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UJIAN AKHIR SEMESTER

JURUSAN TEKNIK KELAUTAN FAKULTAS TEKNOLOGI KELAUTAN ITS

2009

BAGUS RENGGA

4307 100 020

JURUSAN TEKNIK KELAUTAN FAKULTAS TEKNOLOGI KELAUTAN INSTITUT TEKNOLOGI SEPULUH NOPEMBER SURABAYA

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NOMOR 1

FORMULASI

MATRIX

DAN

DEFLEKSINYA

δ
b
δ c
3
δ D

Diketahui :

P = 2 Kn

 A1 = 6 cm 2 = 6 x 10 -4 m 2 A2 = 4 cm 2 = 4 x 10 -4 m 2 A3 = 2 cm 2 = 2 x 10 -4 m 2

E aluminiun = 75 Gpa = 75 x 10 6 Kn/m

L =

1 m

Ditanya :

Formulasi Matriks

[K] {δ} = {P} Defleksi di titik D ?

Jawab

Gunakan metode Potensial Energi Total (PET)

Pet = Ut Lp Ut = ∑1/2 Cn (∆l) 2

 Lp = ∑ Pδ Ut = ½ C 1 (∆l b ) 2 + ½ C 2 (∆l c ) 2 + ½ C 3 (∆l D ) 2

Dengan :

C 1 = EA1/L = 6 x 10 -4 E/L C 2 = EA2/L = 4 x 10 -4 E/L C 3 = EA3/L = 2 x 10 -4 E/L

(∆l b ) = δ b ’ = δ b (∆l c ) = δ b ’ + δ c ’ = δ d (∆l d ) = δ b ’ + δ c ’ + δ d ’ = δ d

Lp = δ b (P 1 + P 2 + P 2 ) + δ c (P 2 + P 3 ) + δ d (P 3 ) = δ b (3P) + δ c (2P) + δ d (P)

Maka PET = [ (½)(6x10 -4 (Eδ b ) 2 /L) + (½)(4x10 -4 (Eδ c ) 2 /L) + (½)(2x10 -4 (Eδ d ) 2 /L) ] [3pδ b + 2Pδ c + Pδ d ]

Untuk mendapatkan formulasi matriksnya, maka

persamaan PET harus diturnkan terhadap defleksi

defleksi.

Sehingga

∂PET/∂δ b = 0

=∂{[ (½)(6x10 -4 E(δ b ) 2 /L) + (½)(4x10 -4 E(δ c ) 2 /L) + (½)(2x10 -4 E(δ d ) 2 /L) ] [3pδ b + 2Pδ c + Pδ d ] } / ∂δ b =

0

=[ (½)(12x10 -4 Eδ b /L) ] [3p] = 0

= [ (½)(12x10 -4 Eδ b /L) ] = [3p]

………… [E1]

∂PET/∂δ c = 0

=∂{[ (½)(6x10 -4 E(δ b ) 2 /L) + (½)(4x10 -4 E(δ c ) 2 /L) +

(½)(2x10 -4 E(δ d ) 2 /L) ] [3pδ b + 2Pδ c + Pδ d ] } / ∂δ c =

0

=[ (½)(8x10 -4 Eδ c /L) ] [2p] = 0

= [ (½)(8x10 -4 Eδ c /L) ] = [2p]

………… [E2]

∂PET/∂δ d = 0

=∂{[ (½)(6x10 -4 E(δ b ) 2 /L) + (½)(4x10 -4 E(δ c ) 2 /L) +

(½)(2x10 -4 E(δ d ) 2 /L) ] [3pδ b + 2Pδ c + Pδ d ] } / ∂δ d =

0

=[ (½)(4x10 -4 Eδ d /L) ] [p] = 0

= [ (½)(8x10 -4 Eδ d /L) ] = [p]

………… [E3]

Sehingga

[ (½)(12x10 -4 Eδ b /L) ] = [3p]

………… [E1]

 [ (½)(8x10 -4 Eδ c /L) ] = [2p] ………… [E2] [ (½)(8x10 -4 Eδ d /L) ] = [p] ………… [E3]

[K] {δ} = {P}

Mencari defleksi di tiap elemen batang :

Dengan

 E aluminium = 75 x 10 6 KN/m P = 2 KN

[ (½)(12x10 -4 Eδ b /L) ] = [3p]

