Anda di halaman 1dari 23


A. Research Title
Synthesis of Environmental Friendly Biopolymers Using Cassava Skin Starch
(Manihot utilissima) and Speargrass Cellulose (Imperatacy lindrica-linn)

B. Background
Garbage is a bad factor for the health of the body is very disturbing if it
continues to be ignored. Garbage can be divided into two types, namely organic
and non-organic waste. Some are biodegradable and some cannot unravel.
Especially plastic waste when burned will cause air pollution and if allowed to
disrupt the natural ecosystem. So far, the handling of municipal solid waste in
developing countries such as Indonesia only accumulates and burns direct waste
in the open air at landfill (landfill).
It also can not reduce waste in large quantities and will cause problems
that is the production of pollutants that can pollute the environment of combustion
gases such as CO2, NOx, SO2, and others (Himawanto et al, 2010). In general,
plastic is made of polyethylene and polyprophylene which is difficult to
decompose by microorganisms environment (Gonzales-Gutierrez, 2010 in
Nugroho, 2012).
Plastic waste has become a global environmental problem because it has
advantages such as strong, lightweight and stable, hence the plastics are widely
used in everyday life which ultimately leads to environmental problems of waste.
Plastic needs in Indonesia continue to increase to an average of 200 tons per year.
In 2002 it was recorded 1.9 million tons, in 2003 rose to 2.1 million tons, 2004
rose another 2.3 million tons, and in 2011 has risen to 2.6 million tons. In 2013
there was a 22.58% increase from 1.55 million tons to 1.9 tons (Kemenperin,
2013 in Nindita, 2015).

Plastic waste will have a negative impact on the environment because it

cannot decompose quickly and can cause soil contamination (Nindita, 2015). PET
(Polyethylene Tereftalat) is one type of plastic that is often used, especially for
beverage packaging. The increasing amount of PET usage causes the number of
fast PET to increase as well. The use of PET in the world as a bottle packaging
reaches 1.5 million tons annually. This is supported by the mention that in 2010
the amount of use of PET increased to reach 56 million tons. Although PET is not
a dangerous material, PET is a non-biodegradable plastic that can cause
environmental problems (Colomines, G. et al., 2005 in Amalia and Atmaja, 2013).
Several studies carried out related to the MSW pyrolysis process, among
others, pyrolysis at 12 kg MSW conducted at 400oC - 650oC for 4 hours resulted
in 52.2% tar, 25.2% char, and 22.6% gas (Ojolo and Bamgboye (2005) in
Himawanto et al., 2010). Meanwhile, research on the pyrolysis process of the
urban waste picked up on the packed bed pyrolizer shows that packed bed
pyrolysis system can increase the production of 30% -100% char compared to
pyrolysis using TGA (Yang et al (2007) in Himawanto et al, 2010). While
research on the processing of carbonized MSW as a substitute for coal shows that
the calorific value of MSW char can reach half of the heating value of coal
Matzusawa et al (2007) in Himawanto et al (2010).
Various efforts were made to overcome the problem of plastic waste. One
of them is depolymerization process. In the depolymerization process, plastics are
degraded into parts with simpler chemical structures (oligomers, dimers and even
back into their monomers) that no longer pollute nature and can be reused (Amalia
and Atmaja, 2013). There are three ways that can be used to depolymize
polymers, ie chemically, mechanically and biologically (Amalia and Atmaja,
The use of plastic packaging for food comes not only from the plastic
components, but also can be caused by the reaction between the components in
the plastic. For example, the emergence of nitrosamine compounds that are
carcinogenic. The higher the temperature of the food, the more components that
migrate, enter and mix with food, so that each of us consume the food we

subconsciously consume the substances that migrate it. The longer the product is
stored, the maximum limits of the migrating components are exceeded.
For that reason the description of the expiration time threshold for the
plastic-packed product needs to be clearly communicated to the consumer
(Sulchan et al., 2007). Therefore, in this study, researchers tried to make natural
bioplastics by replacing some or all polymer synthesis with natural polymers that
have advantages such as the nature of which can be renewable, recyclable,
biodegradable in the environment and more economical.

