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WORK DE S I GN AND E RGONOMI CS

WORK METHOD AND


MOTION STUDY
1. VISUAL MOTION STUDY
First classification of motion study commonly
used because of the lesser cost than the micromotion
study.

Measuring by direct observation
THE THERBLIG
ELEMENTS(basic
motion elements)
THE THERBLIG ELEMENTS

17 elemen-elemen gerakan dasar (Therblig) dapat
diklasifikasikan menjadi effective dan ineffective.
Effective Therblig :
Physical Basic divisions :
- Menjangkau (reach), lambang huruf RE
- Membawa (move), lambang huruf M
- Melepas (release), lambang huruf RL
- Memegang (grasp), lambang huruf G
- Mengarahkan awal (pre position), lambang PP

Objective Basic Divisions :
- Memakai (use), lambang huruf U
- Merakit (assemble), lambang huruf A
- Mengurai rakit (disassemble), lambang DA
THE THERBLIG ELEMENTS

Ineffective Therblig :
Mental atau semi mental Basic Devisions
- Mencari (search), lambang huruf S
- Memilih (select), lambang huruf SE
- Mengarahkan (position), lambang huruf P
- Memeriksa (inspect), lambang huruf I
- Merencana (plan), lambang huruf PL

Delay
- Kelambatan yang tidak terhindarkan UD
(unavoidable delay)
- Kelambatan yang dapat dihindarkan AD
(avoidable delay)
- Istirahat untuk menghilangkan lelah R
(rest to overcome fatique)
- Memegang untuk memakai (hold) H

CONTOH :
Uraian gerak seseorang yang akan menulis, dimulai dari
menjangkau untuk mengambil pen sampai mengembalikannya
pen kembali ke tempat semula (pen holder)
Langkah dalam penulisan
1. Mengambil pen
2. Memegang pen
3. Membawa pen ke kertas
4. Mengarahkan pen untuk menulis
5. Menulis
6. Mengembalikan pen ke tempatnya
7. Memasukkan pen ke dlm
tempatnya
8. Melepaskan pen
9. Menggerakkan kembali tangan ke
kertas
Nama Gerakan
Menjangkau
Memegang
Membawa
Mengarahkan
Memakai
Membawa
Mengarahkan
sementara
Melepas
Menjangkau
(transport empty)
WORK METHOD STUDY
Method study : systematical investigation and documentation
activity of how the work is done.
Method study : understanding the optimal techniques and
principals of a work system.
Method study
Work system
components :
materials
machines & tools
workers
environment
Work system
alternatives
The best
alternative
effective (shorter time)
efficient (less cost)
productive
WORK SYSTEM COMPONENTS
WORK METHOD (procedure,
steps, ordering)
Temperature, lighting, noise, etc.)
(physical environment)
Display, ease of use
(machines and tools)
Produk Jadi
(Output)
Raw materials
supplies/input
(materials)
Ability, age, physical, experience
(human/worker)
Process and work method improvement
Human, machine, materials improvement and economy
Proper effort-fatigue of the humans involved
Working layout and environment improvement



Bottlenecks
Targets/outputs does not meet planning (quantity and quality)
Errors, discomforts, accidents in work
OBJECTIVES AND NECESSITIES
Method study
objectives
Method study
necessities



High frequency and lengthy movement of materials and workers
Bottlenecks
An operation is being done repeatedly in a long time span
Increasing scrap and rework cost
Product quality not consistent
Workers complaint
Work fatigue need a lot of rest
Benchmark from another company
Labor-turnover and absenteeism
OBJECTIVES AND NECESSITIES
Necessities - M.G.
Stevenson
WORK METHOD STUDY
WHAT TO ACHIEVE ?
- Method evaluation
- Machine evaluation
- Environment evaluation
- Rest/work hour evaluation
- Work load evaluation
- Layout evaluation
HOW TO MEASURE IT ?
WHAT TO MEASURE ?
Observe the object
Define the problems
Identify spectacles
Problems
Spectacles
Proper, valid, and
reliable method
Measurement
Arrangement
The Best
Work System
STEPS IN WORK METHOD STUDY
Initial considerations :
- Will there be any economic
benefits from the outputs ? YES

- Adequate knowledge and skills
to conduct work method study
? YES

- Will there be any negative
reaction or response from the
workers ? NO
Identification of work
operations (method)
Data collection
Work operations/method
documentation
Work method alternatives
recommendation
New suggested work
method implementation
WHAT TO CONSIDER ?
CONSIDERATION
FORM OF
COMPANY
FORM OF THE
MACHINES
FORM OF THE
WORK TIME
SMALL/
TRADITIONAL
BIG/
MODERNIZED
AUTOMIZED MANUAL CONTINOUS BATCH
- standard
- SOP
- Permission
- layout
- environment
- human/worker
involvement
- movement
- work station
- job element
- layout
- measurement
method
- idle time
- sampling method
- job element
MOTION ECONOMY STUDY
Motion study : A study of motions done by the workers to
finish their job, to achieve effective and efficient standard
motions save time and cost
Objectives : To eliminate/lessen unneffective motions and
replace it with the more effectives
Understanding and use of work charts is vital !




- Eliminates unnecessary activity

- Combines activity or movement

- Simplifies the activity
MOTION ECONOMY STUDY
PRINCIPALS (MUNDEL) :
MOTION ECONOMY STUDY

MOTION ECONOMY APPLICATIONS

Physical condition and limitation of work movement
Both hands can do works together
Both hands must not be idle in one time
Hands movement must be symmetrical and in the
opposite direction
Only use the needed parts of the body
Avoid fragmented movement, to avoid fatigue
Eye-movement must be focused on an area



1. HUMAN BODY USE

Physical condition and limitation of work movement
Both hands can do works together
Both hands must not be idle in one time
Hands movement must be symmetrical and in the
opposite direction
Only use the needed parts of the body
Avoid fragmented movement, to avoid fatigue
Eye-movement must be focused on an area



1. HUMAN BODY USE
MOTION ECONOMY APPLICATIONS

Fixed layout routine movements
Ease of use and comfortable materials and tools
placement
Layout must enable the best movement order
Machines and tools dimensions must fit the body
Good working environment
2. WORKPLACE
MOTION ECONOMY APPLICATIONS


Minimize manual activity use machine or tools
Use multi-functioned tools
Tools placement must be easy to find and reach
Workload must be balanced
3. TOOLS DESIGN
2. MICROMOTION STUDY
Used when finding difficulties
in determining differences
between one Therbligh (work
element) and another.

Work element time is very fast

Need to record the motion
Record motions from a
work cycle
Play and view recorded
video repeatedly
Draw a conclusion
Interpret the motions into
SIMO (Simultaneous
Motion Chart)
Work motions suggestion
TUGAS
1. Buat kelompok
2. Cari jurnal yang membahas tentang studi gerak atau
telaah metode
3. Susunlah resume jurnal yang berfokus pada metode
penelitian yang dilakukan, dengan format :
- pendahuluan
- permasalahan
- metode
- hasil
- analisislah metode sudah baik atau belum
4. Lengkapi dengan referensi/literatur
5. Dikumpulkan pertemuan selanjutnya