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KLASIFIKASI TANAH

BAHAN KULIAH

DASAR-DASAR ILMU TANAH


Fakultas Pertanian Unibraw

Klasifikasi Tanah:
Usaha membeda-bedakan mengelompokkan tanah berdasar- kan sifat-sifatnya

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Tujuan :
mengetahui sifat dan ciri tanah pada masing2 kelompok tanah (kelas tanah) sehingga memudahkan pengguna tanah untuk mengelola tanah tersebut agar dapat berproduksi secara optimal.

Alami/taksonomi : berdasarkan sifat2 alami tanah tanpa dihub. dgn pengunaannya - Taksonomi Tanah (USDA)

Klasifikasi
Teknikal : berdasarkan tujuan khusus dgn memilih ciri2 ttt yg pgrhi kemampuan dan penggunaannya
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Klasifikasi Kemampuan Lahan USDA - Klasifikasi Kesesuaian Lahan FAO

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General Principles of Natural Classification Systems:


The system should express general or universal relationships that exist in nature. One should be able to understand, remember, generalize, or predict from the information obtained. The scheme should be based on characteristics or attributes of things classified as related to their genesis. It should place similar things together on the basis of their properties. It is technically impossible to use all properties of the items being classified. Existing knowledge must be used to determine which properties are most important 11-4

Why Classify Soils?


Provide framework for establishing relationships among soils and their environment (scientific) Establish groupings for interpretations (utilitarian)
Optimal use Hazard/limitation/remediation assessment Potential productivity

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Organize knowledge to enable investigation and communication (structure/organization)

Framework for technology transfer/information dissemination

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Tanah bermacam-macam

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Klasifikasi Tanah di Indonesia


Sejak th 1988 hanya gunakan sistem Taksonomi Tanah. Sebelum 1988 ada 3 :
Pusat Penelitian Tanah (PPT) - FAO/UNESCO dan Taksonomi Tanah.
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Taksonomi Tanah (USDA)

dikembangkan oleh Soil Survey Staff (USDA), tahun 1975 Terus direvisi 2ed, 1999
ada 6 kategori yaitu Order, Suborder, Great group, Subgroup, Family dan Series.

Categories in ST:

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Order key soil properties resulting from major soil-forming processes (epipedons, subsurface horizons, materials, characteristics) Suborder key soil properties that are major controls on soilforming processes, e.g., soil climate (most orders); kinds of salts (Aridisols); kinds of soil parent materials (Entisols); degree of decomposition (Histosols); presence or absence of cryoturbation (Gelisols) Great Group key soil properties that are additional controls on soil genesis (diagnostic horizons) Subgroup central concept (Typic), intergrades, extragrades Family properties important to plant growth (texture, mineralogy, soil temperature regime, etc.) Series soil morphology

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Kategori Phylum Kelas Order Family

Nama Pteridophyta Angiospermae Rosales Leguminoseae

Kategori Order Sub-order Greatgroup Sub-group Family Alfisol Udalf Hapludalf

Nama

Sub-kelas Dicotyledoneae

Aquic Hapludalf Aquic Hapludalf, berlempung halus, Campuran, Aktif, Isohipertermik Lape Berbatu

Genus Species

Trifolium

Seri (Phase)

T. repens

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Differentiating Characteristics in ST:

Diagnostic epipedons Diagnostic subsurface horizons Other diagnostic soil characteristics Soil moisture and temperature regimes

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1. Epipedon
horison penciri yg tbtk di permukaan tanah. tidak sinonim dg hor A dpt mencakup sebag. hor B.

EPIPEDON
Surface horizons Influenced strongly by biochemical and geochemical processes Correspond with A, E, and sometimes upper B horizons Important in classifying soils

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EPIPEDON
Histik: Mollik: BO tinggi (>75%), tebal 20-40cm. BO >1%, warna gelap dg value dan kroma <3 (lembab) dan value < 5 (kering), tebal >18cm, KB >50%. Melanik: mirip Mollik, tetapi miliki sifat tanah andik Umbrik: sep molik tetapi KB <50%. Anthropik: sep molik, tetapi mengandung >1500 ppm P2O5 larut dlm 1% as sitrat. Ochrik: warna terang (value dan kroma lembab >3), BO <1% atau keras-sangat keras dan masif. Plaggen: hor buatan, akibat penggunaan pupuk kandang yg terus menerus, tebal >50cm, berwarna hitam. Folistik: t.a. BO, jenuh < 30 hari
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Horison Penciri Bawah


Agrik:

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hor iluviasi yg tbtk krn pgrh pengolahan tanah shg terjadi akumulasi sejumlah debu, liat, dan humus. Albik: hor berwarna pucat (E) dg value lembab >5. Argillik: hor penimbunan liat; minimal mengandung liat >1.2 kali lebih banyak d/p kand. liat di atasnya. Tdpt selaput liat. Kalsik: hor yg mengandung karbonat sekunder (CaCO3 atau MgCO3) tinggi, tebal >15cm. Petrokalsik:hor kalsik yang mengeras. Kambik: indikasi lemah adanya argillik atau spodik, tapi tidak memenuhi syarat kedua hor tsb.