C. Problem Formulation
1. How is the process of making bioplastic from cassava and speargrass skin?
2. How is bioplastic morphology made of cassava leather material and
3. How is the optimum attractiveness and durability in the treatment of
materials made from raw cassava leather and speargrass?
4. What are the different characteristics of the power spectrum before and
after passing through the bioplastic composite of cassava and speargrass

D. Research Purposes
1. Describe the process of making bioplastik from cassava and speargrass
2. Describe bioplastic morphology made of cassava leather material and
3. Describe the optimum attractiveness and durability in the treatment of
materials made from raw cassava leather and speargrass.
4. Describe the characteristic differences of power spectrum before and after
the composition of bioplastic composite of cassava leather and speargrass.

E. Research Benefits
1. Can be informed to the public about the potential of cassava and
speargrass skin as a material that can minimize the environmental
problems caused by plastic waste.
2. Can be more developed model material of cassava and speargrass skin
with organic molecule through consideration of aesthetic aspect.
3. Can be the basis for further research.

F. Theoritical Review
1. Plastic
Plasticc is a high polymer formed from the polymerization process.
According to Shereve and Brink, plastics are defined as materials whose main
ingredient is organic molecules that are polymerized with high molecular
weight. The product is ultimately solid, and in some parts the production stage
can be formed as desired (Akbar, 2013).
The majority of PET plastic materials in the world for synthetic fibers
(about 60%), in PET textile commonly referred to as polyester (bottle
packaging bottle 30%). This type of PET Bottle is recommended only
disposable. If used too much, let alone used to store warm water let alone heat,
will result in the polymer layer on the bottle will melt and remove carcinogenic
substances (can cause cancer) (Karuniastuti, 2016).
Various types of lax packaging materials such as polyethylene,
polypropylene, nylon polyester and vinyl film may be used singly to wrap food
or in layers with other materials glued together. This combination is called
lamination. The properties produced by laminated packaging of two or more
films can have unique properties. For example, packaging consisting of layers
of paper, polyethylene, aluminum foil, and polypropylene is excellent for dry
food packaging. The outer layer consisting of paper serves to mold the surface
Economical and inexpensive. Polyethylene serves as glue between aluminum
foil and paper, while inner polyethylene is capable of providing strength and
ability to be sealed or covered with heat. With the concept of lamination, each

layer overlaps its flaws resulting in high quality packaging sheets (Sulchan et
al., 2007).
In addition to having many advantages, it turns out plastic packaging
stores the weakness of the possibility of migration or removal of monomer
substances from plastic materials into food, especially if the food does not
match the packaging or container penyim-pannya. In foods packed in plastic
packaging, the presence of this migration is unlikely to be prevented 100%
(especially if the plastic used does not match the type of food). Monomer
migration occurs because it is influenced by food temperature or storage and its
processing. The higher the temperature, the more monomers can migrate into
the food. The longer the contact between the food and plastic packaging, the
number of migrating monomers may be higher (Sulchan et al., 2007).

2. Styrofoam
Styrofoam or foam plastics still belong to the plastic family. The basic
ingredients of Styrofoam are polisterin, a type of plastic that is very light, stiff,
translucent and cheap but quickly brittle. Because of its weakness, polisterin is
mixed with zinc and butadiene compounds. This causes the polisterin to lose its
clear nature and change its color to milk white. Then for elasticity, plasticizers
such as dioktyl pthalate (DOP), butyl hydroxy toluene or n-butyl stearate were
added. Foam plastics that break down easily into small cell structures are the
result of blowing process by using chlorofluorocarbon gas (CFC) (Sulchan et
al, 2007).
The results of the Japan Food Safety Division study in July 2001
revealed that the residue of Styrofoam in food was extremely dangerous. The
residue can cause endocrine disrupter (EDC) a disease that occurs due to
disturbances in endocrinology and reproductive systems due to carcinogenic
chemicals in the diet. The results of various studies that have been done since
the 1930s, it is known that styrene, Styrofoam base material, is mutagenic
(Capable of altering genes) and the potential of carcinogen (Sulchan et al.,

The longer packing time with styrofoam and the higher the temperature,
the greater the migration or displacement of these toxic ingredients into food or
drink. Especially if the food or drink contains a lot of fat or oil. The toxicity
caused is not immediately apparent. It is accumulative and in the long run there
are new consequences. Meanwhile, CFC as a blowing material in the
manufacture of styrofoam is a gas that is non-toxic and highly flammable and
very stable. Once stable, this new gas can decompose about 65-130 years. This
gas will float in the air reaches the ozone layer in the atmosphere and there will
be a reaction and will break down the protective layer of the earth. If the ozone
layer is eroded, there will be a greenhouse effect. When the earth's temperature
increases, sun's ultraviolet rays will continue to penetrate the earth that can
cause cancer (Sulchan et al., 2007).

