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UG COLORING THE GLOBAL FUTURE

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Manajemen
Komunikasi Pemasaran

Sri Murtiasih,
Dr

www.themegallery.com

BAURAN PEMASARAN
(Menurut McCharty)

Product

Promotion
Price

Place

Bauran pemasaran : adalah


seperangkat alat pemasaran yg
digunakan perusahaan untuk terus
menerus mencapai tujuan
pemasaran di pasar sasaran

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Bagan Bauran Pemasaran

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Produk & Jasa


Definisi

Produk adl segala sesuatu yang dpt


ditawarkan kpd pasar agar menarik perhatian,
akuisisi, penggunaan, atau konsumsi yang
dapat memuaskan suatu keinginan atau
kebutuhan (Kotler & Amrstrong , 2008).
Jasa adl btk produk yang terdiri dari aktivitas,
manfaat atau kepuasan yg ditawarkan utk
dijual dan pd adasrnya tak berwujud serta tdk
menghasilkan kepemilikan akan sesuatu
(Kotler & Amrstrong , 2008).
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Produk dan Jasa


Kategori
Produk dan jasa dibagi dalam dua kategori luas
berdasarkan jenis konsumen yang menggunakannya:
Produk konsumen
Produk industri

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Keputusan Produk
Keputusan produk individual melibatkan:

Atribut produk
Penetapan merek
Kemasan
Pelabelan
Pelayanan pendukung produk

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Keputusan Produk
Atribut, Merek, dan Kemasan
Keputusan atribut produk melibatkan kualitas produk,
fitur, serta gaya dan desain
Keputusan penetapan merek meliputi pemilihan nama
merek dan mengembangkan strategi merek
Kemasan memberikan banyak manfaat kunci, seperti
perlindungan, ekonomi, kenyamanan, dan promosi

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Merek
Ekuitas Merek
Ekuitas merek adalah pengaruh diferensial positif bahwa
mengenal nama merek akan membuat pelanggan
merespons produk atau jasa
Merek dengan ekuitas merek yang kuat adalah aset
yang sangat berharga

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Product Life Cycle


Sales and Profits Over the Products Life From
Introduction to Decline
Sales and
Profits ($)
Sales

Profits
Time
Product
Development

Introduction

Growth

Losses/
Investments ($)

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Maturity

Decline

Siklus Hidup Produk


Tahap pengenalan ditandai dengan pertumbuhan yang
lambat dan laba yang rendah ketika produk
didistribusikan ke pasar
Jika berhasil, produk memasuki tahap pertumbuhan,
yang menawarkan pertumbuhan penjualan yang pesat
dan peningkatan laba
Berikutnya, tahap kedewasaan ketika pertumbuhan
penjualan melambat dan laba stabil

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10

Siklus Hidup Produk


Terakhir, produk memasuki tahap penurunan di mana
penjualan dan laba menurun
Tugas perusahaan selama tahap ini adalah mengenali
penurunan dan memutuskan apakah perusahaan harus
mempertahankan, memanen, atau menyingkirkan
produk

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11

Harga
Harga dapat didefinisikan secara sempit sebagai jumlah
uang yang ditagihkan untuk suatu produk atau jasa
Atau dapat didefinisikan lebih luas sebagai jumlah nilai
yang ditukarkan konsumen untuk keuntungan memiliki
dan menggunakan produk atau jasa

12

Factors to Consider When Setting Prices


Internal
Internal Factors
Factors

Positioning
Objectives

Pricing
Pricing
Decisions
Decisions

External
External Factors
Factors
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Target
Market

Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi


penetapan harga

14

Penentuan harga defensif: Strategi menurunkan


harga produk untuk mempertahankan pangsa
pasar.
Penentuan harga predatori: Strategi menurunkan
harga untuk menyerang pesaing baru yang masuk
ke dalam pasar.
Penentuan harga prestise: Strategi menggunakan
harga yang lebih tinggi untuk meraih kesan sebagai
yang terbaik.