δ b

= 3LP/ 12x10 -4 E

= 3(1)(2) / (12x10 -4 (75 x 10 6 ))

= 6.667 x 10 -5 m

[ (½)(8x10 -4 Eδ c /L) ]

δ c

= [2p]

= 2LP/ 12x10 -4 E

= 2(1)(2) / (8x10 -4 (75 x 10 6 ))

= 6.667 x 10 -5 m

[ (½)(8x10 -4 Eδ c /L) ]

δ d

= P

= LP/ 8x10 -4 E = (1)(2) / (4x10 -4 (75 x 10 6 ))

= 6.667 x 10 -5 m

 δtotal = δ b + δ c + δ d = 6.667 x 10 -5 + 6.667 x 10 -5 + 6.667 x 10 -5 = 20.001 x 10 -5 m

NOMOR 2

PENENTUAN

NILAI

LENDUTAN

Sebuah jacket sederhana dibuat dari baja dan dikenai gaya-gaya seperti gambar di bawah. Batang vertikal mempunyai diameter 60 cm dan tebal 5 cm. Batang horizontal berdiameter 50 cm dan tebal 3 cm. Batang diagonal memiliki diameter 40 cm dan tebal 2 cm. Tentukan:

-Lendutan horizontal di titik H -Lendutan vertikal di titik H -Lendutan horizontal di titik D

Asumsi awal tarik (+)

PENYELESAIAN

Perhitungan Reaksi Perletakan ΣMB = 0

RA.10 + 2.10 + 2.20 + 4.30 + 2.10 + 2.20 + 4.30 20.10 = 0 RA.10 + 20 + 40 + 120 + 20 + 40 + 120 200 = 0 RA.10 + 40 + 80 + 240 200 = 0 RA = 40 80 240 + 200

10

RA = 16 KN (tarik)

Perhitungan Reaksi Perletakan ΣMA = 0

-RB.10 + 2.10 + 2.20 + 4.30 + 2.10 + 2.20 + 4.30 + 20.10 = 0 -RB.10 + 40 + 80 + 240 + 200 = 0

RB =

40 + 80 + 240 + 200

10

RB = 56 KN (tekan)

Perhitungan Reaksi Perletakan

ΣH = 0

RAH + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 4 + 4 = 0 RAH + 16 = 0 RAH = - 16 KN (tekan)

PERHITUNGAN JOINT

Joint B ΣV = 0 RB + S4 = 0

56 + S4 = 0 S4 = - 56 KN (tarik) S4 = 56 KN (tekan)

ΣH = 0

S2 = 0

S4
S2
Rb

PERHITUNGAN JOINT

Joint A

ΣV = 0 -RA + S1 + S3Sinα = 0

-16 + S1 + S3Sin45 = 0 S1 = 0

ΣH = 0

-RA + S2 + S3Cosα = 0 -16 + 0 + S3Cos45 = 0 S3 = 22,63 KN (tarik)

S4
S3
Ra

RaH

S2

PERHITUNGAN JOINT

Joint D

ΣV = 0

-S4 S8 + S3Sinα = 0

-56 + S8 + 16 = 0

S8 = - 40 KN (tarik)

S8 = 40 KN (tekan)

ΣH = 0

S6 - 2 + S3Cosα = 0
S6 - 2 + 16 = 0
S6 = -14 KN (tarik)
S6 = 14 KN (tekan)
S8
S6
P
S4
S3

PERHITUNGAN JOINT

Joint C

ΣV = 0

-S1 S5 + S7Sinα = 0

0 S5 + 12 = 0

S5 = - 12 KN (tarik)

S5 = 12 KN (tekan)

ΣH = 0

P + S6 + S7Cosα = 0 2 - 14 + S7Cosα = 0 S7 = 16,8 KN (tarik)

S5
S1

S7

P

S6

PERHITUNGAN JOINT

Joint F

ΣV = 0

S12 + S8 - S7Sinα = 0

S12 + 40 - 12 = 0

S12 = - 28 KN (tarik)

S12 = 28 KN (tekan)

ΣH = 0

S10 - P + S7Cosα = 0 S10 - 2 + 12 = 0 S10 = - 10 KN (tarik) S10 = 10 KN (tekan)

S12
S8

S7

S10

P

PERHITUNGAN JOINT

Joint E

ΣV = 0

S9 + S11 + S11Sinα = 0

S9 + 8 + 12 = 0

S9 = - 20 KN (tarik)

S9 = 20 KN (tekan)

ΣH = 0

-S10 + P + S11Cosα = 0 -S10 + 2 - 12 = 0 S11 = 11,31 KN (tarik)

S9

S5

P

S11

S10

PERHITUNGAN JOINT

Joint H

ΣV = 0

P - S12 + S11Sinα = 0

20 - 28 + 8 = 0

0 = 0 Terbukti !!

