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Kuliah I Ir. Murman Budijanto, MT.

, MIDEc

Materi Perkuliahan
Bagian I Manajemen Perusahaan: 1. Fungsi manajemen dalam perusahaan 2. Siklus manajemen dalam perusahaan: PlanningOrganizing-Leading-Controlling 3. Perencanaan dan strategi perusahaan 4. Organisasi dalam perusahaan 5. Kepemimpinan dalam perusahaan 6. Pengendalian dalam Perusahaan Ref.: Stephen Robbins and Mary Coulter. 2004

Management. Ed. 8.

Materi Perkuliahan
Bagian II Ekonomi Manajerial dan Manajemen

Strategi
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

Teori dasar perusahaan: behavior of the firms in the market Teori tentang laba Analisis permintaan pasar Pasar dan penentuan harga Teori dasar manajemen strategi Aplikasi manajemen strategi

Ref.:Managerial Economics in a Global Economy by

Dominick Salvatore (2006)

Manajemen dan Manajer


Organisasi: Sekelompok orang Terstruktur Tujuan tertentu Manajer: anggota organisasi yang

mengintegrasikan dan mengkoordinasikan pekerjaan anggota lain. Manajemen: proses mengintegrasikan dan mengkoordinasikan aktifitas kerja sehingga terselesaikan dengan efisien dan efektif bersama dan melalui orang lain.

Tingkatan dalam Organisasi


Top managers Middle manager First-line managers

Konsep Efisiensi dan Efektifitas dalam Manajemen Efisiensi (cara) - Efektifitas (hasil)
Resource usage
High Waste Low Waste Attainment

Goal Attainment
High Attainment Low

Management strives for: Low resource waste (high efficiency) High goal attainment (high effectiveness)

Apa yang dilakukan Manajer?


Fungsi manajemen: Planning Organizing Leading Controlling Proses Manajemen: serangkaian keputusan dan tindakan

dalam rangka POLC Peran Manajemen (Mintzberg 1973):


Interpersonal
Informational Decisional

Kemampuan Manajerial (Katz 1970s)


Kemampuan Teknis (Technical Skills) Kemampuan yang mencakup keahlian khusus tertentu untuk menyelesaikan tugas Kemampuan Humanis (Human Skills) Kemampuan bekerja dengan baik bersama orang lain secara individu ataupun grup Kemampuan Konseptual (Conceptual Skills) Kemampuan berpikir dan mengkonsep situasi abstrak, melihat organisasi secara menyeluruh dan memetakan hubungan antar bagian, dan merumuskan bagaimana organisasi bisa tumbuh dalam lingkungannya Bagaimana hubungan kemampuan ini dengan tingkatan dalam organisasi?

Apakah pekerjaan manajer selalu sama di setiap organisasi?

Theory of the Firm


Combines and organizes resources for the purpose of

producing goods and/or services for sale. Internalizes transactions, reducing transactions costs. Primary goal is to maximize the wealth or value of the firm.

PowerPoint Slides Prepared by Robert F. Brooker, Ph.D. Copyright 2004 by SouthWestern, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. Slide 10

Value of the Firm


The present value of all expected future profits

PowerPoint Slides Prepared by Robert F. Brooker, Ph.D. Copyright 2004 by SouthWestern, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. Slide 11

Alternative Theories
Sales maximization Adequate rate of profit Management utility maximization Principle-agent problem Satisficing behavior

PowerPoint Slides Prepared by Robert F. Brooker, Ph.D. Copyright 2004 by SouthWestern, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. Slide 12

Definitions of Profit
Business Profit: Total revenue minus the explicit or

accounting costs of production. Economic Profit: Total revenue minus the explicit and implicit costs of production. Opportunity Cost: Implicit value of a resource in its best alternative use.

PowerPoint Slides Prepared by Robert F. Brooker, Ph.D. Copyright 2004 by SouthWestern, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. Slide 13

Theories of Profit
Risk-Bearing Theories of Profit
Frictional Theory of Profit Monopoly Theory of Profit Innovation Theory of Profit Managerial Efficiency Theory of Profit

PowerPoint Slides Prepared by Robert F. Brooker, Ph.D. Copyright 2004 by SouthWestern, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. Slide 14

Function of Profit
Profit is a signal that guides the allocation of societys

resources. High profits in an industry are a signal that buyers want more of what the industry produces. Low (or negative) profits in an industry are a signal that buyers want less of what the industry produces.

PowerPoint Slides Prepared by Robert F. Brooker, Ph.D. Copyright 2004 by SouthWestern, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. Slide 15

Business Ethics
Identifies types of behavior that businesses and their

employees should not engage in. Source of guidance that goes beyond enforceable laws.

PowerPoint Slides Prepared by Robert F. Brooker, Ph.D. Copyright 2004 by SouthWestern, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. Slide 16

The Changing Environment of Managerial Economics


Globalization of Economic Activity Goods and Services Capital Technology Skilled Labor Technological Change Telecommunications Advances The Internet and the World Wide Web

PowerPoint Slides Prepared by Robert F. Brooker, Ph.D. Copyright 2004 by SouthWestern, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. Slide 17

Strategic Management
Definition:

Art & science of formulating, implementing, and evaluating, cross-functional decisions that enable an organization to achieve its objectives.

Strategic Management achieves a firms success through integration

Management Finance/Accounting Research & Development

Marketing Production/Operations MIS

Strategy Formulation
Vision & Mission External Opportunities & Threats Internal Strengths & Weaknesses Long-Term Objectives Alternative Strategies

Strategy Selection

Issues in Strategy Formulation


New Business opportunities Businesses to abandon Allocation of resources Expansion or diversification International markets Mergers or joint ventures Avoidance of hostile takeover