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LEMBAR PENGESAHAN

LAPORAN PRAKTIKUM BATUBARA

Disusun untuk memenuhi salah satu syarat kelulusan mata kuliah Batubara Program
Studi Teknik Pertambangan Fakultas Teknik Universitas Lambung Mangkurat
Banjarbaru

Disusun Oleh :
Nama

Ahmad Zaidan

NIM

H1C111013

Kelompok

I (Satu)

Disetujui di Banjarbaru,

Januari 2014

Pembimbing

Uyu Saismana, MT
Didiet Try Setiadi, ST

Program Studi Teknik Pertambangan


Ketua

Riswan, MT
NIP. 19620922 198603 1 001

Telah dinyatakan menyelesaikan Praktikum Batubara pada tanggal 7 Desember


2013.
Asisten Praktikum Batubara :
a. Asisten I

Supriadi
(H1C109030)
b. Asisten II

Ema Tri Wahana


(H1C109021)

c. Asisten III

Antony O.H. Pandiangan


(H1C110008)

d. Asisten IV

Rafan Hidayatullah
(H1C110032)

e. Asisten V

Paulina Natalia
(H1C110070)

f. Asisten VI

Alleluia Victoria Aljonak Sitanggang


(H1C110072)

KATA PENGANTAR

Puji syukur kehadirat Tuhan Yang Maha Esa, karena berkat rahmat-Nya
sehingga laporan ini dapat diselesaikan. Penyusunan laporan ini merupakan salah satu
syarat kelulusan praktikum Batubara pada Program Studi Teknik Pertambangan
Fakultas Teknik Universitas Lambung Mangkurat.
Dalam kesempatan ini tidak lupa praktikan mengucapkan terima kasih kepada :
1. Bapak Dr. Ing. Yulian Firmana Arifin, ST, MT Dekan Fakultas Teknik Universitas
Lambung Mangkurat Banjarbaru.
2.

Bapak Riswan, MT, Ketua Jurusan Program Studi Teknik Pertambangan dan
Kepala Laboratorium Teknologi Mineral Fakultas Teknik Universitas Lambung
Mangkurat Banjarbaru.

3.

Bapak Agus Triantoro, MT, Dosen pengajar mata kuliah Batubara Fakultas Teknik
Universitas Lambung Mangkurat Banjarbaru.

4.

Ibu Annisa, ST, Dosen pengajar mata kuliah Batubara Fakultas Teknik Universitas
Lambung Mangkurat Banjarbaru.

5.

Bapak Didiet Try Setiadi, ST, Pembimbing Laporan Praktikum Batubara Fakultas
Teknik Universitas Lambung Mangkurat Banjarbaru.

6.

Para asisten pembimbing praktikum Batubara Fakultas Teknik Universitas


Lambung Mangkurat Banjarbaru.

7.

Rekan-rekan yang turut membantu dalam penyusunan laporan ini.


Praktikan menyadari bahwa dalam penyusunan laporan ini masih banyak

kekeliruan karena terbatasnya pengetahuan yang dimiliki dan yang dikuasai praktikan,
namun dengan bimbingan asisten dan bantuan dari berbagai pihak maka laporan ini
tersusun dan terselesaikan dengan baik.
Praktikan sangat mengharapkan kritik dan saran yang sifatnya membangun demi
kesempurnaan penyusunan laporan ini. Dan akhir kata, semoga laporan ini dapat
bermanfaat dan berguna bagi kita semua. Amin.
Banjarbaru, Desember 2013
Praktikan

DAFTAR ISI

Halaman
COVER

LEMBAR PENGESAHAN

ii

KATA PENGANTAR

DAFTAR ISI

vi

DAFTAR GAMBAR

DAFTAR TABEL

xiii

DAFTAR RUMUS

xiv

DAFTAR LAMPIRAN

xv

DAFTAR KELOMPOK

xvi

BAB I

PENDAHULUAN
1.1.

Sejarah dan Pembentukan Batubara ....................................

1-1

1.1.1. Proses Pembentukan Batubara..................................

1-2

1.1.2. Tempat Terbentuknya Batubara ............................... 1-2


1.1.3. Proses-Proses yang Mempengaruhi Pembentukan
Batubara .................................................................

1-3

1.2. Klasifikasi Batubara.............................................................

1-5

1.2.1. Menurut ASTM ........................................................

1-8

1.2.2. Menurut ISO ............................................................

1-9

1.3. Parameter Kualitas Batubara ...............................................

1-9

1.4. Pemanfaatan dan Pengolahan Batubara ............................... 1-13


1.4.1. Pengolahan Batubara ............................................... 1-13
1.4.2. Pemanfaatan Batubara ............................................. 1-15
BAB II

PREPARASI
2.1. Tujuan ..................................................................................

