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Pertemuan ke-2 - Aritmatika Komputer >>> Sistem bilangan & Format Data - Perkembangan Perangkat Keras Komputer

ARITMATIKA KOMPUTER
Materi : Englander, bab 2 dan 3 Stallings, bab 8 IEEE 754 pada website IEEE

Komputer sistem biner Tanya kenapa?

Desain komputer terdahulu : desimal


Mark I and ENIAC

John von Neumann mengusulkan pemrosesan data biner (1945)


Desain komputer yang lebih sederhana Digunakan u/ instruksi dan data

Hubungan alami antara switch on/off dan kalkulasi menggunakan logika Boolean

On

Off

True
Yes

False
No

1
Chapter 2 Number Systems 2-3

Biner : Representasi Integer


Hanya memiliki 1 dan 0 untuk merepresentasikan semuanya Angka positif disimpan dalam biner

e.g. 41=00101001

Tidak ada tanda negatif


Sign-Magnitude

Twos compliment

Sign-Magnitude
Bit paling kiri bit penanda 0 = positif 1 = negatif +18 = 00010010 -18 = 10010010 Masalah

Perlu mempertimbangkan kedua tanda dan besaran dalam aritmatika Dua representasi nol (+0 dan -0)

Komplemen Dua
+3 = 00000011 +2 = 00000010 +1 = 00000001 +0 = 00000000 -1 = 11111111 -2 = 11111110 -3 = 11111101

Keuntungan
Satu representasi nol (00000000) Perhitungan aritmatika lebih mudah Cukup mudah menegatifkan

3 = 00000011 Boolean complement : Add 1 to LSB :

11111100 11111101

Geometric Depiction of Twos Complement Integers

Negation Special Case 1


0= 00000000 Bitwise not 11111111 Add 1 to LSB +1 Result 1 00000000 Overflow is ignored, so: -0=0

Range of Numbers

8 bit 2s compliment
+127 = 01111111 = 27 -1 -128 = 10000000 = -(27)

16 bit 2s compliment
+32767 = 011111111 11111111 = 215 - 1 -32768 = 100000000 00000000 = -215

Aritmatika

Desimal atau basis 10

Asal: perhitungan menggunakan jari Digit berasal dari bahasa Latin digitus yang artinya jari Contoh : Basis 10 10 digit, 0 sampai 9

Base / Basis : angka pada beberapa digit yang berbeda termasuk nol
Binary basis 2 Bit (binary digit): 2 digit, 0 dan 1 Octal atau basis 8: 8 digit, 0 sampai 7 Hexadecimal atau basis 16: 16 digits, 0 sampai F
Examples: 1010 = A16; 1110 = B16

Chapter 2 Number Systems

211

Keeping Track of the Bits

Bit umumnya disimpan dan dimanipulasi pada suatu grup:


8 bits = 1 byte 4 bytes = 1 word

Jumlah bit yang digunakan :


Mempengaruhi akurasi hasil Membatasi ukuran angka yang bisa dimanipulasi oleh komputer

Chapter 2 Number Systems

212

Angka : Representasi Fisik

Jumlah jeruk yang sama dengan angka yang berbeda


Cave dweller: IIIII Roman: V Arabic: 5

Basis berbeda, namun jumlah sama


510 1012 123

Chapter 2 Number Systems

2-13

Number System

Roman: position independent Modern: based on positional notation (place value)


Decimal system: system of positional notation based on powers of 10. Binary system: system of positional notation based powers of 2 Octal system: system of positional notation based on powers of 8 Hexadecimal system: system of positional notation based powers of 16
214