ΣH = 0

S13 - P + S11Cosα = 0 S10 - 4 + 8 = 0 S13 = - 4 KN (tarik) S13 = 4 KN (tekan)

P

S12

S13

S11

P

PERHITUNGAN JOINT

Joint G

ΣV = 0 S9 - P = 0

20 - 20 = 0

0 = 0 Terbukti!!

ΣH = 0

P S13 = 0

 4 - 4 = 0 0 = 0

Terbukti!!

P
P
S9

S13

PERHITUNGAN EA

EA BATANG HORIZONTAL

E baja = 83.10 6 KN/M 2 EA = (83.10 6 ).1/4.3,14.(D 2 - d 2 ) EA = (83.10 6 ).(1/4).(3,14).(0,5 2 0,44d 2 ) EA = 3,68.10 6 KN

EA BATANG VERTIKAL

EA = (83.10 6 ).1/4.3,14.(D 2 - d 2 ) EA = (83.10 6 ).(1/4).(3,14).(0,6 2 0,5d 2 ) EA = 7,138.10 6 KN

EA BATANG DIAGONAL

EA = (83.10 6 ).1/4.3,14.(D 2 - d 2 ) EA = (83.10 6 ).(1/4).(3,14).(0,4 2 0,36d 2 ) EA = 7,138.10 6 KN

PENYELESAIAN

Pengaruh P di titik H

A) Menyebabkan δ Horizontal di titik H (δHH) Reaksi Perletakan di titik A ΣMB = 0

RA.10 + P.30 = 0

RA.10 + 1.30 = 0 RA = 30 KN (tarik), mengarah kebawah ΣMA = 0

-RB.10 + P.30 = 0

-RB.10 + 1.30 = 0 RB = 3 KN (tekan),mengarah keatas

ΣH = 0

RAH P = 0 RAH = P RAH = 1 KN

PERHITUNGAN JOINT

Joint B ΣV = 0 RB + S4 = 0

3 + S4 = 0 S4 = - 3 KN (tarik) S4 = 3 KN (tekan)

ΣH = 0

S2 = 0

S4
S2
Rb

PERHITUNGAN JOINT

Joint A

ΣV = 0 -RA + S1 + S3Sinα = 0

-3 + S1 + 1 = 0 S1 = 2 KN (tarik)

ΣH = 0

-RA + S2 + S3Cosα = 0 -1 + 0 + S3Cos45 = 0 S3 = 1,4 KN (tarik)

S1
S3
RaH
Ra

S2

PERHITUNGAN JOINT

Joint D

ΣV = 0

-S4 + S8 - S3Sinα = 0

3 + S8 - 1 = 0

S8 = - 2 KN (tarik)

S8 = 2 KN (tekan)

ΣH = 0

S6 + S3Cosα = 0 S6 + 1 = 0 S6 = -1 KN (tarik) S6 = 1 KN (tekan)

S3

S6

S8

S4

PERHITUNGAN JOINT

Joint C

ΣV = 0

-S1 + S5 + S7Sinα = 0

-2 + S5 + 1 = 0

S5 = 1 KN (tarik)

ΣH = 0

S6 + S7Cosα = 0 -1 + S7.0,5.1,4 = 0 S7 = 1,4 KN (tarik)

S5
S7
S6
S1

PERHITUNGAN JOINT

ΣH = 0

Joint F

ΣV = 0

S12 - S8 - S7Sinα = 0

S12 + 2 - 1 = 0

S12 = - 1 KN (tarik)

S12 = 1 KN (tekan)

S10 + S7Cosα = 0
S10 + 1 = 0
S10 = - 1 KN (tarik)
S10 = 1 KN (tekan)
S12
S10
S7
S8

