taken in terms of cause & effect relationship. It is not perfectly predictable as it is affected by large no. of variables. PROCESS ( S-O-B-C MODEL ) SITUATION ORGANISM BEHAVIORAL PATTERN CONSEQUUENCES

BEHAVIORAL DETERMINANTS OF ORGANISATION


B=f(PxE) BIOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF BEHAVIOR - Certain characteristics of behavior are Biological or Genetic in nature and uniqueness in the form of Genes & Chromosomes wrt height., weight, intelligence, ability to learn etc. - Structure of nervous system also plays an important role in emerging patterns of behavior

FACTORS AFFECTING HUMAN BEHAVIOR

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS:
Organizational factors: Task, structure/Physical facilities, Technology, People External factors : Political, Legal, social, Economical, Technological,

PERSONALITY FACTORS ::
Personal factors Age, sex, education, marital status etc Psychological factors : Personality, perception, Attitudes, Learning , Abilities etc

INTER PERSONAL COMPETENCE

INTER PERSONAL RELATIONSHIP


(IPR)
IPR IS IMPORTANT BECAUSE IT IS AN ESSENTIAL ASPECTS OF LIFE AS IT CONTAINS THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF THE SOCIALIZATION THROUGH WHICH WE CAN SHARE OUR FEELINGS AND EMOTIONS WITH ANOTHER PERSON, IT IS AN IMPORTANT ASPECT OF OUR HAPPINESS, HELPS US TO RELIEVE OUR STRESS AND TO A LARGE EXTENT DETERMINES OUR SUCCESS AND FAILURE IN LIFE.

BUT SOEMTIMES THE RELATIONSHIP BECOMES THE SOURCE OF STRESS ALSO . AT THAT TIME IS IMPORTANT TO SIT AND REFLECT THE CAUSATIVE PROBLEM AND HERE COMES THE IMPORTANCE OF RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT.

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IPR: Developing and improving your relationship with others. Interpersonal competence is at the heart of all social skills

DETERMINANTS OF INTERPERSONAL BEHAVIOR:


1.SELF CONCEPT: What am I ? My attitude: Reflection of all past experiences with other persons. Once formed resists changes. 2.INTER PERSONAL NEEDS: people need people but for what ? There are three kinds of IP needs: INCLUSION : The need for association and interaction CONTROL : The need for power and control AFFECTION : The need for love and affection For each IP need, there are two behavioral aspects: A) Expressed behavior: That we initiate towards others B) Wanted behavior: We expect/ prefer from others 3.) IP ORIENTATION: How do you influence me ? Many people are oriented to one single particular aspect related to their personal need or self concept but some orientation can always be done People interact more frequently with those who match with self concept. 4) IP ATTRACTION: Why do we like each other ?

JOHARI WINDOW

Joe Luft & Harry Ingham a model for self-awareness it shows 2 dimensions to understanding ourselves:
1. our behaviour & style that are known and not known to us 2. Our behaviour and style known and not known to those we have contact with (others)

Combinations of these 2 dimensions reveals 4 areas of knowledge about ourselves: 1. Arena = public self 2. Blind area 3. Closed/ Hidden area

Size of boxes varies


Try to increase arena size Reduce blind & closed areas: Ask feedback Exposure: Show more of yourself

4. Unknown/ Dark area

Known to Self

Not Known to Self

Known to Others

Open Self Hidden Self

Blind Self

Not Known to Others

Unknown Self

Johari Window

You know

You dont know

They know They dont know

Arena (free & open communication)

Blind (others know, you dont)

Closed /Hidden Unknown /Dark (secrets) (unconscious)

TOOL FOR DEVELOPING IP SKILLS JOHARI WINDOW


FEEDBACK
Increasing IP awareness : socializing Taking IP Risks KNOWN TO -Taking initiative in self exposure OTHERS - take/accept another persons feedback - Reciprocate another initiative and so on Developing cooperative relationship Cooperate not compete

ARENA
( SHARED MUTUALLY HELD feelings, emotions facts, information )

BLIND

Developing mutual expectations and Honoring Psychological Contracts: many of the expectations are unwritten or unspoken hence called psychological contracts Fulfilling each other's needs/expectations Resolving IP problems