Pertimbangan utama dalam


menetapkan harga

PENERBIT ERLANGGA

16

Rumus Penentuan Harga dan


BEP (Break-Even Point)
Biaya = FC + (Q x VC)
FC = Fixed Cost
Q = Quantity
VC = Variable Cost

Pendapatan: Q x Price per unit


Keuntungan: Pendapatan Biaya
QBE =

FC
P VC

Saluran Distribusi

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Transportation
Transportation Modes
Modes
Rail
Rail

Nations
Nationslargest
largestcarrier,
carrier,cost-effective
cost-effective
for
forshipping
shippingbulk
bulkproducts,
products,piggyback
piggyback
Truck
Truck

Flexible
Flexiblein
inrouting
routing&&time
timeschedules,
schedules,efficient
efficient
for
forshort-hauls
short-haulsof
ofhigh
highvalue
valuegoods
goods
Water
Water

Low
Lowcost
costfor
forshipping
shippingbulky,
bulky,low-value
low-value
goods,
goods,slowest
slowestform
form
Pipeline
Pipeline

Ship
Shippetroleum,
petroleum,natural
naturalgas,
gas,and
andchemicals
chemicals
from
sources
to
markets
from sources to markets
Air
Air

High
Highcost,
cost,ideal
idealwhen
whenspeed
speedis
isneeded
neededor
orto
to
ship
shiphigh-value,
high-value,low-bulk
low-bulkitems
items
Sri Murtiasih, Dr

Choosing Transportation
Modes

Checklist for Choosing


Transportation Modes
1. Speed.
2. Dependability.
3. Capability.
4. Availability.
5. Cost.

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MENGELOLA SALURAN
PEMASARAN

Saluran-saluran hendaknya
dipilih berdasarkan efisiensi,
kemampuan untuk dikendalikan,
dan kemampuannya
diadaptasikan
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Saluran Pemasaran Barang


Konsumen
Level 0
Perusahaan

Level-1

Level-2

Level-3

Perusahaan

Perusahaan

Perusahaan

Pedagang Besar

Pedagang Besar

Pemborong

Konsumen

Pengecer

Pengecer

Pengecer

Konsumen

Konsumen

Konsumen

Sri Murtiasih, Dr

Mengidentifikasi Alternatif Saluran


Utama
I.
1.
2.
3.

Jenis Perantara
Wiraniaga perusahaan
Agen Produsen
Distributor industri

II.
1.
2.
3.

Jumlah Perantara
Distribusi Eksklusif
Distribusi Selektif
Distribusi Intensif

III.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Syarat dan Tanggung Jawab Anggota Saluran


Kebijakan harga
Syarat Penjualan
Hak teritorial distributor
Jasa dan tanggung jawab timbal balik
Sri Murtiasih, Dr

Promotional Mix

Sri Murtiasih, Dr

Purposes of Promotion
To tell consumers about a companys

Ideas
Images
Services
Goods
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Purposes of Promotion
To persuade consumers to buy

Sri Murtiasih, Dr

Promotions Recipe
for Success:
Mix various
communication
activities together and
serve to potential
customers until desired
outcome is achieved.

Sri Murtiasih, Dr

Communication Techniques
Advertising
Personal selling
Publicity
Sales promotion

Flynn
The bikes
the pros
use.

Traveler Magazine

The Top 5
Airlines!

25% Off
Coupon

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The Combination, or Blend, of


Marketing Communication
Channels Is Called the...

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Sri Murtiasih, Dr

Advertising
Any paid form of nonpersonal presentation of
ideas, images, goods, or services

The most visible element of the promotional mix


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Actual cost of advertisement is quite


high.
Since many people receive the
message, the per contact cost is
very low.

The New Barchetta

Sri Murtiasih, Dr

Diamonds from
Desmonds
Jewelers are a girls
best friend.

Say No to Drugs.

Services
Ideas
Images
Goods
At Techco,
were friendly
to our
customers and
the
environment.
The Vet for Your Pet
Sri Murtiasih, Dr

Advertising
Messages can be delivered by:

Sri Murtiasih, Dr

Television
Radio
Newspapers
Magazines
Direct mail
Outdoor advertisements
Directories
The Internet

Personal Selling
Determines client needs/wants and responds
through planned, personalized communication
that influences purchase decisions and enhances
future business opportunities
You might want
to consider leasing
Are you planning
computers. You can
on replacing all
get free service
of your computers
and upgrade to a
at once?
newer model whenever
you want!

My budget wont
allow me to replace
them all at once,
but I want them to
be compatible.

Sri Murtiasih, Dr

SellingDisadvantage
Advantages
Selling

I like the sound


of this stereo,
but I think its a
little large for
my dorm room.

We do carry a
bookshelf model
with similar
sound quality.