3. Bioplastics
Bioplastics (biopolymers) are plastics that can be used like
conventional plastics, but will be destroyed by the activity of microorganisms
into the final result of water and carbon dioxide gas after being used up and
discharged into the environment without leaving a poisonous residue. Due to
its biodegradable nature, biodegrable plastics are environmentally friendly
plastic materials. Bioplastics can be obtained through varied sources. Such as
protein, lipids and polysaccharides Gonzales-Gutierrez (2010) in Nugroho
Bioplastics (biopolymers) are derived from emerging microbes as a
promising alternative to plastics derived from fossil fuel oils. The development
of a simple and eco-friendly strategy for the production of bioplastics with high
productivity and yield, produced in a cost-effective way utilizing the widely
available newest carbon sources, will have the potential to generate an endless
source of global energy (Sawant et al., 2016).
Its nature can return to nature, biodegradation plastic is environmentally
friendly plastic (Akbar et al, 2013). Eco-friendly plastic is a plastic that can
decompose by the activity of decomposing microorganisms. Eco-friendly
plastic has the same utility as synthetic plastic or conventional plastic. An

environmentally friendly plastic is usually referred to as bioplastic, which is

plastic that all or almost all of its components come from renewable raw
materials. An environmentally friendly plastic is an environmentally friendly
plastic material because of its nature-backed nature (Sari, 2015).

4. Starch of Cassava Skin (Manihot utilissima)

Starch is a polysaccharide compound consisting of monosaccharides that
bind through oxygen bonds. The starchy monomer is glucose that binds to the
α-(1,4)-glycosidic bond, a chemical bond that combines two monosaccharide
molecules that are covalent to each other. Starch is a starch of carbohydrates
with a glucose compound polymer consisting of two main components, namely
amylose and amylopectin (Akbar et al, 2013).
The skin of cassava tubers obtained from cassava products (Manihot
utilissima) is the main food waste in developing countries. The content of
cassava starch is high enough, it can be used as a plastic film biodegradation.
The chemical components of cassava skin are as follows: protein 8.11%, fiber
15.20%, pectin 0.22%, crude fat 1.44%, carbohydrate 16.72%, calcium 0.63%,
water 67.74% And ash 1.86%. While the chemical components and nutrition of
cassava meat in 100 g is 1 g protein, 154 g of calories, 36.8 g of carbohydrate
and 0.1 g fat. In addition, cassava skin also contains tannins, peroxide
enzymes, glucose, calcium oxalate, fiber and HCN Rukmana (1986) in Sari

5. Cellulose Speargrass (Imperatacy lindrica-linn)

Other natural resources that contain cellulose are alang-alang which is a
yearly grass plant spread throughout Indonesia. Imperata is considered as a
weed on agricultural land and is not maximally utilized. Viewed from the
chemical content, Imperata has a content of α-cellulose 40.22%. Cellulose
content of more than 40% this makes the reeds potentially as raw materials for
making bioplastik (Sumartono et al, 2015). This research utilizes alang-alang
cellulose as raw material of bioplastic production which aims to know the

process of making bioplastic based on cellulose of alang-alang and the effect of

addition of chitosan additive, glycerol and oleic acid (Sumartono et al, 2015).

G. Research Methods
1. Place of Research
This research will be conducted in Physics Laboratory of Materials
FMIPA, University of Brawijaya, Malang, Central Laboratory of Mineral and
Material, State University of Malang, and Integrated Laboratory, FMIPA, State
University of Surabaya.

