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BATUAN SEDIMEN
Menurut Selley (1988), Sedimentologi
sebagaimana didefinisikan oleh Wadell (1932)
adalah : Study of Sediments , sedangkan
sediments itu sendiri menurut Chambers
Dictionary (1972) adalah what settles at the
bottom of liquid : deposit.
Pendahuluan
BATUAN SEDIMEN
Dibentuk dari batuan yang telah ada oleh (gaya
dlm geologi) pelapukan gaya air,
pengikisan angin batuan hancur diangkut
diendapkan di tempat yang rendah (sungai,
danau, rawa, laut)
Batuan lunak diagenesis (kompaksi,
sementasi oleh larutan karbonat, silisium)
keras
BATUAN SEDIMEN
Beberapa (larutan)mengendap secara langsung
oleh reaksi kimia garam (NaCl); gipsum
(CaSO4nH2O);
(larutan) Diendapkan dengan pertolongan jasad
baik tumbuhan maupun hewan
Ciri utama batuan sedimen adalah berlapis dan
pada awalnya diendapkan secara mendatar
Sejak Stones Age (Zaman batu : Paleo -
Meso - Neolitikum):
Tidak langsung pemahaman sedimentologi.
Eksplorasi/pencarian batu sebagai bahan
mentah/ raw material untuk alat, terutama
bahan dari batuan sedimen : Flint, Silicified
Limestone, Chert, Silicified wood/tuff.
Penggunaan batuan sedimen : batupasir,
batugamping batulempung sebagai bahan
bamgunan : Pyramid, bangunan-bangunan di
Mesopotamia, Bagdad, Romawi dll.
1. Rangkuman Perkembangan Sedimentologi
Pendahuluan
Dewasa ini keterpaduan makro dengan
mikrosedimentologi menghasilkan
pemahaman menyeluruh tentang evolusi
suatu cekungan dalam konteks
Geodinamika :
Sequence stratigraphy
Provenance
Geohistory
2. Geologi dan Ilmu ilmu Dasar Lainnya
GEOLOGI
KIMIA
FISIKA
BIOLOGI
KIMIA FISIKA
PALEONTOLOGI
3. Sedimentologi Sebagai Ilmu Dasar dan
Hubungannya dengan Ilmu-ilmu Dasar
Lainnya
Pendahuluan
Sedimentologi
Kimia
Fisika
Biologi
(Modifikasi dari Selley, 1988)
Pelapukan,
Diagenesa
Sedimen
Autochtone
Paleoekologi
Paleoenvironme
nt
Transportasi,
Pengendapan
Bio Kimia
Eluvium; batuan yang terbentuk akibat
penghancuran dan tidak larut, diendapkan tidak
jauh dari sumbernya
Alluvium; batuan sedimen yang diendapkan
setelah mengalami transportasi
Sifat utama batuan sedimen adalah berlapis-
lapis dan pada awalnya diendapkan secara
mendatar.
Ketebalan lapisan berbeda-beda ?cm s/d
?meter; di dekat muara sungai umumnya tebal
makin ke arah laut menipis dan ahirnya
hilangmembaji
Dekat pantai umumnya berbutir kasar ke arah
laut makin halus.
Batupasir batulempung
batugamping
Terjadinya lapisan; karena perbedaan ukuran
butir, perbedaan warna (komposisi); perbedaan
kekerasan
Dibandingkan batuan beku, batuan sedimen
merupakan tutupan kecil (5%) dari dari kerak
bumi
Bongkah 200 mm 2000 mm
Kerikil kasar 20 mm 200 mm
Kerikil halus 2 mm 20 mm
Pasir kasar 0,2 mm 2 mm
Pasir halus 0.02 mm 0,2 mm
Geluh/lanau 0,002 mm 0.02 mm
Lempung Kurang dari 0,002 mm
Pemahaman Tentang Cekungan Sedimen
(Sedimentary Basin)
Cekungan (Basin):
Pemahaman Umum (General Perception)
Geomorphological Term
Genetic View
Mekanisme Pembentukan Cekungan
1. Cekungan (Basin)
Berdasarkan aspek geomorfolagi,
cekungan (basin) didefinisikan sebagai :
suatu wilayah dengan suatu bentuk
bentang alam(relief) rendah atau negatif
(=cekung ><positif =cembung) dikelilingi
oleh suatu bentuk (relief) tinggian.
Cekungan Sedimen
2. Cekungan Sedimen (Sedimentary Basin)
Persepsi Umum (General Perception)
mendefinisikan : suatu tempat berbentuk
cekungan dimana sedimen diendapkan.
Genetic definition : Menurut Allen dan
Allen(1990) Sedimentary basins are
regions of prolonged subsidence of
earths surface.
Cekungan Sedimen
Mekanisme penyebab subsidence
(penurunan) berkaitan dengan proses yang
terjadi pada lithsfera dimana lithosfera ini
terdiri atas beberapa lempeng, maka
cekungan sedimen sangat berkaitan erat
dengan pergerakan lempeng lempeng
3. Klasifikasi Cekungan Sedimen :
Menurut Allen dan Allen (1990) cekungan
cekungan sedimen (sedimentary basins)
telah diklasifikasikan berkaitan dengan jenis
substratum lithosfera (seperti : kontinental,
oceanic, atau transisi), kedudukannya pada
batas batas lempeng (plate boundary)
seperti intra cratonic, plate margin.
