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TL 2130 Hidrologi

Infiltrasi (Infiltration)


Infiltration
General
Process of water
penetrating from
ground into soil
Factors affecting
Condition of soil
surface, vegetative
cover, soil properties,
hydraulic conductivity,
antecedent soil
moisture
Four zones
Saturated,
transmission, wetting,
and wetting front

u
depth
Wetting Zone
Transmission
Zone
Transition Zone
Saturation Zone
Wetting Front
u
Definitions
solid
Pore with
air
Pore with
water
Element of soil, V
(Saturated)
Element of soil, V
(Unsaturated)
n 0 content; moisture nS
V
V
S 0 ; saturation
V
V
S
porosity
V
V
n
water of volume V
solids of volume V
pores of volume V
element of volume gross V
w
v
w
v
w
s
v
s s = = =
s s = =
= =
=
=
=
=
u u
1
Lapisan Tak Jenuh (Unsaturated zone)= lapisan yang
tidak seluruh pori-pori mikro tanah terisi air
Lapisan jenuh air (saturated zone) = lap yang seluruh
pori-pori tanah terendam air
Gaya gravitasi dan gaya kapiler
Porositas (porosity)= prosentase bagian suatu material
yang berupa pori-pori terhadap volume totalnya
Porositas total=
vol. poripori dalam satu material (berhubungan dan terisolir)
vol. keseluruhan dari material
Porositas efektif=
vol. pori-pori bersambungan atau berhubungan
volume keseluruhan
Kapasitas lapang (field capacity/specific retention)=
besarnya kandungan air maximum yang dapat ditahan
oleh tanah terhadap gaya tarik gravitasi
- kerikil : 1 10%
- pasir : 5 20%
- clay : 25 - 50%
Tumbuhan mengisap air dari sumber ini.
Koefisien layu/kelembaban kritik (wilting point)=
kandungan air pada tanah, dengan tumbuh-tumbuhan
dalam keadaan layu permanen dan akan mati bila air
tidak ditambahkan
Abstraksi awal (initial abstraction)= jumlah intersepsi dan
penampungan cekungan yang harus dipenuhi lebih
dahulu, sebelum terjadinya limpasan hujan (overland
flow)
Soil moisture content= nilai prosentase
kebasahan/lembab tanah
SMC = kehilangan berat pada waktu tanah mengering
berat tanah dalam keadaan basah
SMC = berat tanah dalam keadaan basah berat tanah kering
berat tanah dalam keadaan basah
Available soil moisture (lembab tanah yang
tersedia)= selisih antara nilai kebasahan tanah
dalam keadaan kapasitas lapangan dan
kebasahan tanah dalam keadaan titik layu
permanen. Hal ini menggambarkan kebasahan
yang dapat disimpan dalam tanah untuk
menunjang kelanjutan hidup dari tanaman.
Infiltrasi= proses meresapnya air/proses
pelaluan air, ke dalam tanah melalui
permukaan tanah. Kebalikan: mata air,
perembesan (seepage)
Perkolasi= pergerakan air di dalam tanah
melalui soil moisture zone (lingkungan
sejumlah kecil air diantara sela-sela tanah
yang menyebabkan kebasahan tanah)
pada unsaturated zone, sampai mencapai
muka air tanah pada saturated zone