PERHITUNGAN JOINT

Joint E

ΣV = 0

S9 - S5 + S11Sinα = 0

S9 - 1 + 1 = 0

S9 = 0

ΣH = 0

S10 + S11Cosα = 0 1 S11Cosα = 0 S11 = 1,4 KN (tarik)

S9
S5

S11

S10

PERHITUNGAN JOINT

Joint H

ΣH = 0

S13 - P + S11Cosα = 0 S10 - 1 + 1 = 0 S13 = 0

ΣV = 0

S12 + S11Sinα = 0 S12 + 1 = 0 S12 = -1 KN (tarik)

S12 = 1 KN (tekan)

S13
S11
S12

P

TABEL LENDUTAN HORIZONTAL

Tabel Lendutan Horizontal di titik H

 Batang Ni Ni^ EA Li (Ni^.N.Li)/EA AC 0 2 7,138.10 6 10 0 AB 0 0 3,68.10 6 10 0 AD 22,4 1,4 1,98.10 6 14 2,28. 10 -4 BD -56 -3 7,138.10 6 10 2,35.10 -4 CE -12 1 7,138.10 6 10 2,38. 10 -5 CD -14 -1 3,68.10 6 10 3,8. 10 -5 CF 16,8 1,4 1,98.10 6 14 1,71. 10 -6 DF -40 -2 7,138.10 6 10 1,12.10 -4 EG -20 0 7,138.10 6 10 0 EF -10 -1 3,68.10 6 10 2,7. 10 -5 EH 11,2 1,4 1,98.10 6 14 1,14. 10 -4 FH -28 -1 7,138.10 6 10 -39,23.10 -5 GH -4 0 3,68.10 6 10 0

Jadi Lendutan Horizontal di titik H

Σ = 9,88. 10

-4

m

PENYELESAIAN

Pengaruh P di titik H

B) Menyebabkan δ Vertikal di titik H (δHv) Reaksi Perletakan di titik A ΣMB = 0

RA.10 = 0

RA.10 = 0 RA = 0

ΣMA = 0

-RB.10 - P.10 = 0

-RB.10 - P.10 = 0 RB = -1 KN (tarik),mengarah kebawah

PERHITUNGAN JOINT

Joint B ΣV = 0 RB + S4 = 0

-1 + S4 = 0 S4 = 1 KN (tarik)

ΣH = 0

S2 = 0

S2

S4

Rb

PERHITUNGAN JOINT

Joint A

ΣV = 0 -RA + S1 + S3Sinα = 0

0 + S1 + 0 = 0 S1 = 0 KN

ΣH = 0

-RA + S2 + S3Cosα = 0 -0 + 0 + S3Cos45 = 0 S3 = 0 KN

S1
S3
Ra

S2

PERHITUNGAN JOINT

Joint D

ΣV = 0

S4 + S8 + S3Sinα = 0

-1 + S8 - 0 = 0

S8 = 1 KN (tarik)

ΣH = 0

S6 + S3Cosα = 0 S6 + 0 = 0 S6 = 0 KN

S8
S6
S4
S3

PERHITUNGAN JOINT

Joint C

ΣV = 0

-S1 + S5 + S7Sinα = 0

0 + S5 + 0 = 0

S5 = 0 KN

ΣH = 0

S6 + S7Cosα = 0 0 + S7Cosα = 0 S7 = 0 KN

S5
S7
S6
S1

PERHITUNGAN JOINT

Joint F

ΣV = 0

S12 - S8 - S7Sinα = 0

S12 - 1 + 0 = 0

S12 = 1 KN (tarik)