Cekungan Sedimen
Mekanisme Sedimentasi
Proses dan Siklus Sedimentasi
Pelapukan
Erosi
Transportasi
Pengendapan
Sifat sifat Fluida, Aliran dan Sedimen
Sifat Fluida :
- Densitas
- Viskositas
Jenis Aliran (flows) : Arus (current)
- Laminar : traction current
- Turbulen : low & high density turbidity current
Bed Roughness
Pergerakan Partikel :
- rolling
- bounching
- suspension
Mekanisme Sedimentasi
Siklus dan Proses Sedimentasi
Sedimentary Rocks : product of provenance and process
Siklus dan Proses Sedimentasi (Modifikasi dari Selley, 1988)
S
i
k
l
u
s
Proses
Metamorph
ic Rocks
Igneous
Rocks
Weatherin
g
Erosion Transportatio
n
Uplift
Depositio
n
P >>
T>>
Solid
State
P >>
T>>
Melting
Diagenesis &
Lithification
Sedimentary
Rocks
:
Weathering / Pelapukan
Biological Weathering
Physical Weathering
Chemical Weathering
Product Of Weathering : - Solute
- Residual
The Solutes : Soluble fraction of rock which are
carried in water.
The Residual : Insoluble products of weathering
(boulders to colloidal clay particles.
Biological Weathering : organisme : fraksi
halus
Tumbuh tumbuhan
Mikroorganisme
=> Soil yang terbentuk tebal dan kaya akan
materi organik.
Weathering / Pelapukan
Physical Weathering : Fraksi Kasar
a. Freeze weathering : perkolasi air melalui
rekahan, butiran dan kristal batuan : polar
climate.
b. Insolation weathering : typical of hot arid climate
: sahara. Kontras perubahan temperatur harian
dingin mencapai 25
o
C (malam dan siang) yang
menyebabkan batuan pecah pecah.
Weathering / Pelapukan
Physical Weathering : Fraksi Kasar
C. Hydration and Dehydration weathering :proses
perubahan kejenuhan dan kekurangan air
memperngaruhi terutama pada butiran lempung
yang mengalami pengkerutan (shrinkage)
membentuk rekahan (cracks). Daerah Tropis /
Tropical Climate
d. Stress release weathering : Terjadi pada batuan
bersifat brittle yang mengalami penimbunan
sehingga batuan di bawahnya mengalami
tekanan (Overburdan Pressure). Pada saat
overburdan tererosi, maka akan terjadi
pengurangan tekanan dan timbul release yang
menyebabkan terjadinya frakturasi.
Weathering / Pelapukan
Chemical Weathering : Fraksi Halus
Pelapukan terjadi oleh proses rekasi kimia
dan penyebab reaksinya hampir seluruhnya
oleh air. Reaksi kimia terjadi antara air
dengan unsur unsur pada mineral dan batuan.
Karbonat : CaCO3
CaCO3 + 2H2O H2CO3 + Ca(OH)2
H2CO3 H2O + CO2
Weathering / Pelapukan
Reaksi yang sama terjadi pada mineral K-
Feldspar :
2KAlSi3O8 + 2H
+
+ 9H2O Al2Si2O5(OH)4 +
2K+ +4H2SiO4
Reaksi tersebut menghasilkan mineral lempung
Kaolinit.
Weathering / Pelapukan
Chemical Weathering
Weathering / Pelapukan
Chemical Weathering
Laterite : Berasal dari kata later(latin) = brick (bata).
Pertama kali diajukan oleh Buchanan (1807 dalam
Selley, 1988) untuk red soils di Deccan Plateau
(Basalt Plateau) India, hasil dari pelapukan kimia
pada basalt.
China Clay / Kaolin : Pelapukan Kimia yang
menghasilkan hydrate aluminisilicate clay mineral
(Al2O3.2SiO2.2H2O) yang dikenal sebagai kaolinite.
Bauxie : suatu residual weathering terdiri atas
aluminium hydroksida. Nama Bauxite berasal dari
suatu tempat di Perancis : Les Baux. Mineral bauxite
terbentuk dari hasil hydrolysis mineral lempung
terutama kaolinite.
H2O + Al2O3.2SiO2.2H2O
Al2O3.nH2O.2SiO2.2H2O
Weathering / Pelapukan
Chemical Weathering
Erosion
Removal of weathering product.
Penyebabnya : - Gravity
- Running Water
- Wind
- Glacial / Gletser
Transportation
Pengangkutan suatu material (partikel) dari suatu
tempat ke tempat lain oleh suatu gerakan media
(aliran arus) hingga media dan material (partikel
berhenti.
Mekanisme gerakan ; oleh aliran arus fluida atau
angin.
Fluida sifat-sifatnya ditentukan oleh densitas dan
viskositas. Hukum Stokes membahas hubungan
settling velocity dengan densitas dan viskositas :
2
1
18
) (
d
g P P
W

Dimana W = settling velocity.