NOT KNOWN TO OTHERS

HIDDEN

DARK

EXPOSURE KNOWN TO SELF NOT KNOWN TO SELF

TRASANCTIONAL ANALYSIS

TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS ( TA )
TRANSACTION: Interaction between two person Primarily a unit of social interaction Dr ERIC BURNE: developed a scientific method to study human behavior known as TA TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS: TA is a method of analyzing and understanding interpersonal behavior. Analysis of transitions may provide a clue for individual as well as group behavior

Dr ERIC BURNE- a psychologist observed in his patients that there are as if several different people inside each person and these different selves transacted with people in different ways ( Psychological treatment : 70%; Medicine: 305 )
IN ORDER TO UNDERSTAND TA following should be considered: Ego states Life positions Type of transactions

EGO STATE
EGO STATE: Psychological behavioral patters
Beliefs, Values, prejudices, Dos, Don'ts Right & wrong, social norms, compassion, caring Rational, analytical, logic, Fact finding, data, problem solving

PARENT
EGO STATE

TAUGHT
CONCEPT OF LIFE

ADULT
EGO STATE

THOUGHT

CONCEPT OF LIFE

CHILD
EGO STATE

FELT

CONCEPT OF LIFE

Feelings, impulses, emotions, drives, intuitions, curiosity, compliance, rebellion, creativity

( FC,LP), (RC,CC)

PARENT EGO STATE: Attitude, morals, values of parents or parent like people are recorded
during childhood. Person is over protective, upright, authoritative and impatient. ADULT EGO STATE: Based on reasoning, rational, analytical, logical behavior and own experiences. Constantly updating parental influences CHILD EGO STATE: Helplessness, dependability, anxiety , rebel, excitement, fun loving, spontaneous

LIFE POSITIONS
LIFE POSITIONS: PSYCHOLOGICAL POSITIONS: Refer to dominant philosophy of an individual Developed in early life on the basis of experience Tied to an individual identity, sense of worth, & his perception of other people More permanent than ego states 4 TYPES OF LIFE POSITIONS: A) Individual has many positive experiences ( Assertive Behavior ) A - A B) Distrust ( Aggressive Behavior ) P C C) Powerless, helpless as compared to others ( Passive Behavior ) C A D) Desperate life position, persons feel life not worth living ( Manipulative behavior )

I AM OK YOU ARE OK A

I AM OK YOU ARE NOT OK

I AM NOT OK YOU ARE OK C

I AM NOT OK YOU ARE NOT OK D

TRANSACTIONS
Transaction are routed through ego states.

3 TYPES OF TRANSACTIONS:
1) COMPLIMENTRY/ PARALLEL TRANSACTIONS: Stimuli gets the expected response. Both persons are satisfied and communication is complete. There can be 9 such
transactions ( P-P,P-A, P-C,A-P,A-A,A-C,C-P,C-A,C-C ) Ex: S: What are you doing after lunch. ( A-A ) R: Im going to work on an agenda for board meeting ( A-A ) 2) CROS TRANSACTIONS: Stimuli doesnt get expected response. Not desirable. Communication is blocked between two persons. Cross transactions do not continue for long. Ex: S: What is the day today. R: Day after yesterday 3) ULTERIOR TRANSACTIONS: Called manipulative transactions. Have double meaning. At social level: Clear adult message ; Psychological level: Hidden message Ex: S: The work is assigned to you. Only GOD knows what will happen. # When vectors are parallel : Transactions are complimentary When vectors are crossed: communication stops

ADVANTAGES OF TA
Develops positive thinking Improves Inter personal communication Provides technology for personal growth and social change TA can be applied for motivation and team building. Promotes healthy relationships and healing of relationships at home, work or any social platform. Helps in following six areas or organizational development - To maximize A-A transactions - To give an ok to natural child. - To identify and untangle quickly cross transactions - T minimize destructive game playing between peaple - to maximize authentic encounters ( Intimacy ) - To develop supportive systems .policies and work environment

ACTIVITY

FILM ( 90 10 PRINCIPLE )

5 EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE

DEFINITION
Emotional social intelligence is a cross section of emotional and social competencies, skills and facilitators that determine how effectively we understand and express ourselves, understand others and relate with them and cope with daily demands Popularized by a 1995 New York Times best selling book by Daniel Goleman

What is Emotional Intelligence?

