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A

B1
C D
B3
B2
K
B6
B12 E

STRUKTUR, FUNGSI DAN MEKANISMENYA

VITAMIN
 Merupakan senyawa organik
 Merupakan komponen dari bahan pakan
 Terdapat dalam jumlah kecil
 Esensial untuk pertumbuhan normal suatu
jaringan, kesehatan, pertumbuhan dan
pemeliharaan
 Jika kekurangan menyebabkan gejala-gejala
spesifik
 Beberapa pada ternak tertentu disintesa oleh
tubuh (sebagian besar tidak disintesa dalam
tubuh)
lanjutan

 Digolongkan berdasarkan kesamaan fungsi


umum dalam metabolisme
 Umumnya terdapat di alam, dapat juga
disintesa
 Mempunyai ketahanan yang berbeda
terhadap cahaya, oksigen, asam, basa dan
panas
Ketahanan vitamin terhadap berbagai
pengaruh
Pengaruh Vitamin yang Vitamin yang
peka stabil
Cahaya Vit. A, Karoten, Choline, as.
Vit.B1, B2, B6, Vit. Pantotenat
C, Vit. D, dan Vit E
Oksigen Vit. A, Karoten, Gol. Vit.
Biotin, Vit.C dan Bkomplek,
Vit. K as.nicotinat, Vit.D
dan Vit. E
Basa Vit.B1, B2,as. Vit. A, Karoten,
Pantotenat, Vit.B6, Choline,
Vit.C,Vit. E dan Biotin, Vit.D
Vit.K
Ketahanan vitamin terhadap berbagai
pengaruh (lanjutan)
Pengaruh Vitamin yang Vitamin yang
peka stabil
Asam Vit.A, Karoten, Vit. B1,B2,B12,
Vit.B2, Biotin, Vit.C, Vit.E,
as.pantotenant, dan Vit. K
Vit.D
Panas Vit.A, Vit. B1,B2, Karoten, Choline,
Vit. C dan Vit. D Biotin, Vit. E dan K
KLASIFIKASI VITAMIN
 Vitamin larut dalam lemak : A, D, E, K
 Vitamin larut dalam air:
B1 = tiamin
B2 = riboflavin
Asam pantotenat
Niasin = Niacinamide
Biotin
Folacin
B6 = Pyridoxine, Pyridoxal, Pyridoxamin
B12=Cyanocobalamin, Hydoxocobalamin,
Aquocobalamin
Choline
Vitamin C = Ascorbic acid, L-ascorbic acid
Perbedaan Vitamin larut dalam lemak
dan vitamin larut dalam air
Vitamin larut Vitamin larut
dalam lemak dalam air
Komposisi kimia C,H,O C,H,O + N,S,Co

Terjadinya Jaringan Pada tanaman,


tanaman, ada tidak ada bentuk
bentuk provitamin
provitamin
Peran fisiologis Kontrol metabolis Transfer energi
Absorbsi lemak air
Perbedaan Vitamin larut dalam lemak
dan vitamin larut dalam air
Vitamin larut Vitamin larut
dalam lemak dalam air
Penyimpanan Dideposit dalam Di seluruh sel
lemak hidup
Ekskresi Melalui feses Terutama melalui
urine.
Kadang-kadang
ada dalam feses
karena ada
sintesis oleh
mikroba.
Perbedaan Vitamin larut dalam lemak
dan vitamin larut dalam air
Vitamin larut Vitamin larut
dalam lemak dalam air
Sifat Aktivitas A,D,K= Individual Broad spectrum
E=Broad spectrum
Kelainan Hypovitaminosis Hypovitaminosis
Hypervitaminosis
VITAMIN ALAMI

 Dalam bahan pakan jumlahnya sangat bervariasi dan


tidak ada satu bahan pakan yang mengandung
jumlah optimal untuk hewan.
 Semua vitamin dibuat di tanaman dan diperoleh
hewan apabila mengkonsumsi tanaman
 Hewan mengandung mikroorganisme yang sanggup
mensintesis vitamin larut dalam air, provitamin A dan
menaquinone (Vitamin K2)
 Vitamin B12 hanya bisa disintesis oleh mikro-
organisme tertentu tidak bisa oleh tanaman
ataupun hewan
KESTABILAN VITAMIN