2. Tools and Materials

Materials used (1) dry cassava starch (Manihot utilissima); (2) water;
(3) 3 ml of acetic acid; (4) 2 ml glycerol; (5) NaOH p.a. 2% and 14%;
(6) leaves of speargrass (Imperatacy-lindrica (L.)); (7) NaOHp.a solution. 2%
and 14%; (8) 3.5% technical HNO3 solution; (9) NaNO2 crystals p.a .; (10) a
technical NaOCl solution of 1.75%; (11) Na2SO3 solution p.a. 2%;
(12) technical chitosan powder; (13) glycerol p.a .; (14) technical oleic acid;
(15) technical vinegar acid 0.665 M; (16) aquades.
While the tools used (1) blender; (2) oven; (3) beaker glass; (4)
waterbath; (5) indicator paper; (6) glassware; (7) filter paper; (8) porcelain
mortar; (9) spatulas; (10) blender; (11) analytical balance; (12) alcohol
thermometer 100oC; (13) oven; (14) desiccators; (15) scales; (16) large plastic
pots; (17) glass plate size 25 cm x 25 cm; (18) FT-IR; (19) Gas
Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS); (20) X-Ray Diffraction; (21)
Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM-DX); (22) UV-Vis Spectroscopy; (23)
tensile strength testing machine.

3. Research Variable
Control variables : type of cassava leather and type of reeds.
Variable manipulation : composition of bioplastic composites.
Response variable : tensile strength, absorption coefficient, crystal
structure, Morphology, functional groups, and
composition elements.

4. Experimental Procedure
a. Determination of Formulation
The formulation was carried out by using the extract of cassava
starch and cellulose speargrass biopolymer.

Table 1. Ratio of Biopolymer Formula

No. Treatment Cassava Skin (g) Speargrass (g)
1. A 0,804 0,0
2. B 0,804 0,804
3. C 0,0 0,804

b. Sample of Mocaf Flour



Scraped mucus

Diminished in size


Brood 3 days

Soaked in water 3 Soaked lime water Enter Tong

Drained 50oC, 12
Day (every day 10% 1 day Fermentasi 3 days
changed its water)

Soaked 2 days water Dried

Milled (Every day replaced
by water)

Sieved 80 mesh Dried Drained




Mocaf Flour

Figure 1. The Process of Making Mocaf Flour


c. Biopolymer Sample of Cassava Starch

Making bioplastic using blending method and heating up to

temperature (90 ± 2)⁰C. The first stage is mixing all the ingredients. The
mixed material is stirred and allowed for about 10 minutes to soften the agar.
The second stage is to dissolve chitosan into acetate and then mixed on
previously mixed material. The third stage of heating and stirring of the
material is done continuously. Stirring remains to remove the bubbles
present in the sample until the temperature (90 ± 2)⁰C and cooled 2 minutes
to ensure the bubble is absent.
The final stage of the sample printing process is carried out by
pouring the heated material and poured into a teflon pans. Depletion is done
by shaking the pan to be evenly distributed. Bioplastic samples were dried in
a beam-shaped room (40 x 27 x 30) cm. The drying process uses a 5 watt
incandescent lamp with a temperature of 44⁰C to dry for 2 days. After
drying and forming sheets and cut according to test (Febriyantoro et al,

Mixing of Materials Mocaf Flour

Melarutkan kitosan Dissolving chitosan

Heating and Stirring Continuously

Sample Printing Pouring materials + Depletion Bioplastic Samples

Cuted Drained

Figure 2. Making of Biopolymer of Cassava Starch


d. Biopolymer Sample of Speargrass Cellulose

The reed grass obtained is isolated in its cellulose by the

delignification method as performed by Habibah (2013). Samples that have
been smooth and dry, weighed as much as 37.5 grams and cooked at a
temperature of 90oC for 2 hours with a mixture of 3.5% HNO3 and NaNO2.
After cooking, the sample is filtered and washed with clean water. Samples
that have been cleaned, were digested at 50oC for 1 hour with a mixture of
2% NaOH and 2% Na2SO3 solutions. After the digestion process, the sample
is re-filtered and washed with clean water.
Samples that have been cleaned, bleached with cooking at 100°C for
30 minutes with 1.75% NaOCl solution. After the bleaching process, the
sample is filtered and continued by a process of delignification or removal of
lignin levels in the sample to obtain pure cellulose. The process of
delignification is done through cooking at 80oC for 30 minutes with 17.5%
NaOH solution. The pure cellulose obtained is then dried by means of an
oven at 60°C for 1 hour. Pure dry cellulose is stored in a desiccator for
bioplastic synthesis (Sumartono et al, 2015).
Dry cellulose weighed 0.804 grams and 15 ml of vinegar solution
0.665 M. Samples mixed, added 0.4 grams of chitosan and stirred for 15
minutes. After homogeneous mixture, it is molded by casting method. In this
method, the biopolymer sample is printed with a glass plate. The mold is flat
and then dried with oven at 60oC for 1 hour. For other bioplastics, repeat the
procedure with other additives composition (chitosan + 1 ml glycerol) and
(chitosan + 1 ml oleic acid) (Sumartono et al, 2015).




