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PESAWAT ANGKAT

Review Statika Struktur

Tito Shantika, ST.,M Eng


Mechanical Engineering Department
Institut Teknologi Nasional

Apa pentingnya mekanika (statik) /


k i b
keseimbangan
?

Keseimbangan
g

K
Keseimbangan
b
gaya

F =0

Keseimbangan Momen

M = 0

Apa perbedaan Partikel dan Benda Tegar ?


Partikel:
Mempunyai suatu massa
namun ukurannya dapat
diabaikan, sehingga
geometri benda tidak
akan terlibat dalam
analisis masalah

Benda Tegar:
g
Kombinasi sejumlah
partikel yang mana
semua partikel berada
pada suatu jarak tetap
terhadap satu dengan
yang lain

Apa Beda Partikel dengan Benda Tegar ?

In contrast to the forces on a particle, the


forces on a rigid-body are not usually
concurrent and may cause rotation of the
body (due to the moments created by the
forces).
Forces on a particle
For a rigid body to be in equilibrium, the
net force as well as the net moment
about any arbitrary point O must be
equal to zero.
F = 0 and MO = 0
Forces on a rigid body

Benda Tegar Biasanya Memiliki Tumpuan

Benda Tegar Biasanya Memiliki Tumpuan

Contoh Partikel

Operasi
p
Vektor
Trapezoid rule for vector addition
Triangle rule for vector addition
C
B
C

Law of cosines,
R 2 = P 2 + Q 2 2 PQ cos B
r r r
R = P+Q
Law of sines,

sin C sin B sin A


=
=
Q
R
P

Vector addition is commutative,


r r r r
P+Q = Q+ P
Vector subtraction

Penjumlahan gaya-gaya
Wish to find the resultant of 3 or more
concurrent forces,
r r r r
R = P+Q+S
Resolve
R l eachh fforce iinto rectangular
l components
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
R x i + R y j = Px i + Py j + Q x i + Q y j + S x i + S y j
r
r
= ( Px + Q x + S x )i + Py + Q y + S y j
The scalar components of the resultant are equal
to the sum of the corresponding scalar
components
p
of the given
g
forces.
R y = Py + Q y + S y
R x = Px + Q x + S x
= Fx
= Fy

To find
f the resultant magnitude and direction,
2
2
1 R y
R = Rx + R y
= tan
Rx

Contoh Benda Tegar


g

Macam-macam Tumpuan dan Reaksinya

Contoh Menggambar FBD nya

Idealized model

Free body diagram

Lho kok ada beban yang segiempat, apa itu?

Beban Terdistribusi

Mencari Gaya Resultan pada Beban Terdistribusi

Mencari titik berat dari beban terdistribusi


Gaya resultan sama dengan luasan dari beban
terdistribusi
Gaya resultan terletak pada titik berat beban terdisribusi

Kalau beban terdistribusinya berbentuk segitiga ?

FR

100 N/m

12 m

1 FR = ____________
1.

x
2 x = __________.
2.

A) 12 N

B) 100 N

A) 3 m

B) 4 m

C) 600 N

D) 1200 N

C) 6 m

D) 8 m

Prosedur Menyelesaikan Soal

Gambar FBD dari soal


J
Jangan
lupa
l
kkasih
ih perjanjian
j ji tandanya
d
Gambar gaya reaksi yang ada
Kalo ada beban terdistribusi,
terdistribusi cari dulu besar gaya
resultan, dan posisinya
Hitung besar gaya reaksi di tumpuan, menggunakan

Fx = 0

Fy = 0

Mo = 0

titik O itu titik apa?


p Yang
g mana?