Chapter 2 Number Systems

Positional Notation: Base 10


43 = 4 x 101 + 3 x 100
10s place 1s place

Place Value Evaluate

101 10 4 x 10

100 1 3 x1

Sum

40

Chapter 2 Number Systems

215

Positional Notation: Base 10


527 = 5 x 102 + 2 x 101 + 7 x 100
100s place 10s place 1s place

Place Value

102 100

101 10

100 1

Evaluate
Sum

5 x 100
500

2 x 10
20

7 x1
7

Chapter 2 Number Systems

216

Positional Notation: Octal


6248 = 40410
64s place 8s place 1s place

Place Value Evaluate

82 64 6 x 64

81 8 2x8

80 1 4x1

Sum for Base 10

384

16

Chapter 2 Number Systems

217

Positional Notation: Hexadecimal


6,70416 = 26,37210
4,096s place 256s place 16s place 1s place

Place Value

163 4,096

162 256

161 16

160 1

Evaluate

6x
4,096

7 x 256

0 x 16

4x1

Sum for Base 10

24,576

1,792

Chapter 2 Number Systems

218

Positional Notation: Binary


1101 01102 = 21410
Place Value Evaluate Sum for Base 10 27 128 26 64 25 32 0 x 32 0 24 16 1 x16 16 23 8 0x8 0 22 4 1x4 4 21 2 1x2 2 20 1 0x1 0

1 x 128 1 x 64 128 64

Chapter 2 Number Systems

2-19

Estimating Magnitude: Binary


1101 01102 = 21410
1101 01102 > 19210 (128 + 64 + additional bits to the right)
Place Value Evaluate Sum for Base 10 27 128 26 64 25 32 0 x 32 0 24 16 1 x16 16 23 8 0x8 0 22 4 1x4 4 21 2 1x2 2 20 1 0x1 0

1 x 128 1 x 64 128 64

Chapter 2 Number Systems

2-20

Range of Possible Numbers

R = BK where
R = range B = base K = number of digits

Example #1: Base 10, 2 digits


R = 102 = 100 different numbers (099)

Example #2: Base 2, 16 digits


R = 216 = 65,536 or 64K 16-bit PC can store 65,536 different number values

Chapter 2 Number Systems

2-21

Decimal Range for Bit Widths


Bits
1 4

Digits
0+ 1+

Range
2 (0 and 1) 16 (0 to 15)

8
10 16

2+
3 4+

256
1,024 (1K) 65,536 (64K)

20
32 64

6
9+ 19+

1,048,576 (1M)
4,294,967,296 (4G) Approx. 1.6 x 1019

128
Chapter 2 Number Systems

38+

Approx. 2.6 x 1038


2-22

Base or Radix

Base:
The number of different symbols required to represent any given number

The larger the base, the more numerals are required


Base 10: Base 2: Base 8: Base 16: 0,1, 2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 0,1 0,1,2, 3,4,5,6,7 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B,C,D,E,F

Chapter 2 Number Systems

223

Number of Symbols vs. Number of Digits

For a given number, the larger the base


the more symbols required but the fewer digits needed

Example #1:
6516 11C16 10110 1458 28410 4348 110 01012 1 0001 11002
224

Example #2:

Chapter 2 Number Systems

Counting in Base 2
Binary
Number 8s (23)

Equivalent
4s (22) 2s (21) 1s (20)