Heated HNO3, 3,5% + NaNO2

Filtered and Washed

Digested NaOH 2% + NaSO3 2%

Filtered and Washed

Bleaching Process NaOCl 1,75%


Process Delignification Cook + NaOH 17,5%

Pure Cellulose



Figure 3. Manufacture Biopolymer Speargrass Cellulose


Cellulose Dry


Mixed sour vinegar 0,665M + chitosan



Dried Cut

Figure 4. Dry Biopolymer Speargrass Cellulose

5. Prosedur Pengujian
a. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Test (GC-MS)
Determination of bioplastic components of cassava starch starch and
aloe-cellulose using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS)
Shimadzu QP2010S at Integrated Laboratory, FMIPA, Universitas Negeri
Surabaya. The type of column used is AGILENT HP 5MS, column length
30 meters and ID of 0.25 mm. The operating conditions of the apparatus use
column heating temperature: 60oC for 5 minutes, injection temperature:
310oC for 17 minutes, injection mode with a split ratio of 142.4 and a
carrier gas of helium at a pressure of 15.0 kPa, total flow: 80.0 mL / Min,
column flow: 0.54 mL / min and linear speed: 26.7 cm / sec.
While for SM with the following conditions: (start time) 3 minutes
later lasts up to 70 minute (end time), interval 0,50 seconds with scan speed
1250, initial m/v of 28 and ending m/v 600. The determination of the type of
compound is done with the help of database tools database Willey 7, Willey
229, and NIST 12 NIST 62 Library.

Biopolymer Samples Cassava Starch Skin + Speargrass Cellulase



Gas Chromatography-
Mass Spectrometry Test Determination of compound type

X- Ray Diffraction Test Wavelength of electromagnetic radiation

Against the angle of X-ray diffraction

Scanning Electron Microscope Test morphology

Power-Pull Measurement Test Young Modulus Twitch Straight

Spektroskopi Uv-Vis Test absorban wavelength

Data Analysis descriptive


Figure 5. Stages of Testing Procedure


b. XRD Test (X-Ray Diffraction)

X-ray diffractometer is a tool used to analyze the crystal form of a
material. Changes in the diffracted intensity are measured, recorded, and
plotted against the diffraction angle. Analysis using XRD makes it possible
to define crystal structure, quantitative and qualitative phase analysis,
crystal size, and grid calculations of the material (Ardiansyah, 2011).
X-rays are generated from collisions between high-speed electrons and
target metals. From this basic principle, the means for generating X-rays
must consist of several major components, namely: (a) the source of
electrons (cathode); (b) high voltage to accelerate electrons; (c) the target
metal (anode). These three components are the main components of an X-
ray tube (D. T. Oktaviana, 2009).
X-rays are generated from collisions high speed electrons and the
target metal. Of this basic principle, then the means for generating X-rays
must be composed of several main components: (a) electron sources
(cathode); (b) high voltage to accelerate electrons; (c) the target metal
(anode). Third components are the main components of an X-ray tube (D. T.
Oktaviana, 2009).
X-ray diffraction is based on constructive interference of
monochromatic X-rays and sample crystals. X-rays are generated by
cathode ray tubes, filtered to produce monochromatic radiation, and directed
against the sample. The interaction between X-rays and samples results in
constructive interference (and diffraction rays) when the conditions meet the
Bragg's Law (Nugroho, 2012). According to Bragg's law:
𝑛λ = 2𝒹 sin θ
n = integers expressing the phase in the fraction that produces
the light
𝜆= X-ray wavelength depending on the anode tube of the
generating X-ray generator used
𝑑 = width of the gap
𝜃 = angle of diffraction (angle of measurement in degrees)