Factors of Emotional Intelligence


Intra-Personal
Self-Regard Emotional Self-Awareness Assertiveness Independence Self-Actualization

Stress Management
Stress Tolerance Impulse Control

Adaptability
Reality Testing Flexibility Problem Solving

Inter-Personal
Empathy Social Responsibility Interpersonal Relationships

General Mood
Optimism Happiness

EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
Emotional Intelligence refers to the capacity for
recognizing our own feelings and those of others for motivating ourselves, and for managing emotions well in ourselves and in our relationships. * EMOTIONAL COMPETENCE
PERSONAL COMPETENCE

Self-awareness Self management


SOCIAL COMPETENCE

--Social awareness Relationship management


* Working With Emotional Intelligence, Daniel Goleman, Bantam Books, 1998

EMOTIONAL COMPETENCE
PERSONAL COMPETENCE: These
competencies determine how we manage ourselves. *

SELF-AWARENESS
Emotional self-awareness: Reading ones own emotions and recognizing their impact; using gut sense to guide decisions Accurate self-assessment: Knowing ones strengths and limits Self-confidence: A sound sense of ones self-worth and capabilities

*P Primal Leadership, Daniel Goleman, Harvard Business School Press, 2002

EMOTIONAL COMPETENCE
PERSONAL COMPETENCE: *
SELF-MANAGEMENT
Emotional self-control: Keeping disruptive emotions and impulses under control Transparency: Displaying honesty and integrity; trustworthiness Adaptability: Flexibility in adapting to changing situations or overcoming obstacles Achievement: The drive to improve performance to meet inner standards of excellence Initiative: Readiness to act and seize opportunities Optimism: Seeing the positive side in events
*Primal Leadership, Harvard Business School Press, 2002

EMOTIONAL COMPETENCE
SOCIAL COMPETENCE: These capabilities determine how we manage relationships: *
SOCIAL AWARENESS
Empathy: Sensing others emotions, understanding their perspective, and taking an active interest in their concerns Organizational awareness: Reading the currents, decision networks, and politics at the organizational level Service: Recognizing and meeting client or customer needs

* Primal Leadership, Harvard Business School Press, 2002

EMOTIONAL COMPETENCE
SOCIAL COMPETENCE:*
RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT
Inspirational leadership: Guiding and motivating with a compelling vision (for media salespeople this would translate into creating value with an inspiring vision for your medium and your media outlet) Influence: Adopting a range of tactics of persuasion Developing others: Enhancing others ability through feedback and guidance Change catalyst: initiating, managing and leading in a new direction Conflict Management: Resolving disagreements Team work & Collaboration: cooperation & team building
* Primal Leadership, Harvard Business School Press, 2002

FILM ( EQ Vs IQ )

ATTITUDE

CONCEPT
THE WAY A PERSON FEELS ABOUT SOMETHING (a process, material, situation or policy ) PRE-DISPOSITION TO RESPOND ( In + or way ) COMPLEX COGNITIVE PROCESS MENTAL & NEURAL STATE OF READINESS Understanding attitudes and values is very important for managing people effectively MAIN FEATURES / CHARACTERISTICS Affects behavior: Responding favorably or unfavorably Acquired through learning over a period of time ( Starts from childhood, continues throughout life ) Invisible: a psychological phenomenon, can not be observed directly observed from behavior only Pervasive : Every individual has some kind of attitude Feelings and Beliefs:directed towards People, Objects, Ideas Evaluative statements: Either favorable or unfavorable

ATTITUDES COMPONENTS
INFORMATIONAL OR COGNITIVE COMPONENT AFFECTIVE OR EMOTIONAL COMPONENT

BEHAVIORAL COMPONENT

ATTITUDE

ATTITUDE OBJECT

ATTITUDES COMPONENTS
ATTITUDES ARE INTERNAL Largely kept to oneself, May be known to others through overt behavior