= perbedaan densitas
partikel dan fluida
= viskositas fluida
d = diameter partikel
g = percepatan gravitasi
) (
1
P P

Jenis Aliran / Flow


Terdapat dua jenis aliran : - Laminar
- Turbulen
Kedua jenis aliran ini dapat ditentukan dengan
nilai Reynolds (Reynolds Number)

U dp
R =
Dimana :
R = Reynolds Number U =
kecepatan partikel d =
diameter partikel p =
densitas partikel
= viskositas fluida

Aliran Laminar (Laminar Flow) R = rendah (<) sedangkan


aliran turbulen (turbulen flow) R = tinggi (>).
Dalam Laminar terbentuk : tractive current
sedangkan Turbulent (Density) : Low and High
Density turbidity current
Pergerakan Partikel : - Rolling
- Bounching / Saltation
- Suspention
Bed forms and Sedimentary structure for
different flow regimes.
Berbagai Jenis Proses Sedimentasi
a. Traction : - Unidirectional traction
current : fluvial
- Bidirectional traction
current : marine
b. Turbidity : - Low density turbidity
current
- High density turbidity current
c. Gravitasional : - Debris Flow
- Grain flow
- Fluidized flow
Mekanisme Sedimentasi
Berbagai Jenis Proses Sedimentasi
Proses Proses Sedimentasi
a. Traction Current :
Unidirection of traction current : fluvial
Bidirection traction current : shallow marine
b. Turbidity / Density Current : Low and High
Density Turbidity Currents
c. Gravitation
Debris Flow
Grain Flow
Fluidized Flow
DIAGENESIS
Rekristalisasi
Kompaksi
Litifikasi
Pembagian batuan sedimen berdasarkan
genetik
1. Terbentuk secara mekanik; batuan yang terdiri
dari bagian atau fragmen batuan sedimen
klastika (breksi, konglomerat (kelompok
psefit), batupasir, (kelompok psemit);
batulempung, kelompok (pelit) dll)
2. Terbentuk secara kimia; batuan yang langsung
mengendap dari larutan yang mengandung
berbagai unsur seperti garamdapur, gipsum,
batugamping
Batugamping;
Batugamping oolit; tersusun oleh butiran
bundar kecil/halus
Batugamping pisolit; tersusun oleh butiran
bundar agar besar

Diatomae,
geyserit
batubara
gambut/peat
stigmaria /fosil akar
gambut batubara muda/lignit
batubara antrasit grafit
Struktur sedimen;
Terjadi karena adanya enerji, arah arus, ukuran
butir, lingkungan pengendapan
Macam struktur sedimen : paralel, silang-siur,
gelembur gelombang, grading,
Bedforms and Sedimentary Structure
Biogenic Structure
Sedimentasi vulkanik
Adalah bahan lepas seperti bom, lapili, pasir,
dan debu vulkanik, batuan apung yang
terendapkan dengan media udara
Terbentuk secara primer dari magma
Penggalan lava yang dilemparkan keluar
selama erupsi, akan jatuh di sekitar badan
gunungapi; direkat oleh larutan dan zat tertentu
akan terbentuk aglomerat (komponen
membundar) dan breksi vulkanik (komponen
menyudut).
Sifat Utama Batuan lepas Batuan Padat
Psefit
Bersifat batuanguling (2 mm)
Talus
kerikil
Breksi
konglomerat
DIBENTUK SECARA
MEKANIK
Psamit
Bersifat pasir (2 mm 0,1 mm)
pasir butir kasar
Pasir butir menengah
Pasir butir halus
Grauwacke, arkosa
Batupasir, flagstone
Pelit
Bersifat lempung
lempung Batulempung
Schali/serpih
Mengandung gamping Koral
Pasir Globigerina
batugamping
DIBENTUK SECARA
Mengandung silisum Lumpur Radiolaria
Tanahdiatomea
Batuanyang
mengandung radiolarit
ORGANIK
Mengandung karbon gambut Lignit
Batubara, antrasit
Mengandung besi Bijih besi Limonit
Mengandung fospat Guano, tulang Fosforit
Breksi tulang
DIBENTUK SECARA
Mengandung gamping
CaCO3, mengendapdr lautan
CaCO3 dan MgCO3
pengendapanatau
penggantian
Batugamping
dolomit
KIMIA
Mengandung silisium Gel silisium Batuapi, sinter, jasper
Mengandung besi Hidrosol Fe2O3 Batubesi lempung
Mengandung garam Endapan danu garam Gipsumanhidrit, halit,
nitrat
IV
Non Marine : - Alluvial Fan
- Fluvial
- Lacustrine
Delta
Coastal
Deep Marine / Deep Water
Sedimentary Environment
Clastic Depositional System
Reconstruction of the Cretaceous Gates Formation
A wave dominated shoreline, northeastern British Columbia
As We will see, rocks of very similar characteristics may occur in more than one
environment. Interpretation of depositional environment relies on looking at
each rock in its stratigraphic context
Sedimentary Environment
Alluvial Fan
Alluvial Fans
General Environmental
Setting:
Non marine: fluvial
Rock Description:
Conglomerate
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Braided channel
Other environments where
rock type is typically found:
Such coarse
conglomerates are
restricted to very high
energy channels. In mass
flow deposits the degree
of rounding of clasts
evident in this sample will
not occur
General Environmental
Setting:
Non marine: fluvial
Rock Description:
Pebble-conglomerate
(well sorted)
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Channel
Other environments where
rock type is typically
found:
Any high energy
environment such as
channels, beach or bar
facies where fine
sediment is selectively
removed.