Infiltrasi vs perkolasi
Kapasitas infiltrasi (infiltration capacity=
fp)= kec. infiltrasi maks. yang bisa terjadi
kap. pada awal hujan besar mengecil
bila profil tanah sudah jenuh (1-2 jam
hujan).
Kecepatan infiltrasi (infiltration rate= fa)=
kec. infiltrasi yang terjadi sesungguhnya)
Dipengaruhi oleh intensitas hujan dan
kapasitas infiltrasi
fa<fp bila i < fp
fa=fp bila i fp
Infiltration rate
Rate at which water enters the soil at the surface
(in/hr or cm/hr)
Cumulative infiltration
Accumulated depth of water infiltrating during given
time period
}
=
t
d f t F
0
) ( ) ( t t
) (t f
dt
t dF
t f
) (
) ( =
Infiltrasi
Kapasitas perkolasi (percolation
capacity=Pp)= kecepatan perkolasi
maksimum
Jumlah perkolasi (mm)= jumlah infiltrasi
yang terjadi (mm) jumlah air yang
diperlukan untuk pengisian kelembaban
tanah (soil moisture) (mm)
Kecepatan perkolasi (percolation
rate=Pa)= kecepatan perkolasi yang
sesungguhnya terjadi. Nilai ini dipengaruhi
oleh kecepatan infiltrasi dan kapasitas
perkolasi.
1. Karakteristik hujan: lama hujan, intensitas
hujan terjadi pengurangan kapasitas infiltrasi
secara konstan, karena:
- pemadatan permukaan tanah
- pembengkakan tanah liat dan humus
- penyumbatan pori-pori oleh partikel kecil
- terjeratnya gelembung-gelembung udara
Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi
kapasitas infiltrasi
2. Kondisi permukaan tanah; ada/tidak ada
tanaman
3. Karakteristik tanah; tekstur dan struktur
Tekstur= aspek geometris dari partikel
komponen suatu batuan, termasuk ukuran,
bentuk dan aturan susunan butir-butir tanah
Struktur= perbedaan-perbedaan dari bidang
perlapisan yang normal (paralel atau sejajar)
proses sedimentasi, tektonik
4. Pengerjaan tanah
5. Kondisi klimatologi
6. Nilai lembab tanah (soil moisture)
7. Kedalaman air yang tertahan di permukaan
tanah (D) serta ketebalan lapisan tak jenuh (L)
Soil Particle Sizes
Table 1. Size limits (diameter in millimeters) of soil separates in the USDA soil textural classification system.

Name of soil
separate
Diameter limits (mm)


Very coarse sand*
2.00 - 1.00

Coarse sand 1.00 - 0.50
Medium sand 0.50 - 0.25
Fine sand 0.25 - 0.10
Very fine sand 0.10 - 0.05
Silt
0.05 - 0.002

Clay
less than 0.002



Soil Texture Triangle
Source: USDA Soil
Survey Manual Chapter 3
Soil Water Content
TotalVol
VolWater
= u
Soil Water Content
Infiltration Methods
Horton and Phillips
Infiltration models developed as approximate
solutions of an exact theory (Richards
Equation)
Green Ampt
Infiltration model developed from an
approximate theory to an exact solution
Hortonian Infiltration
Recall Richards
Equation
Assume K and D are
constants, not a function
of u or z
Solve for moisture
diffusion at surface

|
.
|

\
|
+
c
c
=
c
c
K
z
D
z t c
cu u
z
K
z
D
t c
c
+ =
c
c
2
2
c
u c u
0
2
2
z
D
t
c
u c u
=
c
c
kt
c c
e f f f t f

+ = ) ( ) (
0
f
0
initial infiltration rate, f
c
is constant rate and k is decay constant
Hortonian Infiltration
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
Time
I
n
f
i
l
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

r
a
t
e
,

f
k1
k3
k2
k1 < k2 < k3
fc
f0
Philips Equation
Recall Richards
Equation
Assume K and D are
functions of u, not z
Solution
Two terms represent
effects of
Suction head
Gravity head
S Sorptivity
Function of soil suction
potential
Found from experiment