COGNITIVE COMPONENT
Consists of beliefs ,values, ideas and other information Information that a person holds is key to his attitude Information may or may not be empirically correct

EMOTIONAL COMPONENT More critical part of attitude Persons feelings +ve, -ve or neutral about an object Sometime overpowers cognitive component

BEHAVIORAL COMPONENT` Tendency of a person to behave in a particular way The only component which can be observes directly

SOURCES OF ATTITUDES
MASS MEDIA DIRECT PERSONAL EXPERIENCES

ASSOCIATION

ATTITUDES

ECONOMIC STATUS & OCCUPATIONS

INSTITUTIONS

FAMILY & PEER GROUPS

SOURCES OF ATTITUDES
HOW ATTITUDES ARE FORMED (Not inherited, Acquired from various resources) DIRECT PERSONAL EXPERIENCE (Series of rewarding experiences generates liking attitude) ASSOCIATION ( Attitude develops by associating object with another object about which attitudes have been previously formed )

SOCIAL LEARNING AND MODELLING ( Learn by observing how other persons behave. Children begin modelling attitudes after parents, teachers, relations, seniors and peers
INSTITUTIONAL FACTORS ( Religious, Social, Educational institutions help in shaping attitudes)

MASS MEDIA ( Advertizing product/service, Social message on TV, News Paper These have mass appeal that change attitudes )

ECONOMIC STATUS AND OCCUPATIONS

VALUES vs ATTITUDES
VALUES
Values represent judgment of what ought to be. This judgment is basic to respond in a given way Values represent single belief or beliefs that guide actions and judgment across objects and situations Values are derived from social and modes

ATTITUDES
Attitude represent predispositions to respond

An attitude represents several beliefs focused on a specific object or situation

Attitudes are derived from personal experiences

ACTIVITY

MOTIVATINAL FILM ON ATTITUDE QUESTIONAIRE ON ATTITUDE ( class Activity )

PERCEPTION

WE DONT SEE THINGS AS THEY ARE, WE SEE THINGS AS WE ARE.

HOW WE PERCEIVE
Perception is the process you use to select, organize, and interpret sensory stimuli in the world around you
Selection: Using your senses to notice and choose from many stimuli Organization: Sorting selected stimuli into messages Interpretation: Interpreting the meaning of messages
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 85

Perception
The study of perception is concerned with identifying the process through which we interpret and organize sensory information to produce our conscious experience of objects and object relationship. Perception is the process of receiving information about and making sense of the world around us. It involves deciding which information to notice, how to categorize this information and how to interpret it within the framework of existing knowledge. A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment.

The Perceptual Process


1. Sensation An individuals ability to detect stimuli in the immediate environment. 2. Selection The process a person uses to eliminate some of the stimuli that have been sensed and to retain others for further processing.

3.Organization
The process of placing selected perceptual stimuli into a framework for storage.

4.Translation
The stage of the perceptual process at which stimuli are interpreted and given meaning.

Perceptual Process Receiving Stimuli (External & Internal)

Selecting Stimuli External factors : Nature,


Location,Size,contrast, Movement,repetition,similarity Internal factors : Learning, needs,age,Interest,

Interpreting Attribution ,Stereotyping, Halo Effect, Projection

Organizing Figure Background , Perceptual Grouping ( similarity, proximity, closure, continuity)

Response Covert: Attitudes , Motivation, Feeling Overt: Behavior

Factors influencing perception


A number of factors operate to shape and sometimes distort perception. These factors can reside in the perceiver, in the object or target being perceived or in the context of the situation in which the perception is made.

Factors influencing Perception


Factors in the perceiver Attitudes Motives Interests Experience Expectations

Factors in the situation Time Work Setting Social Setting

Perception

Factors in the Target Novelty Motion Sounds Size Background Proximity Similarity

Perceptual organization
It is the process by which we group outside stimuli into recognizable and identifiable patterns and whole objects.

Certain factors are considered to be important contributors on assembling, organizing and categorizing information in the human brain. These are Figure ground Perceptual grouping

Figure-Ground Illustration
Field-ground differentiation
The tendency to distinguish and focus on a stimulus that is classified as figure as opposed to background.