General Environmental
Setting:
Non marine: fluvial
Rock Description:
Pebble conglomerate (well
sorted)
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Channel
Other environments where
rock type is typically found:
Any high energy
environment such as
channel, bar or beach facies
Alluvial Fans
Anastomosing
General
Environmental
Setting:
Non marine: fluvial
Rock Description:
Breccia-sandstone:
mudstone intraclasts in
this sample have only been
transported a short
distance otherwise they
would have disintegrated.
Depositional
Environment
Represented:
Channel
Other environments
where rock type is
typically found:
Intraclasts (rip-up-clasts)
are common in channel of
every environment.
General Environmental
Setting:
Non marine: fluvial
Rock Description:
Cross-bedded
sandstone
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Channel
Other environments where
rock type is typically
found:
High energy
environments where
migrating dunes of
megaripples occur
(foreshore, aeolian,
channel
General Environmental
Setting:
Non marine: fluvial
Rock Description:
Ripple cross-bedded
sandstone (only lee side of
ripple preserved)
Depositional
Environment
Represented:
Channel
Other environments
where rock type is
typically found:
Any moderate energy
environment in which
migrating ripples occur but
most commonly preserved in
tidal and non-marine facies.
General Environmental
Setting:
Nonmarine - overbank
Rock Description:
Horizontal-wave bedded
sandstone and mudstone.
The lenses of sandstone are
probably vestiges of ripples
Depositional
environment
Represented:
Overbank (splay or
floodplain)
Other environments
where rock type is
typically found:
Tidal flats and shallow
offshore facies where
fluctuating energy conditions
are frequent.
Anastomosing
General Environmental
Setting:
Non marine: fluvial
Rock Description:
Granular sandstone
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Channel
Other environments
where rock type is typically
found:
Clean well sorted granular
sandstones also common in
high energy beach and bar
facies
General Environmental
Setting:
Non marine: fluvial
Rock Description:
Pebble-conglomerate (well sorted)
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Channel
Other environments where
rock type is typically found:
Any high energy environment such
as channels, beach or bar facies
where fine sediment is selectively
removed
General Environmental
Setting:
Non marine: fluvial
Rock Description:
Pebble conglomerate (well sorted)
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Channel
Other environments where
rock type is typically found:
Any high energy environment
such as channel, bar or beach
facies
Anastomosing
BEACH
General Environmental Setting:
Marine shoreface - beach
Rock Description:
Parallel bedded-rippled
sandstone. Note horizontal
burrow near bottom (probably
Paleophycus)
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Upper shoreface/beach
Other environments where rock
type is typically found:
Paleophycus burrows only found
in marine environments. Marine
shoals, washovers, tidal deltas
General Environmental Setting:
Marine shoreface - beach
Rock Description:
Clean sandstone with distinct
parallel bedding. Burrows absent.
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Shoreface/beach
Other environments where rock type
is typically found:
Clean sand areas subject to high-
velocity currents such as exposed
embayment shoals, upper portions
of tidal deltas, washovers, fluvial
and tidal point bars, channel
bottoms and distributary mouth
bars.
General Environmental Setting:
Marine shoreface - beach
Rock Description:
Bioturbated sandstone. Original rock-
interbedded clean sandstone and
mudstone.
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Foreshore to offshore
Other environments where rock type
is typically found:
Interbedded clean sandstone and shale
typical of lower foreshore to offshore
environments or tidal areas where
periodic high current velocities occur.
Vertical burrows typical of transitional
marine environments where filter
feeders are dominant.
General Environmental Setting:
Marine shoreface - beach
Rock Description:
Parallel and cross-bedded
sandstone
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Upper shoreface/beach
Other environments where rock
type is typically found:
Areas with moderate to high
velocity currents such as
marine shoals, upper
portion of tidal deltas,
washovers, fluvial and tidal
point bars, channel
bottoms, distributary
mouth bars.
General Environmental Setting:
Marine shoreface - beach
Rock Description:
Granular, well sorted
conglomerate. Note the
absence of any fine sandy
matrix and good granular
porosity. This rock would
make an excellent petroleum
reservoir.
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Gravel beach-shoreface
Other environments where rock
type is typically found:
Areas of moderate to high
current velocity such as
braided streams, offshore bars.
General Environmental
Setting:
Marine shoreface - beach
Rock Description:
sandstone with root structures (R)
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Backshore area of beach
Other environments where
rock type is typically found:
Sandy vegetated environments
such as splays, washovers, dunes,
point bars
BEACH
General Environmental Setting:
Marine shoreface - beach
Rock Description:
Sandstone with abundant burrow
structures destroying all primary
physical sedimentary structures. Type
of fossil is uncertain, possibly
Chondrites or Macaronichnus
segregatus
Depositional Environment Represented:
In the Gates Formation this trace fossil
was found only in sandstones
deposited in very shallow marine
(intertidal) settings such as beaches
and bars in distributary channels.
Other environments where rock type is
typically found:
Not found in other environments
BEACH
Crevasse
General Environmental Setting:
Nonmarine - overbank
Rock Description:
Horizontal-wave bedded
sandstone and mudstone. The
lenses of sandstone are probably
vestiges of ripples
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Overbank (splay or floodplain)
Other environments where rock
type is typically found:
Tidal flats and shallow offshore
facies where fluctuating energy
conditions are frequent.