Contoh Soal 1
Given: Weight of the boom =
125 lb, the center of
mass is at G
G, and the
load = 600 lb.
Find: Support reactions at A
and B.
Plan:
1. Put the x and y axes in the horizontal and vertical directions,
respectively.
y
2. Draw a complete FBD of the boom.
3 Apply the EofE to solve for the unknowns.
3.
unknowns

Contoh Soal 1 (Jawaban)


FBD of the boom:

AY
AX

A
1 ft

1 ft

3 ft

40

FB

5 ft

G
125 lb

600 lb

+ MA = - 125 4 - 600 9 + FB sin 40 1 + FB cos 40 1 = 0


FB = 4188 lb or 4190 lb
+ FX = AX + 4188 cos 40 = 0;

AX = 3210 lb

+ F
Y = AY + 4188 sin 40 125 600 = 0;

AY = 1970 lb

Contoh Soal 2
SOLUTION:
Create a free-body diagram for the crane.
Determine B by solving the equation for
the sum of the moments of all forces
about A. Note there will be no
contribution from the unknown
reactions at A.
A fixed crane has a mass of 1000 kg
and is used to lift a 2400 kg crate. It
is held in pplace byy a ppin at A and a
rocker at B. The center of gravity of
the crane is located at G.
Determine the components of the
reactions at A and B.

Determine the reactions at A by


solving the equations for the sum of
all horizontal force components and
all vertical force components.
components
Check the values obtained for the
reactions by verifying that the sum of
the
h moments about
b
B off all
ll forces
f
is
i
zero.

Contoh Soal 2 (jawaban)


Determine B by solving the equation for the
sum of the moments of all forces about A.
M A = 0 : + B(1.5m ) 9.81 kN(2m )

23.5 kN(6m ) = 0
B = +107.1 kN

Create the free


free-body
body diagram.

Determine the reactions at A by solving the


equations for the sum of all horizontal forces
and
d all
ll vertical
ti l forces.
f

Fx = 0 : Ax + B = 0

Ax = 107.1 kN
Fy = 0 : Ay 9.81 kN 23.5 kN = 0
Ay = +33.3 kN
Check the values obtained.

Contoh Soal 3

M A = 0 = .400 m ( B y ) 120 N (.275 m) 225 N (.500 m)


+

( 275 m) 225 N (.
( 500 m)
120 N (.
By =
.400 m
B y = 363.75
363 75 N

+Fy = 0 = Ay 120 N + 363.75 N 225 N


Ay = 18.75 N

Ay = 18.75 N

Contoh Soal 4

Given: The loading on the beam as


shown.
Find: Support reactions at A and B.

Contoh Soal 4 (jawaban)

SOLUTION:
Taking entire beam as a free-body,
determine reactions at supports.

MA = 0:

D(7.2 m) (90 kN )(1.8 m) (54 kN )(4.2 m)


(54 kN )(8.4 m) = 0
D = 117 kN

F y =0 :
Ay 90 kN 54 kN + 117 kN 54 kN = 0
Ay = 81 kN

Contoh Soal 5

Tentukan Reaksi di A dan B

Soal Tantangan

Given: The loading on the beam as shown.


Fi d Reaction
Find:
R ti att B andd A

Soal Tantangan (2)

Tentukan Reaksi di A dan C

Analysis of Structures
Trusses
Frames
Machines

Tito Shantika, ST.,M Eng


Mechanical Engineering Department
Institut Teknologi Nasional

Definition of a Truss
A truss consists of straight members connected at
joints. No member is continuous through a joint.
Most structures are made of several trusses joined
together to form a space framework. Each truss
carries those loads which act in its plane and may
be treated as a two-dimensional structure.
Bolted or welded connections are assumed to be
pinned together. Forces acting at the member ends
reduce to a single force and no couple. Only twoforce members are considered.
When forces tend to pull the member apart, it is in
tension. When the forces tend to compress the
member, it is in compression.

Definition of a Truss

Simple
p Trusses

A rigid
g d truss
uss w
will not
o co
collapse
apse under
u de thee
application of a load.

A simple truss is constructed by


successively adding two members and
one connection to the basic triangular
truss.
In a simple truss, m = 2n - 3 where
m is the total number of members
and n is the number of joints.

Analysis of Trusses by the Method of


J i t
Joints

Frames Which Cease To Be Rigid When


Detached From Their Supports