Kestabilan vitamin dipengaruhi juga oleh


adanya antivitamin seperti :
# Avidin yang ada pada putih telur akan
mengikat biotin
# Thiaminase pada ikan menghambat
tiamin
# l-amino-D-prolin pada flaxseed
membentuk komplek stabil dengan
pyridoxine
GENERAL VITAMIN STABILITY

VITAMIN STABILITY CHARACTERISTIC

A Oxidasi khususnya dengan Fe,Cu

D3 Oxidasi (kestabilan sedang)


E Stabil dalam bentuk acetat, sangat

tidak stabil dalam bentuk alcohol


K Sangat tidak stabil
Tiamin Sensitif terhadap oxidasi dan pH
GENERAL VITAMIN STABILITY
VITAMIN STABILITY CHARACTERISTIC

Pyridoksin, Kestabilan sedang

riboflavin
Pantotenat Sensitif hidrolisis

Niasin Hampirstabil
B12 Kestabilan tinggi, beberapa hilang bila
kedaluwarsa
Biotin Hampir stabil
Asamfolat Kestabilan sedang, sensitif oxidasi dan
reduksi

Vitamin C Sangat tidak stabil dalam bentuk alami


VITAMIN LARUT DALAM LEMAK
Vitamin A (Retinol)
R=CH2OH Retinol
R=CH2OH Retinal

R=CH2OH Asam Retinoat


Vitamin A (Retinol)

CH3 CH3
H3C CH3
OH

CH3

Retinol
b - Carotene and Retinol
CH 3
CH 3 CH 3 CH 3
H3 C

CH 3
CH 3 CH 3 CH 3
CH 3

Oxidation

CH 3 CH 3 O
H3 C CH 3
C H

CH 3 Retainal

- 2H

CH 3 CH 3
H3 C CH 3
CH 2 OH

CH 3 Retinol (Vitamin A)
Fungsi Vitamin A
1.Rangsangan cahaya dari mata ke otak
2.Berperan dalam sel epitel
3.Mengontrol aktivitas tulang
The vision cycle
Opsin balok : rodopsin
Opsin kerucut : iodopsin
Defisiensi Vitamin A
1.Buta malam
2.Seroptalamia (pengeringan & iritasi
kornea, keruh dan mudah terinfeksi)
3.Terganggu sel
Vitamin D
D2=Ergokalsiferol
D3=Kholekalsiferol

Pro Vit D2 = ergosterol


Pro Vit D3 = 7 dehidrokholesterol
Fungsi Vitamin D
1. Proses absorpsi
2. Proses reabsorpsi
3. Deposisi
Defisiensi Vitamin D
1. Rakhitis
2. Osteomalasia
Vitamin E
Vit E bentuk jenuh
Alfatokoferol, Betatokoferol, Gamatokoferol,
Deltatokoferol
Vit E bentuk tidak jenuh
Alfatokotrienol, Betatokotrienol, Gamatokotrienol,
Deltatokotrienol
Fungsi Vitamin E
1. Reproduksi
2. Generasi

3. Hati dan Metabolisme


4. Memperbaiki absorpsi Fe
5. Antioksidan
Defisiensi Vitamin E

1. Kemunduran Reproduksi
2. Gangguan permeabilitas
3. Kerusakan otot
Vitamin K
K1 = Filoquinon
K2 = Menaquinon
K3 = Menadion
Fungsi Vitamin K
Koagulasi darah dengan mengaktifkan
prothrombin (sintesis prothrombin didalam
hati)
Thrombin Activation
vWF WOUND

collagen
endothelium
platelet
   
PL surface
Va 
Ca Ca
Xa  
Pro-Thrombin
Thrombin  
S Gla Gla
  Pro-
Gla Gla
SS
NH2
S COOH
proteolytic cut NH2
COOH C
i
r
c
ul
at
i
o
n

Fibrinogen + thrombin------------- Fibrin + Peptida


Defisiensi Vitamin K
1. Pembekuan darah terganggu
FUNGSI BIOKEMIS VITAMIN
Vitamin Fungsi Biokemis

A -Essensial u/ pembentukan rhodopsin (melihat dlm


gelap), pada reproduksi tikus,u/memelihara plasenta
½ periode kebuntingan yang kedua, Sintesa
mukopolisakarida dan proses pembentukan tulang
D -Mempengaruhi metabolisme Ca dan P
(memperbaiki ossifikasi dan deposisi dalam kartilago
dan kulit telur) serta menaikkan aktivitas enzim
phytase pd usus tikus