General Environmental
Setting:
Nonmarine - overbank
Rock Description:
Horizontal-ripple cross-laminated
sandstone with mudstone partings.
Only lee side of ripples preserved
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Overbank deposit (levee or splay).
Other environments where
rock type is typically found:
Not found in other environments
General Environmental
Setting:
Nonmarine - overbank
Rock Description:
Horizontal and ripple cross-
laminated sandstone with mudstone
partings
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Overbank (levee or splay)
Other environments where
rock type is typically found:
Alternating low (mudstone) and
moderate energy (sandstone) such as
tidal or subtidal facies or facies
characterized by periodic flooding
(overbank areas).
Crevasse
General Environmental
Setting:
Nonmarine - overbank
Rock Description:
Horizontal bedded siltstone with
mudstone laminae. This rock consists
of varves of light coloured siltstone
and darker mudstone
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Lacustrine. True varves are the result
of seasonal climatic changes
Other environments where
rock type is typically found:
Not found in other environments
General Environmental
Setting:
Nonmarine - overbank
Rock Description:
fragment preserved on bedding
plane. Such fragments are
common in overbank deposits.
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Other environments where
rock type is typically found:
Not found in other environments
General Environmental
Setting:
Nonmarine - overbank
Rock Description:
Convolute (soft-sediment structures)
and horizontal bedded sandstone. Note
the syn-depositional fault near the base
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Channel of proximal crevasse-splay
Other environments where
rock type is typically found:
Any moderate to high energy facies
characterized by rapid deposition.
Crevasse
General Environmental Setting:
Nonmarine - overbank
Rock Description:
Lenticular bedded siltstone
and mudstone
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Overbank (lake, distal splay,
levee)
Other environments where rock
type is typically found:
Any low energy environment in
which there is a periodic influx
of coarse sediment (flood or
storm events) such as tidal,
shallow offshore or lake facies.
General Environmental Setting:
Nonmarine - overbank
Rock Description:
Horizontal bedded mudstone and
cross-bedded sandstone. Base of
core is composed of rip-up-clasts.
This core has been interpreted as
the result of a single flood with
currents declining from base to the
top.
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Crevasse-splay
Other environments where rock type
is typically found:
Not found in other environments
General Environmental Setting:
Nonmarine - overbank
Rock Description:
Massive siltstone. The absence
of bedding may be the result
of rapid deposition,
bioturbation, rooting or rapid
de-watering. Alternatively
bedding may be present but
not visible to the unaided eye
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Crevasse-splay, levee or
lacustrine.
Other environments where rock
type is typically found:
Not found in other
environments
Lake Deposit
General Environmental Setting:
Nonmarine - overbank
Rock Description:
Convolute (soft-sediment
structures) and horizontal
bedded sandstone. Note the syn-
depositional fault near the base
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Channel of proximal crevasse-
splay
Other environments where rock
type is typically found:
Any moderate to high energy
facies characterized by rapid
deposition
General Environmental Setting:
Nonmarine - overbank
Rock Description:
Massive siltstone. The absence of
bedding may be the result of
rapid deposition, bioturbation,
rooting or rapid de-watering.
Alternatively bedding may be
present but not visible to the
unaided eye
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Crevasse-splay, levee or
lacustrine.
Other environments where rock
type is typically found:
Not found in other environments
General Environmental Setting:
Nonmarine - overbank
Rock Description:
Rooted sandstone. Roots have
locally disrupted bedding
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Levee or exposed floodplain
Other environments where rock type
is typically found:
Roots provide evidence for at least
periodic emergence
Levee Deposit
General Environmental Setting:
Nonmarine - overbank
Rock Description:
Horizontal-ripple cross-laminated
sandstone with mudstone
partings. Only lee side of ripples
preserved
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Overbank deposit (levee or splay).
Other environments where rock type
is typically found:
Not found in other environments
General Environmental Setting:
Nonmarine - overbank
Rock Description:
Horizontal and ripple cross-
laminated sandstone with
mudstone partings
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Overbank (levee or splay)
Other environments where rock type
is typically found:
Alternating low (mudstone) and
moderate energy (sandstone)
such as tidal or subtidal facies or
facies characterized by periodic
flooding (overbank areas).
General Environmental Setting:
Nonmarine - overbank
Rock Description:
Massive siltstone. The absence of
bedding may be the result of
rapid deposition, bioturbation,
rooting or rapid de-watering.
Alternatively bedding may be
present but not visible to the
unaided eye
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Crevasse-splay, levee or
lacustrine.
Other environments where rock type
is typically found:
Not found in other environments
Levee Deposit
General Environmental Setting:
Nonmarine - overbank
Rock Description:
Intraformational conglomerate
(breccia). The core is composed
of rip-up-clasts of siltstone
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Crevasse-splay
Other environments where rock
type is typically found:
Not found in other
environments
General Environmental Setting:
Nonmarine - overbank
Rock Description:
Convolute (soft-sediment
structures) and horizontal bedded
sandstone. Note the syn-
depositional fault near the base
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Channel of proximal crevasse-splay
Other environments where rock type
is typically found:
Any moderate to high energy facies
characterized by rapid deposition.