Horison Penciri Bawah (lanjutan)


Gipsik : Petrogipsik: Natrik : Oksik :

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Salik: Sombrik : Spodik : Sulfurik : Plasik:

banyak mengandung gipsum (CaSO4) sekunder. hor gipsik yg mengeras. hor argillik yg banyak mengandung Na hor bertekstur agak kasar, KTK <16 me/100g liat, tebal >30cm. banyak mengandung garam sekunder mudah larut, tebal >15cm. sep umbrik, gelap, terjadi iluviasi humus tanpa Al, tidak terletak di bawah hor albik. hor iluviasi seskuioksida bebas dan BO. hor yg mengandung sulfat, pH ,3.5, tdpt karatan jarosit. padas tipis tersementasi seny. Fe, Mn dan BO

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TAKSONOMI TUMBUHAN vs TAKSONOMI TANAH
Kategori Phylum Kelas Nama Pteridophyta Angiospermae Kategori Order Sub-order Greatgroup Alfisol Udalf Hapludalf Nama

Sub-kelas Dicotyledoneae

Order
Family

Rosales
Leguminoseae

Sub-group
Family

Aquic Hapludalf
Aquic Hapludalf, berlempung halus, Campuran, Aktif, Isohipertermik Lape Berbatu

Genus Species

Trifolium

Seri (Phase)

T. repens

Soil Taxonomy"

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Degree of Weathering and B Horizon Development Little Slight Moderate Large Extreme Entisols Aridisols Inceptisols Alfisols Spodosols Ultisols Mollisols Oxisols Soils Defined by Special Constituent Materials Andisols Volcanic Ash Histosols Peat, Organic Matter Vertisols Self-Mixing Clay Soils Gelisols Soils on Permafrost

ALFISOL

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The central concept of Alfisols is that of soils that have an argillic, a kandic, or a natric horizon and a base saturation of 35% or greater. They typically have an ochric epipedon, but may have an umbric epipedon. They may also have a petrocalcic horizon, a fragipan or a duripan.

ANDISOLS
The central concept of Andisols is that of soils dominated by short-range-order minerals. They include weakly weathered soils with much volcanic glass as well as more strongly weathered soils. Hence the content of volcanic glass is one of the characteristics used in defining andic soil properties
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ARIDISOL
Aridisols is that of soils that are too dry for mesophytic plants to grow. They have either: (1) an aridic moisture regime and an ochric or anthropic epipedon and one or more of the following with an upper boundry within 100 cm of the soil surface: a calcic, cambic, gypsic, natric, petrocalcic petrogypsic, or a salic horizon or a duripan or an argillic horizon, or (2)A salic horizon and saturation with water within 100 cm of the soil surface for one month or more in normal years.

ENTISOLS

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The central concept of Entisols is that of soils that have little or no evidence of development of pedogenic horizons. Many Entisols have an ochric epipedon and a few have an anthropic epipedon. Many are sandy or very shallow.

GELISOLS

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The central concept of Gelisols is that of soils that have permafrost within 100 cm of the soil surface and/or have gelic materials within 100 cm of the soil surface and have permafrost within 200 cm. Gelic materials are mineral or organic soil materials that have evidence of cryoturbation (frost churning) and/or ice segeration in the active layer (seasonal thaw layer) and/or the upper part of the permafrost.

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HISTOSOLS
The central concept of Histosols is that of soils that are dominantly organic. They are mostly soils that are commonly called bogs, moors, or peats and mucks. A soil is classified as Histosols if it does not have permafrost and is dominated by organic soil materials.

INCEPTISOLS

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The central concept of Inceptisols is that of soils of humid and subhumid regions that have altered horizons that have lost bases or iron and aluminum but retain some weatherable minerals. They do not have an illuvial horizon enriched with either silicate clay or with an amorphous mixture of aluminum and organic carbon. The Inceptisols may have many kinds of diagnostic horizons, but argillic, natric kandic, spodic and oxic horizons are excluded.

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MOLLISOLS
The central concept of Mollisols is that of soils that have a dark colored surface horizon and are base rich. Nearly all have a mollic epipedon. Many also have an argillic or natric horizon or a calcic horizon. A few have an albic horizon. Some also have a duripan or a petrocalic horizon.

OXISOLS

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The central concept of Oxisols is that of soils of the tropical and subtropical regions. They have gentle slopes on surfaces of great age. They are mixtures of quartz, kaolin, free oxides, and organic matter. For the most part they are nearly featureless soils without clearly marked horizons. Differences in properties with depth are so gradual that horizon boundaries are generally arbitrary.

SPODOSOLS

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The central concept of Spodosols is that of soils in which amorphous mixtures of organic matter and aluminum, with or without iron, have accumulated. In undisrurbed soils there is normally an overlying eluvial horizon, generally gray to light gray in color, that has the color of more or less uncoated quartz. Most Spodosols have little silicate clay. The particle-size class is mostly sandy, sandy-skeletal, coarse-loamy, loamy, loamyskeletal, or coarse-silty.

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ULTISOLS
The central concept of Ultisols is that of soils that have a horizon that contains an appreciable amount of translocated silicate clay (an argillic or kandic horizon) and few bases (base saturation less than 35 percent). Base saturation in most Ultisols decreases with depth.

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VERTISOLS
The central concept of Vertisols is that of soils that have a high content of expending clay and that have at some time of the year deep wide cracks. They shrink when drying and swell when they become wetter.

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MU
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Map Unit Name


Arnot loam, 25 to 35 percent slopes. Arnot loam, 35 to 50 percent slopes.

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Branford fine sandy loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes.


Branford fine sandy loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes. Canarsie sandy loam, 0 to 3 percent slopes, compacted surface. Canarsie sandy loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, compacted surface. Centralpark coarse sandy loam, 0 to 3 percent slopes, compacted substratum. Centralpark coarse sandy loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes. Cheshire loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes. Cheshire loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes.

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