E antioksidan,berperan pada pernafasan


jaringan,fosforilsasi dari kreatin fosfat, sintesa
as.askorbat dan metabolisme a.a yg mgd belerang
K Proses pembekuan darah (sintesa prothrombin &
bbrp protein plasma), pembentukan RNA
VITAMIN LARUT DALAM
AIR
Glycogenolysis
Glc
PP a Glycolysis
Glycogen vit B6
PPP
G1P G6P
R5P TK
G3P vit B1
ALT
vit B6
Ala Pyr
PDH
vit B1,B2,B3
Acetyl-CoA
AST
Asp vit B6
OA TCA vit B6
Glu
cycle aKG
aKGDH
SCoA vit B1,B2,B3
33
Vitamin B1

Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP)


 Thiamine - a thiazole ring joined to a
substituted pyrimidine by a methylene bridge
 Thiamine-PP is the active form
 TPP is involved in carbohydrate metabolism
 It catalyzes decarboxylations of alpha-keto
acids and the formation and cleavage of alpha-
hydroxyketones
Thiamine Pyrophosphate
Reactions and rationale
 Yeast pyruvate decarboxylase, acetolactate synthase,
transketolase, phosphoketolase
 All these reactions depend on accumulation of
negative charge on the carbonyl carbon at which
cleavage occurs!
 Thiamine pyrophosphate facilitates these reactions
by stabilizing this negative charge
 The key is the quaternary nitrogen of the thiazolium
group
Riboflavin and the Flavins

Vitamin B2
 All these substances contain ribitol and a flavin or
isoalloxazine ring
 Active forms are flavin mononucleotide (FMN)
and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)
 FMN is not a true nucleotide
 FAD is not a dinucleotide
 But the names are traditional and they persist!
Flavin Mechanisms

Flavins are one- or two-electron transfer agents


 Name "flavin" comes from Latin flavius for
"yellow"
 The oxidized form is yellow, semiquinones are
blue or red and the reduced form is colorless
 Study the electron and proton transfers in Figure
18.22
 Other transfers are possible!
Coenzyme A
Pantothenic acid (vitamin B3) is a component of
Coenzyme A
 Functions:
 Activation of acyl groups for transfer by
nucleophilic attack
 activation of the alpha-hydrogen of the acyl group
for abstraction as a proton
 Both these functions are mediated by the
reactive -SH group on CoA, which forms
thioesters
Nicotinic Acid and the
Nicotinamide Coenzymes
aka pyridine nucleotides
 These coenzymes are two-electron carriers
 They transfer hydride anion (H-) to and from
substrates
 Two important coenzymes in this class:
 Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)
 Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
(NADP+)
Nicotinamide Coenzymes
Structural and mechanistic features
 The quaternary nitrogen of the nicotinamide
ring acts as an electron sink to facilitate
hydride transfer
 The site (on the nicotinamide ring) of hydride
transfer is a pro-chiral center!
 Hydride transfer is always stereospecific!
 Be sure you understand the pro-R, pro-S
designations
Last Notes on Nicotinamides

 Nicotinamide was first isolated in 1937 by


Elvehjem at the University of Wisconsin
 Note similarities between structures of
nicotinic acid, nicotinamide and nicotine
 To avoid confusion of names (and functions!),
the name niacin (for nicotinic acid vitamin) was
suggested by Cowgill at Yale.
Biotin

"Chemistry on a tether"
 Biotin functions as a mobile carboxyl group
carrier
 Bound covalently to a lysine
 The biotin-lysine conjugate is called biocytin
 The biotin ring system is thus tethered to the
protein by a long, flexible chain
Biotin Carboxylations
Most use bicarbonate and ATP
 Whenever you see a carboxylation that requires
ATP and CO2 or HCO3-, think biotin!
 Activation by ATP involves formation of carbonyl
phosphate (aka carboxyl phosphate)
 Carboxyl group is transferred to biotin to form N-
carboxy-biotin
 The "tether" allows the carboxyl group to be
shuttled from the carboxylase subunit to the
transcarboxylase subunit of ACC-carboxylase
Folic Acid