On a per contact basis,


selling is the most expensive
form of promotion.
Immediate feedback
Flexibility
Sri Murtiasih, Dr

Publicity
Any nonpersonal presentation of ideas, goods,
or services that is not paid for by the company or
individual which benefits from or is harmed by it

Many consumers pay close attention to


publicity.
Feel publicity has more credibility because it is not a commercial
message
View publicity as news

Example: Mention of a companys charitable activities in print or


broadcast media
Sri Murtiasih, Dr

Ways the Internet Can Be


Used as a Source of Publicity

Tae-Bo has really changed my life. Ive lost weight,


toned-up, and feel better than ever.
-Susie Wells, CA

A company web site can be used to obtain and display positive


feedback.
Sri Murtiasih, Dr

Ways the Internet Can Be


Used as a Source of Publicity
OnlineNews.com
Car shopping on the web
Buying a car on the web just got
easier! Autobytel.com will help you
get the financing, pick out the
model, color and extras. Then they
provide a quote from a local dealer.
All at the touch of a keypad.

A businesss goods, services, or web site might be mentioned in an Internet


newsgroup.
Sri Murtiasih, Dr

Ways the Internet Can Be


Used as a Source of Publicity

LINK TO ACME.COM

A company might agree to provide a link to another businesss web site in


exchange for the same consideration.

Sri Murtiasih, Dr

Sales Promotion
Promotional activities other than advertising,
personal selling, and publicity which stimulate
purchases
Sales promotion activities include:

Visual
Product
merchandising
Free
Novelty
Fashion
Instant
Trade
Contests
Coupons
demonstrations
Exhibits
samples
rebates
items
shows
shows
or displays
Sri Murtiasih, Dr

Plays a key role in


obtaining and keeping
customers

Importance
of the
Promotion
al Mix

Enables businesses to
communicate effectively
with customers
Informs consumers about
goods/services and
persuades them to buy

Sri Murtiasih, Dr

Marketers Try To Create the


Ideal Blend of Promotional
Activities for Their Businesses.
Publicity
Personal
selling

Sales promotion

Advertising No magic formula that


marketers use to help design
promotional mix

Must decide which methods will


best reach potential customers and
communicate desired message

Hard to determine effectiveness of the


different promotional methods
Sri Murtiasih, Dr

Factors Affecting the Selection


of a Promotional Mix
Must be carefully analyzed
before marketers decide when
and where to invest
promotional funds

Good,
Distribution
Products
service, image,
Products
company
channels
or idea

target market

Sri Murtiasih, Dr

Good, Service, Image, or Idea


Type of product

Convenience goods

Shopping goods

Specialty goods
Sri Murtiasih, Dr

Good, Service, Image, or Idea


!
E
L
SA
Inexpensive and selfservice products can rely
on advertising and sales
promotion.

10% OFF on all


Products which are highsmall appliances
tech, require
demonstration, are
expensive, or require
installation should be
promoted through personal
selling.

HARRYS
HARDWAR
E
This computer is

perfect for you. It


has all the software
pre-installed and a
left-handed mouse!

Product nature

Good, Service, Image, or Idea


When you are on-the-go

New and
Improved!

its Breakfast-To-Go

Each pocket provides


you a delicious
breakfast in just
Maturity
two minutes!

Growth
Introductory

Declining

Stage of life cycle

Products Target Market


Number
Geographical
Type ofofConsumer
Consumers
Location

Consumer
Close
Few
Together
Market
Consumers

vs.
Advertising

Spread
Industrial
Many
Over
a
Consumers
Market
Wide Area

Sales Promotion
Publicity
Personal Selling
Sri Murtiasih, Dr

Distribution Channel
INTERMEDIARY BLVD.

The promotional
mix selection is
affected by the
path that a
product takes.

DIRECT AVE.

Requires
personal
selling
Requires
personal
selling and advertising

Products Company
Businesses often rely on previous
use of promotional methods.

Less flower. More power.

Think small.

1960

1970

1980

1990

Historical Perspective

2000

Products Company
Example:
Today, the Wal-Mart corporation has
Wal-Mart started as one small store in
increased its promotional mix to include Arkansas. In Wal-Marts early years, local
television, radio, newspapers, special newspaper advertising and personal
sales bulletins, and a Wal-Mart web site selling
in
were all that the small company
order to promote its national network. could afford.

Available Funds
Sri Murtiasih, Dr

Products Company
Competition

Tonys Pizza
Kids eat
free!

Anges Pizza
Free kids
meals!

Competing businesses use similar promotional


mixes and tend to follow the leader.
Sri Murtiasih, Dr

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UG COLORING THE GLOBAL FUTURE


www.themegallery.com