|
.
|

\
|
+
c
c
=
c
c
K
z
D
z t c
cu u
Kt St t F + =
2 / 1
) (
K St t f + =
2 / 1
2
1
) (
Green Ampt Infiltration
Wetted Zone
Wetting Front
Ponded Water
Ground Surface
Dry Soil
0
h
L
u A
n
i
u
u
z
u u q A = = L L t F
i
) ( ) (
dt
dL
dt
dF
f u A = =
z h + + =
K
z
K f + =
c
c
f
z
h
K q
z
= =
c
c
Moisture Soil Initial
Front Wetting to Depth
=
=
i
L
u
Green Ampt
Infiltration (Cont.)
Apply finite difference to the
derivative, between
Ground surface
Wetting front
K
z
K f +
+
=
c
c
Wetted Zone
Wetting Front
Ground Surface
Dry Soil
L
u A
q
i
u
u
z
0 , 0 = = z
f
L z = = ,
K
L
K K
z
K K
z
K f
f
+

= +
A
A
= + =
0
0

c
c
u
u
A
=
A =
F
L
L t F ) (
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
A
= 1
F
K f
f
u
K
z
K f + =
c
c
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = A 1
L
K
dt
dL
f

u
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
A
= 1
F
K f
f
u
dt
dL
f u A =
Green Ampt
Infiltration (Cont.)
u A = L t F ) (
Wetted Zone
Wetting Front
Ground Surface
Dry Soil
L
u A
q
i
u
u
z
L
dL
dL dt
K
f
f
+
=
A

u
C L L t
K
f f
+ + =
A
) ln(
u
Integrate
Evaluate the constant of integration
) ln(
f f
C =
0 @ 0 = = t L
) ln(
L
L Kt
f
f
f
+
A A =

u u
Green Ampt Infiltration
(Cont.)
) ln(
L
L Kt
f
f
f
+
A A =

u u
) 1 ln(
f
f
F
Kt F
u
u
A
+ A + =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
A
= 1
F
K f
f
u
Wetted Zone
Wetting Front
Ground Surface
Dry Soil
L
u A
q
i
u
u
z
Nonlinear equation, requiring iterative solution.
is wetting front soil suction head;
is porosity;
K is Hydraulic conductivity;
F is the total volume already infiltrated



Soil Parameters
Green-Ampt model requires
Hydraulic conductivity, Porosity, Wetting Front
Suction Head
Brooks and Corey
Soil Class Porosity Effective
Porosity
Wetting
Front
Suction
Head
Hydraulic
Conductivity
n u
e

K
(cm) (cm/h)
Sand 0.437 0.417 4.95 11.78
Loam 0.463 0.434 9.89 0.34
Clay 0.475 0.385 31.63 0.03

r e
n u u =
e e
s u u ) 1 ( = A
e
r
e
s
u
u u
=
Effective saturation
Effective porosity
Ponding time
Elapsed time between the time rainfall
begins and the time water begins to pond
on the soil surface (t
p
)

Ponding Time
Up to the time of ponding,
all rainfall has infiltrated (i
= rainfall rate)
i f =
p
t i F * =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
A
= 1
F
K f
f
u
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
A
= 1
*
p
f
t i
K i
u
) ( K i i
K t
f
p

A
=
u
Potential
Infiltration
Actual Infiltration
Rainfall
Accumulated
Rainfall
Infiltration
Time
Time
I
n
f
i
l
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

r
a
t
e
,

f

C
u
m
u
l
a
t
i
v
e


I
n
f
i
l
t
r
a
t
i
o
n
,

F

i
p
t
p p
t i F * =
Example
Silty-Loam soil, 30%
effective saturation,
rainfall 5 cm/hr
intensity

30 . 0
/ 65 . 0
7 . 16
486 . 0
=
=
=
=
e
e
s
hr cm K
cm
u
340 . 0 ) 486 . 0 )( 3 . 0 1 ( ) 1 ( = = = A
e e
s u u
340 . 0 * 7 . 16 = Au
hr 17 . 0
) )( 65 . 0 0 . 5 ( 0 . 5
68 . 5
65 . 0
) (
=

=

A
=
K i K i i
K t
f
p
u
Infiltrometer
Single ring infiltrometer
Double ring infiltrometer