General Environmental Setting:
Nonmarine - overbank
Rock Description:
Rippled siltstone and sandstone
with local rooting. Note the
siliceous concretions at the base
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Levee or crevasse-splay
Other environments where rock type
is typically found:
Not found in other environments
Marine Offshore
General Environmental Setting:
Marine offshore to transitional zone
Rock Description:
Fine grained sandstone and mudstone.
Bioturbation and compaction. May locally
contain gas-disrupted bedding.
Depositional Environment Represented:
Shoreface to shallow offshore.
Other environments where rock type is
typically found:
Any moderate to low energy environment
including lakes, lagoons and shallow
marine environments.
General Environmental Setting:
Marine offshore transitional zone
Rock Description:
Alternating parallel bedded very fine
grained sandstone and mudstone
Depositional Environment Represented:
Lower most shoreface - offshore
Other environments where rock type is
typically found:
Any low energy environment such as a
lake, lagoon, bay or offshore mari
Marine Offshore
General Environmental Setting:
Marine offshore transitional zone
Rock Description:
Parallel bedded sandstone and
mudstone (base). Because the
mudstone and sandstone beds are
parallel it is likely that the beds were
close to horizontal at deposition. Thus
the apparent dip of the beds in the
core is a result of the beds not being
drilled perpendicular
Depositional Environment Represented:
Shallow offshore
Other environments where rock type is
typically found:
Not found in other environments
General Environmental Setting:
Marine offshore transitional zone
Rock Description:
Convolute bedded and bioturbated
sandstone and mudstone. Note the pyrite
in the upper part of the core. The pyrite
probably formed shortly after deposition
(diagenetic) and indicates reducing
(anoxic) conditions resulting from
consumption of available oxygen by
aerobic bacteria
Depositional Environment Represented:
Lower shoreface to shallow offshore
Other environments where rock type is
typically found:
Not found in other environments
Non Marine Overbanks
General Environmental Setting:
Nonmarine - overbank
Rock Description:
Coal
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Peat-forming wetland (mire:
marsh or swamp)
Other environments where rock type
is typically found:
Not found in other environments
General Environmental Setting:
Nonmarine - overbank
Rock Description:
Intraformational conglomerate
(breccia). The core is composed of
rip-up-clasts of siltstone
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Crevasse-splay
Other environments where rock type
is typically found:
Not found in other environments
General Environmental Setting:
Nonmarine - overbank
Rock Description:
Lenticular bedded siltstone and
mudstone
Depositional Environment Represented:
Overbank (lake, distal splay, levee)
Other environments where rock type is
typically found:
Any low energy environment in
which there is a periodic influx of
coarse sediment (flood or storm
events) such as tidal, shallow offshore
or lake facies.
Non Marine Overbanks
General Environmental Setting:
Nonmarine - overbank
Rock Description:
Horizontal bedded mudstone and
cross-bedded sandstone. Base of
core is composed of rip-up-clasts.
This core has been interpreted as
the result of a single flood with
currents declining from base to the
top.
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Crevasse-splay
Other environments where rock type
is typically found:
Not found in other environments
General Environmental Setting:
Nonmarine - overbank
Rock Description:
Rippled siltstone and sandstone with
local rooting. Note the siliceous
concretions at the base
Depositional Environment Represented:
Levee or crevasse-splay
Other environments where rock type is
typically found:
Not found in other environments
NON MARINE
General Environmental Setting:
Non marine: fluvial
Rock Description:
Cross-bedded sandstone
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Channel
Other environments where rock type
is typically found:
High energy environments where
migrating dunes of megaripples
occur (foreshore, aeolian,
channel)
General Environmental Setting:
Non marine: fluvial
Rock Description:
Ripple cross-bedded sandstone
(only lee side of ripple
preserved)
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Channel
Other environments where rock
type is typically found:
Any moderate energy
environment in which
migrating ripples occur but
most commonly preserved in
tidal and non-marine facies
General Environmental Setting:
Nonmarine - overbank
Rock Description:
Horizontal-wave bedded sandstone and
mudstone. The lenses of sandstone are
probably vestiges of ripples
Depositional Environment Represented:
Overbank (splay or floodplain)
Other environments where rock type is
typically found:
Tidal flats and shallow offshore facies
where fluctuating energy conditions are
frequent.
NON MARINE
General Environmental Setting:
Non marine: fluvial
Rock Description:
Granular sandstone
Depositional Environment Represented:
Channel
Other environments where rock type is typically
found:
Clean well sorted granular sandstones also
common in high energy beach and bar facies
General Environmental Setting:
Non marine: fluvial
Rock Description:
Conglomerate
Depositional Environment Represented:
Braided channel
Other environments where rock type is typically
found:
Such coarse conglomerates are restricted to
very high energy channels. In mass flow
deposits the degree of rounding of clasts
evident in this sample will not occur.
NON MARINE
General Environmental Setting:
Non marine: fluvial
Rock Description:
Pebble-conglomerate (well sorted)
Depositional Environment Represented:
Channel
Other environments where rock type is typically
found:
Any high energy environment such as
channels, beach or bar facies where fine
sediment is selectively removed.