This law states the relationship between the wavelengths of

electromagnetic radiation to the angles of X-ray diffraction detected,
processed, and calculated. By scanning samples at an angle of 2θ, all
possible diffraction directions from the lattice are achieved. The diffraction
peak change for distance (d) makes it possible to identify materials because
each material has a set of distances (d) with standard reference materials
(Nugroho, 2012).
According to Bragg, in the crystal there are atoms forming a plane
arrangement. Each flat field has a characteristic distance between its
component planes called the Bragg plane. Each element or compound has a
wide gap price (d) and a different and specific intensity. Based on these
properties, XRD can be used to test a substance qualitatively to determine
the structure of bionanokomposit film (Nugroho, 2012).
The XRD characteristic aims to analyze the crystal structure. The
working principle of XRD is X-ray diffraction caused by the existence of a
certain phase relationship between two or more wave motions so that the
wave alloys are mutually reinforcing. X-rays fall on the crystals of the
material and there will be scattering in all coherent directions. The coherent
nature of X-ray scattering results in mutually reinforcing or mutually
debilitating properties in wave alloys (Afrozi, 2010 in Nugroho, 2012).
While the size of the crystal can be determined from the Schrrer equation:
𝐿 = 𝛽 cos 𝜃

L = crystal size
𝜆 = wavelength of X-ray beam radiation used
𝛽 = the width of the highest half of the wave peak
𝜃 = peak angle

c. SEM-EDX Test
The structure of film morphology was analyzed using scanning
electron microscopy. Samples are cut in small size and placed on carbon
tape. After that the sample in coating using platinum. The goal is to provide
conductor properties to the sample (Ardiansyah, 2011). The purpose of the

analysis using SEM is to look at the morphological structure of the sample

surface and examine the ZnO filler agreement within the matrix
(Ardiansyah, 2011).
To see the morphology of the bioplastic surface of cassava and
alang-alang skin is analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). This
can be explained because this research is able to reach very high
temperatures ranging from 130oC during the heating and stirring process
(Nugroho, 2012). In SEM, images are made based on the detection of new
electrons (secondary electrons) or reflective electrons emerging from the
sample surface when the sample surface is scanned with electron beam.
Secondary electrons or detected reflective electrons are further
amplified by their signals, then large amplitudes are displayed in a dark-
light gradation on a CRT (cathode ray tube) monitor screen. On the CRT
screen is a picture of the enlarged object structure can be seen. In the
process of operation, SEM does not require a diluted sample, so it can be
used to view objects from a 3-dimensional viewpoint (Oktaviana, 2009).
Judging from the course of media files, SEM can be analogous to a
metallurgical optical microscope, whereas TEM is analogous to a biological
optical microscope. SEM and metallurgical optical microscopes use the
principle of reflection, in the sense that the surface of the specimen reflects
media files. TEM and biological or medical optical microscopes use the
principle of transmission, meaning the media beam penetrates a thin
specimen (Oktaviana, 2009 ).

d. Power-Pull Measurement Test

The maximum strength or tensile strength is the maximum voltage
voltage that can be achieved on the strain voltage diagram (Nugroho, 2012).
The stress-strain curve is obtained from the pull-strength measurement for
all learning systems containing different plasticizers. The mechanical
response consists of an initial linear elastic hose, characterized by a constant
stress-strain slope, which results in a high value for Young Modulus (E),
followed by a deformation stage with continuous decline in the stress-