Folates are donors of 1-C units for all oxidation


levels of carbon except that of CO2
 Active form is tetrahydrofolate (THF)
 THF is formed by two successive reductions of
folate by dihydrofolate reductase
 Know how to calculate oxidation states of C!
Vitamin B6
Pyridoxine and pyridoxal phosphate
 Catalyzes reactions involving amino acids
 Transaminations, decarboxylations, eliminations,
racemizations and aldol reactions
 See Figure 18.26
 This versatile chemistry is due to:
 formation of stable Schiff base adducts
 a conjugated electron sink system that stabilizes
reaction intermediates
Pyridoxal Phosphate
Mechanisms
 Figure 18.27 is a key figure - relate each
intermediate to subsequent mechanisms
 Appreciate the fundamental difference
between intermediates 2-5 and 6,7
Vitamin B12
Cyanocobalamin

 B12 is converted into two coenzymes in the


body:
 5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin
 methylcobalamin
Vitamin B12
Cyanocobalamin

 Dorothy Hodgkin determined the crystal


structure of B12 in 1961 - at the time it was the
most complicated structure ever elucidated
by X-ray diffraction and she won a Nobel
prize
 Most striking feature - the C-Co bond length
of 0.205 nm (2.05 A) - an essentially covalent
bond
B12 Function & Mechanism

See Figures 18.28-18.29


 B12 catalyzes 3 kinds of reactions:
 Intramolecular rearrangements
 Reductions of ribonucleotides to
deoxyribonucleotides
 Methyl group transfers (assisted by
tetrahydrofolate )
FUNGSI BIOKEMIS VITAMIN
Vitamin Fungsi Biokemis
B1 (Tiamin) -Koenzim pd proses dekarboksilasi ketoacid (Co : as.
Piruvat)
B2 (Riboflavin) -Dlm bntk flavin mononucleatid (FMN) dan flavin
adenin dincleatid (FAD) bertindak sbg gugus
prostetik dari bbrp enzim dlm r. oksidasi-reduksi dlm
tubuh
B6 (Pyridoxine) Koenzim proses dekarboksilasi,deaminasi dari
serine dan threonine, transaminasi, transulfrasi, &
transfer a.a. dalam sel
Nicotinaminde -komponen koenzim NAD dan NADP dalam
(Niasin) transport hidrogen
FUNGSI BIOKEMIS VITAMIN
Vitamin Fungsi Biokemis
As. Panthotenat -Merupakan gugus prostetik koenzim A yg mpy
fungsi dlm r. acetilasi pada KH, lemak dan
metabolisme a.a.
Vit. B12 -Koenzimsintesa as. Nukleat (RNA), pembentukan
gugus methyl pada thyamine
Choline Pembentukan dan pemeliharaan sel-sel tubuh, sbg
methyldonator
Vit. C Pembentukan kolagen,dibutuhkan dlm perb. As.folat
mjd tetra hydrofolic acid, proses hydroxylasi
prolin,lysine & anilin / fungsi normal fisiologis.
GEJALA DEFISIENSI VITAMIN
VITAMIN GEJALA DEFISIENSI

A Keratinisasi
Xeropthalmia
D Ricket
Osteomalacia
E Muscular distropy
Exudativediathesis
Encephalomalcia
K Terhambatnyaproses pembekuan
darah
GEJALA DEFISIENSI VITAMIN
VITAMIN GEJALA DEFISIENSI

Tiamin (B1) Anorexsia, polineuritis, nafsu mkn turun

Riboflavin Curled toe paralysis, nafsu mkn turun,diare

As.pantotenat Pertumbuhan badan & bulu terhenti, Dermatitis


(pelupuk mata,sudut mulut,kaki),goose step(babi)

Niasin Pellagra (dermatitis, diare, dementia), anemia


nafsu mkn turun,pertumbuhan terganggu

Pyridoksin Convulsi (kekejangan), anemia, nafsu mkn turun

Biotin Perosis, dermatitis

Asam folat Anemia, pertumbuhan terhambat, bulu jelek,


depigmentasi, perosis

Kholin Hati berlemak, perosis (babi),gangguan pertumbuhan


& pembtk kuning telur
Cobalamin Pertumbuhan yg tidak baik,Anemia, kegagalan fungsi
reproduksi
KERACUNAN VITAMIN
Vitamin Safe Upper Feed Safe Upper
Level(unit/kg Level+ Normal

pakan) Level
A 80.000 IU/kg 10
D3 10.000 IU/kg >60 d 3-4

50.000 IU/kg < 20 d 20-30

E 1000 IU/kg 20-30


K 2000 mg/kg 1000