General Environmental Setting:
Non marine: fluvial
Rock Description:
Pebble conglomerate (well sorted)
Depositional Environment Represented:
Channel
Other environments where rock type is typically
found:
Any high energy environment such as
channel, bar or beach facies
Shoreface
General Environmental Setting:
Marine offshore transitional zone
Rock Description:
Cross-bedded sandstone. Note
the type of cross-bedding can
rarely be determined in core.
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Foreshore environment where
cross-bedding forms from
migration of dunes and
sandwaves.
Other environments where rock type
is typically found:
Any moderate to high energy
environment in which migrating
bed forms occur (channels,
General Environmental Setting:
Marine offshore transitional
zone
Rock Description:
Bioturbated sandstone.
Burrows are similar to
Paleophycus.
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Shoreface - moderate energy
environment. The presence of
alternating laminae of mud
and sand indicate periods of
low and high energy
deposition.
Other environments where rock
type is typically found:
General Environmental Setting:
Marine offshore to transitional
zone
Rock Description:
Fine grained sandstone and
mudstone. Bioturbation and
compaction. May locally contain
gas-disrupted bedding.
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Shoreface to shallow offshore.
Other environments where rock type
is typically found:
Any moderate to low energy
environment including lakes,
lagoons and shallow marine
Shoreface
General Environmental Setting:
Marine shoreface - beach
Rock Description:
Bioturbated sandstone. Original
rock-interbedded clean sandstone
and mudstone.
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Foreshore to offshore
Other environments where rock type
is typically found:
Interbedded clean sandstone and
shale typical of lower foreshore to
offshore environments or tidal
areas where periodic high current
velocities occur. Vertical burrows
typical of transitional marine
environments where filter feeders
General Environmental Setting:
Marine shoreface - beach
Rock Description:
Clean sandstone with distinct parallel
bedding. Burrows absent.
Depositional Environment Represented:
Shoreface/beach
Other environments where rock type is
typically found:
Clean sand areas subject to high-
velocity currents such as exposed
embayment shoals, upper portions of
tidal deltas, washovers, fluvial and
tidal point bars, channel bottoms and
distributary mouth bars.
General Environmental Setting:
Marine shoreface - beach
Rock Description:
Parallel-to-burrowed sandstone.
Burrow are horizontal forms
similar to Paleophycus
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Shoreface. The alternation of
parallel bedded sandstone in which
burrows are rare to absent with
densely burrowed zones suggests
considerable variation in
sedimentation rates, probably
associated with storm/fairweather
deposition.
Other environments where rock type is
typically found:
Shoreface
General Environmental Setting:
Marine offshore transitional
zone
Rock Description:
Alternating parallel bedded very
fine grained sandstone and
mudstone
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Lower most shoreface - offshore
Other environments where rock
type is typically found:
Any low energy environment
such as a lake, lagoon, bay or
offshore
General Environmental Setting:
Marine offshore transitional zone
Rock Description:
Horizontal bedded and bioturbated
sandstone. Burrows are similar to
Paleophycus
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Shoreface - moderate energy
environment. Presence of laminae
of mudstone indicate periods of low
energy
Other environments where rock type is
typically found:
Any moderate energy environment
but with burrows is typical of lower
foreshore to shallow offshore facies
Shoreface
General Environmental Setting:
Marine offshore transitional
zone
Rock Description:
Bioturbated very fine grained
sandstone and mudstone
Bioturbation has largely
destroyed initial depositional
environment
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Lower shoreface
Other environments where rock
type is typically found:
Predominance of fine sediment
indicates low energy
environment which together
with burrows is characteristic of
General Environmental Setting:
Marine shoreface - beach
Rock Description:
Cross-bedded sandstone
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Upper shoreface or distributary
channel
Other environments where rock type
is typically found:
Moderate to high current velocity
areas such as marine shoals, fluvial
and tidal point bars, channel
bottoms, distributary mouth bars,
tidal inlets, tidal deltas and shelf
sand ridges.
General Environmental Setting:
Marine shoreface - beach
Rock Description:
Parallel bedded-rippled
sandstone. Note horizontal
burrow near bottom (probably
Paleophycus)
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Upper shoreface/beach
Other environments where rock
type is typically found:
Paleophycus burrows only
found in marine environments.
Marine shoals, washovers, tidal
deltas.
Shoreface
General Environmental Setting:
Marine and transitional marine to
tidal flat
Rock Description:
Parallel bedded sandstone with large
vertical to 'U' shaped burrows
(probably Diplocrateron or
Rhizocorallum). Parallel bedding
defined by thin laminae of
carbonaceous material and reddish
brown siderite pellets
Depositional Environment Represented:
Marine shoal/shoreface.
Other environments where rock type is
typically found:
Not found in other environments
General Environmental Setting:
Marine offshore transitional zone
Rock Description:
Convolute bedded and bioturbated
sandstone and mudstone. Note the
pyrite in the upper part of the core.
The pyrite probably formed shortly
after deposition (diagenetic) and
indicates reducing (anoxic)
conditions resulting from
consumption of available oxygen by
aerobic bacteria
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Lower shoreface to shallow offshore
Other environments where rock type is
typically found:
Not found in other environments
General Environmental Setting:
Marine offshore transitional
zone
Rock Description:
Parallel bedded sandstone and
mudstone (base). Because the
mudstone and sandstone beds
are parallel it is likely that the
beds were close to horizontal at
deposition. Thus the apparent
dip of the beds in the core is a
result of the beds not being
drilled perpendicular
Depositional Environment
Represented: Shallow offshore
Other environments where rock
type is typically found: Not found in
other environments
Shoreface
General Environmental Setting:
Marine shoreface - beach
Rock Description:
Granular, well sorted conglomerate.