stretch slopes. A slight inclination is achieved during the plastic deformation

phase (Felix et al, 2016).
Before finally, all curves reach the maximum value for stress
(σmax), followed by a decrease in σ and the rest tension (εmax) is reached
(Felix et al, 2016). The GL-containing examination appears to lead to higher
εmax, but SB-containing examination has a higher initial slope, indicating a
higher elastic modulus (Felix et al, 2016). All systems learned. This figure
highlights that where GL is the only plasticizer showing the highest εmax
(Felix et al, 2016).
On the contrary, the SB containing the checks indicates Young's is
higher. Modulus (elastic response), regardless of the plasticizer in the
dissolved SB (GL or W) (Felix et al, 2016). Factors affecting the strength of
plastic tensile resistance are thought to increase starch weight and reduction
of glycerol composition resulting in increased value of plastic tensile
strength. The presence of starch adds solids in the plastic that causes the
plastic to be strong but less elastic so that the extension down Purwanti
(2010) in Sari (2015).
Increased tensile strength due to the addition of cellulose caused by
increased interaction of attraction between molecules making up the thin
film. This condition is related to the hydroxyl groups interconnecting the
hydrogen bonds between and intramolecules forming a thin layer composed
of mutually reinforcing fibers (Sari, 2015).
The concentration of glycerol added in the manufacture of
environmentally friendly plastics shows that in the presence of an increased
concentration of glycerol, the tensile strength of the plastic becomes
lessened. The yield of tensile strength decreases with the addition of
glycerol. This is due to the uneven distribution of constituent components
Buzarovska et al (2008) in Sari (2015).

e. Absorbance Test Using Uv-Vis Spectroscopy

UV-Vis spectrophotometry is a member of a spectroscopic analysis
technique using REM (near-electromagnetic radiation) ultraviolet (190-380
nm) and visible light (380-780 nm) using a spectrophotometer instrument.
UV-Vis spectrophotometry involves considerable electronic energy in the
molecule being analyzed, so UV-Vis spectrophotometry is more widely
used for quantitative rather than qualitative analysis.
Spectrophotometry is one of the methods in chemical analysis used
to determine the composition of a sample both quantitatively and
qualitatively based on the interaction between matter and light. Equipment
used in spectrophotometry is called a spectrophotometer. Light in question
can be visible light, UV and infrared, while the material can be atoms and
molecules but the more role is the valence electron.
Light or light coming from a particular source is also referred to as
electromagnetic radiation. The electromagnetic radiation encountered in
everyday life is sunlight. In the interaction of matter with light or
electromagnetic radiation, electromagnetic radiation may be dissipated,
absorbed or scattered so as to be known for scattering spectroscopy,
absorption spectroscopy or emission spectroscopy.
The principle of spectroscopic analysis itself is the light of a
diffractometer spectrometer using a diffractometer (prism mirror), so the
light is divided into two with the same itensity. Part of light through solvent
with intensity of Io and partly through sample with intensity I. Then the
relation between Io with I. Or it can be said that part of transmitted light is
called transmission (T) and the part absorbed by the sample is called (A).
The relationship between A and T can be formulated:
A = - log T
The relationship between absorbance (A) vs. concentration (c), so that
the equation of straight line y = mx + c, with y = A (absorbance), m = a.b
(absorptivity multiplied by 10 mm calix thickness) and x = c
(concentration). In addition to using the graph, the determination of sample
absorbency values can also be calculated using the manual calculations of


A = a.b.c , maka 𝑎 = 𝑏.𝑐

6. Data Analysis Technique

Data penelitian dianalisis dengan menggunakan rancangan dasar RAK
(Rancangan Acak Kelompok) dengan 3 perlakuan dan 1 ulangan. Sebagai
perlakuan adalah banyaknya formulasi material yaitu (1:0), (1:1), dan (0:1)
(sebagai kontrol), sementara sebagai kelompok adalah waktu analisa.
Pengujian antar rataan perlakuan dilakukan dengan menggunakan uji Beda
Nyata Jujur (BNJ) dengan tingkat kebermaknaan 5%.

H. Research Schedule
Number Activity 1 2
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
1. Prepare tools and
2. Process production
3. GC-MS test
4. SEM-EDX Test
5. XRD test
6. Power-Pull test
7. Spectroscopy UV-Vis
8. Data Analysis
9. Arrange report