ΣH = 0

S10 + S7Cosα = 0 S10 + 0 = 0 S10 = 0 KN

S12
S10
S7
S8

PERHITUNGAN JOINT

Joint E

ΣV = 0

S9 - S5 + S11Sinα = 0

S9 - 0 + 0 = 0

S9 = 0

ΣH = 0

S10 + S11Cosα = 0 S11Cosα = 0 S11 = 0 KN

S9
S11
S10
S5

PERHITUNGAN JOINT

Joint H

ΣH = 0

S13 + S11Cosα = 0 S13 + 0 = 0 S13 = 0

ΣV = 0

P - S12 - S11Sinα = 0

S11Sinα - 1 + 1 = 0

S11 = 0

P
S13
S11
S12

TABEL LENDUTAN HORIZONTAL

Tabel Lendutan Vertikal di titik H

 Batang Ni Ni^ EA Li (Ni^.N.Li)/EA AC 0 0 7,138.10 6 10 0 AB 0 0 3,68.10 6 10 0 AD 22,6 0 1,98.10 6 14 0 BD -56 1 7,138.10 6 10 -78,45.10 -6 CE -12 0 7,138.10 6 10 0 CD -14 0 3,68.10 6 10 0 CF 16,8 0 1,98.10 6 14 0 DF -40 1 7,138.10 6 10 -56,04. 10 -6 EG -20 0 7,138.10 6 10 0 EF -10 0 3,168.10 6 10 0 EH 11,2 0 1,98.10 6 10 0 FH -28 1 7,138.10 6 10 -39,23. 10 -6 GH -4 0 3,98.10 6 14 0

Jadi Lendutan Vertikal di titik H

Σ = -17,372. 10

-5

m

PENYELESAIAN

Pengaruh P di titik H

C) Menyebabkan δ Horizontal di

titik D (δDH) Reaksi Perletakan di titik A & B

ΣMB = 0

RA.10 + P.10 = 0

RA = -1 KN (tarik), mengarah kebawah

ΣMA = 0

-RB.10 + P.10 = 0

-RB.10 + P.10 = 0 RB = 1 KN (tekan), mengarah ke atas

ΣH = 0

RAx P = 0 RAx = P RAx = 1 KN

PERHITUNGAN JOINT

Joint H

ΣH = 0

S13 + S11Cosα = 0 0 + S11 = 0 S11 = 0

ΣV = 0

S11 + S12 = 0 0 + S12 = 0

S12 = 0

S13
S11
S12

PERHITUNGAN JOINT

Joint E

ΣV = 0

S9 - S5 + S11Sinα = 0

0 - S5 + 0 = 0

S5 = 0

ΣH = 0

S10 + S11Cosα = 0 S10 + 0 = 0 S10 = 0 KN

S9
S5

S11

S10

PERHITUNGAN JOINT

Joint F

ΣV = 0

S12 - S8 - S7Sinα = 0

0 - S8 + 0 = 0

S8 = 0 KN (tarik)

ΣH = 0

S10 + S7Cosα = 0 0 + S7 = 0 S7 = 0 KN

S12
S10
S7
S8

PERHITUNGAN JOINT

Joint C

ΣV = 0

-S1 + S5 + S7Sinα = 0

-S1 + 0 + 0 = 0

S1 = 0 KN

ΣH = 0

S6 + S7Cosα = 0 S6 + 0 = 0 S6 = 0 KN

S5
S7
S6
S1

PERHITUNGAN JOINT

Joint D

ΣV = 0

-S4 + S8 - S3Sinα = 0

-S4 + 0 - 1 = 0

S4 = -1 KN (tarik)

S4 = 1 KN (tekan)

ΣH = 0

1 - S6 - S3Cosα = 0 1 - 0 + S3Cosα = 0 S3Cosα = 1

S3 = 1,4 KN

S8
P
S4
S3

S6

PERHITUNGAN JOINT

Joint A

ΣV = 0 -RA + S1 + S3Sinα = 0

-1 + o + 1 = 0 0 = 0 KN

ΣH = 0

-RA + S2 + S3Cosα = 0 -1 + S2 + 1 = 0 S2 = 0 KN

S1
S3
RaX
Ra

S2

TABEL LENDUTAN HORIZONTAL

Tabel Lendutan Horizontal di titik D

 Batang Ni Ni^ EA Li (Ni^.N.Li)/EA AC 0 0 7,138.10 6 10 0 AB 0 0 3,68.10 6 10 0 AD 22,4 1,4 1,98.10 6 14 2,2. 10 -4 BD -56 -1 7,138.10 6 10 7,84. 10 -5 CE -12 0 7,138.10 6 10 0 CD -14 0 3,68.10 6 10 0 CF 16,8 0 1,98.10 6 14 0 DF -40 0 7,138.10 6 10 0 EG -20 0 7,138.10 6 10 0 EF -10 0 3,168.10 6 10 0 EH 11,2 0 1,98.10 6 14 0 FH -28 0 7,138.10 6 10 0 GH -4 0 3,68.10 6 10 0

Jadi Lendutan Horizontal di titik D

Σ = 3. 10 -4

m

TERIMA KASIH ATAS PERHATIANNYA

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