Decimal
Number

0
1 10 1 x 21

0 x 20
1 x 20 0 x 20

0
1 2

11
100 1 x 22

1 x 21 1 x 22
1 x 22 1 x 21

1 x 20 1 x 20

3
4

101
110

5
6

111
1000 1 x 23

1 x 22 1 x 23
1 x 23

1 x 21

1 x 20 1 x 20

7
8

1001
1010

9
10
2-25

1 x 21

Chapter 2 Number Systems

Addition
Base Decimal Problem 6 +3 6 +1 Largest Single Digit 9

Octal

Hexadecimal Binary

6 +9 1 +0

F 1

Chapter 2 Number Systems

2-26

Addition
Base Problem Carry Answer

Decimal

6 +4
6 +2 6 +A

Carry the 10

10

Octal Hexadecimal

Carry the 8 Carry the 16

10 10

Binary

1 +1

Carry the 2

10

Chapter 2 Number Systems

2-27

Binary Arithmetic
1 1 1 1 1

1 +
1 0

1
0

0 1
0

1 0
0

1 1
0

0 1
1

1 0
1

Chapter 2 Number Systems

2-28

Binary Arithmetic

Addition
Boolean using XOR and AND

+
0 1

0
0 1

1
1 10

Multiplication
AND Shift

x
0 1

0 0 00

1 00 01
229

Division

Chapter 2 Number Systems

Binary Arithmetic: Boolean Logic

Boolean logic without performing arithmetic


EXCLUSIVE-OR

Output is 1 only if either input, but not both inputs, is a 1


AND (carry bit)

Output is 1 if and only both inputs are a 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 + 1
0

1
0

0 1 0

1 0 0

1 1 0

0 1 1

1 0 1
2-30

Chapter 2 Number Systems

Binary Multiplication

Boolean logic without performing arithmetic


AND (carry bit)

Output is 1 if and only both inputs are a 1

Shift
Shifting a number in any base left one digit multiplies its value by the base Shifting a number in any base right one digit divides its value by the base Examples:

1010 shift left = 10010


102 shift left = 1002

1010 shift right = 110


102 shift right = 12
2-31

Chapter 2 Number Systems

Binary Multiplication
1 1 1 0 0 1 1

1 1

0 0

1 1s place
2s place
4s place (bits shifted to line up with 4s place of multiplier)

1 1 0

1 0

0 1 0 0 0

1 Result (AND)

Chapter 2 Number Systems

2-32

Binary Multiplication
1
x 1 1 1 1 0

1
1 0 1

0
0 1 1

1
0 1 0

1
1 0 1

0
1 1

1
0
2s place (bits shifted to line up with 2s place of multiplier) 4s place 32s place

1
1 0

1
0

0
0

1 1
0 0

0
0

1
1 0 1 1 1

0 Result (AND)

Note the 0 at the end, since the 1s place is not brought down.

Note: multiple carries are possible.

Chapter 2 Number Systems

2-33

From Base 10 to Base 2


Base 10 42
Quotient Remainder

2 ) 42 ( 0 Least significant bit 2 ) 21 ( 1 2 ) 10 ( 0

2) 2) 2) Base 2
Chapter 2 Number Systems

5 (1 2 (0 1 Most significant bit 101010


2-34

From Base 10 to Base 16


Base 10 5,735
Quotient 16 ) Remainder

5,735 ( 7 Least significant bit


358 ( 6 22 ( 6 1 ( 1 Most significant bit 0 1667
2-35

16 ) 16 ) 16 ) 16 ) Base 16
Chapter 2 Number Systems

From Base 10 to Base 16


Base 10 8,039
Quotient 16 ) Remainder

8,039 ( 7 Least significant bit


502 ( 6 31 ( 15 1 ( 1 Most significant bit 0 1F67
2-36

16 ) 16 ) 16 ) 16 ) Base 16
Chapter 2 Number Systems

From Base 8 to Base 10


72638 = 3,76310
Power 83
512 x7
Sum for Base 10

82
64 x2 128

81
8 x6 48

80
1 x3 3

3,584

Chapter 2 Number Systems

2-37

From Base 8 to Base 10


72638 = 3,76310 7 x8 56 + 2 =

58 x8 464 + 6 =

470 x8 3760 + 3 = 3,763


2-38

Chapter 2 Number Systems

From Base 16 to Base 2

The nibble approach


Hex easier to read and write than binary

Base 16

F 1111

6 0110

7 0111

Base 2 0001
Why hexadecimal?

Modern computer operating systems and networks present variety of troubleshooting data in hex format

Chapter 2 Number Systems

2-39

Hardware for Addition and Subtraction

Unsigned Binary Multiplication

Expressible Numbers

IEEE 754
Standard for floating point storage 32 and 64 bit standards 8 and 11 bit exponent respectively Extended formats (both mantissa and exponent) for intermediate results

Floating Point Multiplication

Floating Point Division