PERCEPTUAL GROUPING
Our tendency to group several individual stimuli into a meaningful and recognizable pattern. It is very basic in nature and largely it seems to be inborn.

Some factors underlying grouping are -continuity -closure -proximity -similarity

Personal Perception: Making Judgments About Others

Attribution Theory
When individuals observe behavior, they attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused.

observation

Interpretation
H Distinctiveness L H

Attribution of cause
External Internal External Internal

Individual behavior

Consensus L

H Consistency L

Internal External

H high

L- Low

Distinctiveness Does this person behave in this manner in other situation

Consensus Do other person Behave in the Same manner?

Consistency Does this person behave in this same manner at other times ?

YES Low Distinctiveness NO High Distinctiveness

No Low Consensus Yes High Consensus

Yes High Consistency No Low Consistency

Internal Attribution
External Attributi on

Shortcuts in judging others


Selective Perception : People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests, background, experience and attitudes. Halo Effect : Drawing a general impressions about an individual on the basis of a single characteristics.

Contrast Effect : Evaluation of a persons characteristics that are effected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or

lower on the same characteristics.


Projection : Attributing one's own characteristics to other people. Stereotyping : Judging someone on the basis of ones perception of the group to which that persons belongs.

MOTIVATION

It is a skill in aligning employee and organizational interests in achievements of employee needs and wants simultaneously with the attainment of organizational objectives. Derived from Latin word MOTIVUS ( something that moves a person) It is whole hearted application of self to the job PERFORMANCE = f ( ABILITY, MOTIVATION ) NEEDS ( Deficiency) MOTIVES / DRIVES ( Deficiency with direction ) INCENTIVES ( Fulfillment of deficiencies reduction of drives )

DEFINING MOTIVATION
Word motivation is derived from word motive which means causing motion or drive which makes a person to act in a different way.

Motivation is defined as creating a force that inspires and prompts a person to start and continue an activity and usually aims at tapping best out of an individual for the mutual advantage of both motivator and the one who is motivated.

CONCEPT
NEWTONS 1st LAW OF MOTION ( Law of inertia applied to physical things can be applied to human behavior also )
MF UNVISIBLE PSM ( PREVIOUS STATE OF MIND )

VISIBLE

BEHAVIOUR

SATISFIED

UNSATISFIED

MOTIVATION
MOTIVATION: AN ART OR SCIENCE ? DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MOTIVATION AND MOVEMENT ? IS MOTIVATION A MANIPULATION ? WHY DO WE NEED MOTIVATION ? WHERE DO WE NEED MOTIVATION ? WORK AT IT OVER A PERIOD OF TIME ? WHY MOTIVATION ? IS IT REALLY ESSENTIAL ?

TYPES OF MOTIVES
BIOLOGICAL MOTIVE AFFILIATION MOTIVE MONEY MOTIVE POWER MOTICE ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVE

What Motivates Us?


The Pyramid of Human Motivations
Heirarchy of Needs Maslow's Pyramid of Needs
Maslows list of basic needs that have to be satisfied before people can become selfactualized Low-level needs must be met before trying to satisfy higher-level needs Self-actualization is to fulfill ones potential
Kassin, Essentials of Psychology - 2004 Prentice Hall Publishing

Figure 14.2 Herzbergs two-factor theory.

Needs Theories
Maslow
Self-Actualisation
Motivators

Herzberg

Esteem

Social Safety Physiological


Hygiene Factors

Motivation
Intrinsic Motivation
desire to perform a behavior for its own sake or to be effective

Extrinsic Motivation
desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment

Rewards Affect Motivation


Mom: Ill give you $5 for every A. Controlling reward Child: As long as she pays, Ill study. Extrinsic motivation Mom: Your grades were great! Lets celebrate by going out for dinner. Informative reward Child: I love doing well. Intrinsic motivation

STRESS MANAGEMENT

Stress: problem or motivator


100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Stress

performance

Effects of Stress
Physical. Mental. Societal.

UNDERSTANDING STRESS
To conquer stress there are three steps: First is the understanding of the experience of stress and how it is caused. Second is the methods to manage it on a day to day basis in all types of situation. Third is how to free yourself from stress, and prevent the stress experience from affecting your personal performance and relationships.