Note the absence of any fine sandy
matrix and good granular porosity. This
rock would make an excellent
petroleum reservoir.
Depositional Environment Represented:
Gravel beach-shoreface
Other environments where rock type is
typically found:
Areas of moderate to high current
velocity such as braided streams,
offshore bars.
General Environmental Setting:
Marine shoreface - beach
Rock Description:
Sandstone with abundant burrow
structures destroying all primary
physical sedimentary structures. Type of
fossil is uncertain, possibly Chondrites or
Macaronichnus segregatus
Depositional Environment Represented:
In the Gates Formation this trace fossil
was found only in sandstones deposited
in very shallow marine (intertidal)
settings such as beaches and bars in
distributary channels.
Other environments where rock type is
typically found:
Not found in other environments
Tidal Flat
General Environmental Setting:
Marine and transitional marine to
tidal flat
Rock Description:
bedded sandstone. Lenticular
bedded sandstone streaks in
mudstone at top.
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Tidal flat
Other environments where rock type
is typically found:
Low to moderate energy areas
with variable current velocity such
as tidal point bars, marine shoals,
splays, lagoons, offshore near fair-
weather wave base.
General Environmental Setting:
Marine and transitional marine
to tidal flat
Rock Description:
Massive sandstone with vertical
burrows
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Intertidal to shallow subtidal
areas of shoals.
Other environments where rock
type is typically found:
Shoreface environments of
moderate wave energy
General Environmental Setting:
Marine and transitional
marine to tidal flat
Rock Description:
massive sandstone with thin
vertical burrows (probably
Skolithos or Arenicolites)
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Intertidal to shallow subtidal
areas of marine shoals
Other environments where rock
type is typically found:
Sandy, shallow marine
environments such as tidal
deltas, tidal point bars, tidal
flats.
Tidal Flat
General Environmental Setting:
Marine and transitional marine to
tidal flat
Rock Description:
Parallel bedded sandstone with
large vertical to 'U' shaped burrows
(probably Diplocrateron or
Rhizocorallum). Parallel bedding
defined by thin laminae of
carbonaceous material and reddish
brown siderite pellets
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Marine shoal/shoreface.
Other environments where rock type
is typically found:
Not found in other environments
General Environmental Setting:
Marine and transitional marine to
tidal flat
Rock Description:
Ripple cross-bedded and
convolute-bedded sandstone
interbedded with mudstone
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Tidal flat to shallow subtidal
Other environments where rock type
is typically found:
Areas of alternating high (sand
deposition) and low energy (mud
deposition) such as splays or some
subtidal areas influenced by
storms.
General Environmental Setting:
Marine and transitional marine to
tidal flat
Rock Description:
Lenticular and flaser bedding:
sandstone and mudstone
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Typical of tidal flats
Other environments where rock type
is typically found:
flaser and lenticular bedding
indicate both sand and mud are
available and that periods of at least
moderate current activity (sand
deposition) alternate with periods of
quiescence (mud deposition). These
conditions are characteristic of
Tidal Flat
General Environmental Setting:
Marine and transitional marine
to tidal flat
Rock Description:
Parallel bedded sandstone and
mudstone. Note flame structures
near base and load casts near top
of core
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Shallow subtidal to intertidal
Other environments where rock
type is typically found:
Load casts and flame structures
form as a result of differential
compaction of wet sediments
General Environmental Setting:
Non marine: fluvial
Rock Description:
Breccia-sandstone: mudstone
intraclasts in this sample have only
been transported a short distance
otherwise they would have
disintegrated.
Depositional Environment Represented:
Channel
Other environments where rock type is
typically found:
Intraclasts (rip-up-clasts) are
common in channel of every environment.
General Environmental Setting:
Nonmarine - overbank
Rock Description:
Intraformational conglomerate
(breccia). The core is composed
of rip-up-clasts of siltstone
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Crevasse-splay
Other environments where rock
type is typically found:
Not found in other
environments
Wave Dominated Delta
General Environmental Setting:
Marine shoreface - beach
Rock Description:
Cross-bedded sandstone
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Upper shoreface or distributary
channel
Other environments where rock type is
typically found:
Moderate to high current velocity
areas such as marine shoals, fluvial
and tidal point bars, channel
bottoms, distributary mouth bars,
tidal inlets, tidal deltas and shelf
sand ridges.
General Environmental Setting:
Marine and transitional marine to
tidal flat
Rock Description:
Ripple cross-bedded and convolute-
bedded sandstone interbedded with
mudstone
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Tidal flat to shallow subtidal
Other environments where rock type is
typically found:
Areas of alternating high (sand
deposition) and low energy (mud
deposition) such as splays or some
subtidal areas influenced by storms.
General Environmental Setting:
Marine and transitional
marine to tidal flat
Rock Description:
Parallel bedded sandstone and
mudstone. Note flame
structures near base and load
casts near top of core
Depositional Environment
Represented:
Shallow subtidal to intertidal
Other environments where rock
type is typically found:
Load casts and flame
structures form as a result of
differential compaction of wet
sediments.