I. References
Akbar, Fauzi et al. 2013. Effect of Time to Save Plastic Film Biodegradation from
the Starch of Cassava Skin to Its Mechanical Properties. Journal of
Chemical Engineering USU, Vol. 2, No. 2.
Aptika, D.T. Oktaviana. 2009. Task Paper Technology Microscopy Sensing.
Surakarta: Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sebelas Maret
Ardiansyah, Ryan. 2011. Utilization of Garlic Starch For Plastic Biodegradable
Making. Journal of Thesis. Depok: Faculty of Engineering, University of
Atmaja, Lukman et al. 2013. Effect of Sodium Carbonate Catalyst Catalyst on
Depolymerization Process of Polyethylene Tereftalate Bottle Waste
(PET). Journal of Science and Art Pomits. Surabaya: Chemistry
Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sepuluh
Nopember Institute of Technology (ITS).
Djam'an, Qathrunnada. 2008. The Influence of Cyclea Barbata Miers Leaf Air
(Green Cincau) Against Gastric Hcl Concentration and Histopathologic
Wistar Strain Wistar Rouse induced Acetylsalicylic Acid. Journal of
Thesis. Semarang: Postgraduate Program of Biomedical Science,
Diponegoro University.
Enggar, Macrina, et al. 2007. Chemical Composition of Oil Kaffir Lime (Citrus
hystrix D.C.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmanji (Ness) Blume) and
Narwastu (Vetiveria Zizaniodes (L)) and its Application as Aromatic
Agent in the Making of Solid Perfume. Salatiga: FMIPA-SWCU
Febriyantoro, Ilham et al. 2015. Effect of Skin Starch Composition plantain and
Cassava Skin as Bioplastic Raw Material and Characteristic
Measurement. Malang: Department of Physics FMIPA, Universitas
Felix, Manuel et al. 2016. Influence of Sorbitol on Mechanical and Physico-
Chemical Properties of Soy Protein-Based Bioplastics Processed by
Injection Molding. Jurnal of Polímeros, 26(4). 277-281.
Himawanto, Aries Dwi et al. 2009/2010. Essential Oil Of Fruit Leather, Citrus
Grandis, Citrus Aurantium (L.) and Citrus Aurantifolia (Rutaceae) As an
Antibacterial and Insecticide Compound. Jurnal Prosiding KIMIA
FMIPA – ITS. Surabaya: Chemistry Department Faculty of Mathematics
and Natural Sciences.
Karuniastuti, Nurhenu. 2016. Plastic Hazards Against Health and the
Environment. Journal of Technology Forum. Vol 03. No. 1.
Kusnanto, M.W Mukti. 2012. UV-Vis Spectroscopy Analysis "Determination of
Permanganate Concentration (Kmno4)". Surakarta: Department of
Physics, FMIPA, Sebelas Maret University Surakarta.

Mabrur, Sularto Eldo. 2012. Synthetic Bioplastics of Sweet Potato Using ZnO
Metals Reinforcement and Cellulose Natural Reinforcement. Journal of
Thesis. Depok: Faculty of Engineering Chemical Engineering
Department, University of Indonesia.
Nindita, Velma. 2015. Study Various Methods Of Making Fuel From Plastic
Waste Type Ldpe and Pvc with Thermal Method & Catalytic Cracking
(Ni-Cr / Zeolite). Technical Journal, Vol. 10, No. 3.
Nugroho, Fajar Adityo. 2012. Bioplastic Synthetic from Potato Starch Using ZnO
Metallic Booster and Clay's Natural Reinforcement. Journal of Thesis.
Depok: Faculty of Engineering Chemical Engineering Study Program,
University of Indonesia.
Sari, Indriana Ita. 2015. Utilization of Cassava Flour (Manihot Utilissima) For
Making Environmentally Friendly Plastics (Biodegradable) With
Addition of Glycerol from WVO. Journal of Thesis. Surakarta: Faculty
of Teacher Training and Education, Muhammadiyah University of
Sawant, S. Shailesh et al. 2016/2017. Enhanced Agarose and Xylan Degradation
for Production of Polyhydroxyalkanoates by Co-Culture of Marine
Bacterium, Saccharophagus degradans and Its Contaminant, Bacillus
cereus. Journal of Appl. Sci., 7, 225.
Sulchan, Mohammad et al. 2007. Food Safety Packaging Plastic and Styrofoam.
Journal of Maj kedokt Indon, Volum: 57, Number: 2.
Sumartono, Wahyu Nugroho et al. 2015. O2. Synthesis and Characterization of
Reed-Based Bioplastic with the addition of Chitosan, Glycerol, and Oleic
Acid. PELITA Journal, Volume X, Number 2.
Sunarsi, Sri et al. 2011. Utilizing Cassava Being Mocaf Flour for Sumberejo
Community Empowerment. Sukoharjo: Agriculture and Engineering,
Veteran Bangun Nusantara University.