ITS YOUR RESPONSIBILITY


We are the creators of our own stress as we are totally responsible for the responses we create towards other people and to the changing circumstances around us. Every response begins with your own thoughts and feelings which are the seeds of your words and actions. Life is a series of changes which you have to respond to.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF


STRESS
Mental signs Tension Tightness Resistance Anger Guilt Tired Symptoms Physical signs Symptoms Anxiety Discontent Worry Impatience Reactive Evasion Fast heart rate Disturbances Diarrhoea Sweating Heart Attacks Ulcers High BP Skin rash Insomnia Chest pain Alcoholism Headaches

CHANGING THE NEGATIVE IN POSITIVE


We all have our own cycles of stressful thinking. This is not a sign of failure but a sign of times. A stress management skill helps recognise, break the cycle and create new ones. Most people wont do this until the pain becomes too great and reached a physical level.

Jogging Aerobics Change of Diet Vitamins Vacation Tranquilisers

WHAT MOST PEOPLE DO TO RELIEVE THE PAIN (These are just illusions)
Sport New Hobby New Relationships Sleep Alcohol

IDENTIFY WHAT YOU CAN AND WHAT YOU CANNOT CONTROL


A lot of stress comes from the inability to know what we can and cannot control. The ability to identify what parts of stress you can and cannot control is an important step in preventing stress. Focusing on what you can control, and coping with what you cant control, will help to invest your energy wisely.

SELF CONTROL
When you see and accept stress is self created then self control becomes an essential aim. This means you need to be aware of what is happening at each stage of our inner self and then making conscious choices. The more stressed you are the more rigid your perception will be. So be aware of your beliefs and challenge them as well as changing your thoughts.

USE RATIONAL PROBLEM SOLVING


Rather than just worrying about what stresses you always look to solve problems even if the solution is to tolerate. Problem solve things that are in your control. Acknowledge and accept the ones beyond your control.

USE CREATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING


It is impossible to be creative when you are stressed. So you first need to be calm in you inner self. The key to relaxation lies in what you do with your mind. Your mind is ready to display any image which you choose

WAYS TO CALM THE INNER SELF


Quiet time Play the same music, light the same candle when ever trying to relax. Repeating this over times will create a cue for you to quieten your mind. Meditation This is the most popular and effective method of stress management which has been used for thousands of years. Journaling Just put your pen to paper and start writing whatever comes out. Avoid editing, criticizing or analyzing. Just let come out whatever comes out. This builds self awareness and self understanding.

RELATIONSHIPS AND DEALING WITH DIFFICULT PEOPLE


The success of our relationships is dependant on our ability to respond. What you give out, you get back. Difficult people are people who dont do what you want them to do and do what you dont want them to do. They make the easy difficult, the difficult impossible and life in general miserable. This is all a perception. It is not the person that is difficult but the behaviour.

STRATEGIES FOR DIFFICULT BEHAVIOURS


1 Do Nothing Continue suffering Annoy your friends with your complaining 2 Leave Walk away not all situations are resolvable Some situations are simply not worth it 3 Change your Attitude Stop surrounding around difficult people stop being a victim See the behaviour and not the person as a challenge not the problem 4 Change your Behaviour Alter your responses.

SUMMARY OF STRESS MANAGEMENT


Self Responsibility Positive Thinking Emotional Control Rational Problem Solving Challenging Beliefs and Choosing Perception Detachment Set Priorities Relaxation Creative Visualisation Meditation Self awareness

10
TIME MANAGEMENT

11 CLASS TEST

12
SYNDICATE DISCUSSIONS
&

PRESENTATIONS
GR1: Discuss strengths & weaknesses of members of your group and initiatives planned for en-cashing strengths & overcoming weaknesses GR2: Discuss two real life situations of high & low self esteem GR3: Discuss Johari Window wrt two colleagues of your group GR4: Discuss emotional stability with some practical examples GR5: Discuss steps for improving managerial perception GR6: Discuss and compare practical application of Maslow & Herzberg theory GR7: Discuss importance of stress management in todays competitive environment GR8: Discuss Time Management & its importance in positive attitude formation and success in life

THANK YOU

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