2-1

2.2. Dasar Teori ..........................................................................

2-1

2.3. Alat dan Bahan ....................................................................

2-9

2.3.1. Alat .......................................................................... 2-9


2.3.2. Bahan ....................................................................... 2-13
2.4. Prosedur Percobaan ............................................................. 2-14
2.4.1. Preparasi Untuk Analisa Briket ............................... 2-14
2.4.2. Preparasi Untuk Analisa Total Moisture ............... 2-15
2.5. Data Hasil Pengamatan ........................................................ 2-16
BAB III BRIKET BATUBARA NON-KARBONISASI
3.1. Tujuan ..................................................................................

3-1

3.2. Dasar Teori ..........................................................................

3-1

3.3. Alat dan Bahan ....................................................................

3-9

3.3.1. Alat ..........................................................................

3-9

3.3.2. Bahan ....................................................................... 3-13


3.4. Prosedur Percobaan ............................................................. 3-14
3.5. Data Hasil Pengamatan ........................................................ 3-15
3.6. Pengolahan Data .................................................................. 3-17
3.7. Pembahasan ......................................................................... 3-21
BAB IV

UJI

PEMBAKARAN

BRIKET

BATUBARA

NON-

KARBONISASI
4.1. Tujuan ..................................................................................

4-1

4.2. Dasar Teori ..........................................................................

4-1

4.3. Alat dan Bahan .................................................................... 4-10


4.3.1. Alat .......................................................................... 4-10
4.3.2. Bahan ....................................................................... 4-12
4.4. Prosedur Percobaan ............................................................. 4-13
4.5. Data Hasil Pengamatan ........................................................ 4-14
4.6. Pengolahan Data .................................................................. 4-17
4.7. Pembahasan ......................................................................... 4-23
BAB V

BRIKET BATUBARA KARBONISASI


5.1. Tujuan ..................................................................................

5-1

5.2. Dasar Teori ..........................................................................

5-1

5.3. Alat dan Bahan .................................................................... 5-10

5.3.1. Alat .......................................................................... 5-10


5.3.2. Bahan ....................................................................... 5-14
5.4. Prosedur Percobaan ............................................................. 5-15
5.5. Data Hasil Pengamatan ........................................................ 5-17
5.6. Pengolahan Data .................................................................. 5-19
5.7. Pembahasan ......................................................................... 5-23
BAB VI

UJI PEMBAKARAN BRIKET BATUBARA KARBONISASI


6.1. Tujuan ..................................................................................

6-1

6.2. Dasar Teori ..........................................................................

6-1

6.3. Alat dan Bahan ....................................................................

6-9

6.3.1. Alat ..........................................................................

6-9

6.3.2. Bahan ....................................................................... 6-11


6.4. Prosedur Percobaan ............................................................. 6-12
6.5. Data Hasil Pengamatan ........................................................ 6-13
6.6. Pengolahan Data .................................................................. 6-16
6.7. Pembahasan ......................................................................... 6-22
BAB VII MIXING
7.1. Tujuan ..................................................................................

7-1

7.2. Dasar Teori ..........................................................................

7-1

7.3. Alat dan Bahan ....................................................................

7-8

7.3.1. Alat ...........................................................................

7-8

7.3.2. Bahan ....................................................................... 7-10


7.4. Prosedur Percobaan ............................................................. 7-11
7.4.1. Mixing Batubara Non-Karbonisasi ........................... 7-11
7.4.2. Mixing Batubara Karbonisasi ................................... 7-12
7.5. Data Hasil Pengamatan ........................................................ 7-13
7.6. Pengolahan Data .................................................................. 7-14
7.7. Pembahasan ......................................................................... 7-16
BAB VIII PEMBUATAN BRIKET DAN UJI PEMBAKARAN BATUBARA
HASIL MIXING
8.1. Tujuan ..................................................................................

8-1

8.2. Dasar Teori ..........................................................................

8-1

8.3. Alat dan Bahan ....................................................................

8-7

8.3.1. Alat ...........................................................................

8-7

8.3.2. Bahan ....................................................................... 8-12


8.4. Prosedur Percobaan ............................................................. 8-13
8.4.1. Pembuatan Briket ..................................................... 8-13
8.4.2. Pembakaran Briket ................................................... 8-15
8.5. Data Hasil Pengamatan ........................................................ 8-19
8.5.1. Pembuatan Briket Batubara Hasil Mixing ............... 8-19
8.5.2. Uji Pembakaran Briket Batubara Hasil Mixing ....... 8-21
8.6. Pengolahan Data .................................................................. 8-23
8.6.1. Pembuatan Briket Batubara Hasil Mixing ............... 8-23
8.6.2. Uji Pembakaran Briket Batubara Hasil mixing ....... 8-26
8.7. Pembahasan ......................................................................... 8-29
BAB IX

ANALISA TOTAL MOISTURE


9.1. Tujuan ..................................................................................

9-1

9.2. Dasar Teori ..........................................................................

9-1

9.3. Alat dan Bahan .................................................................... 9-22


9.3.1. Alat .......................................................................... 9-22
9.3.2. Bahan ....................................................................... 9-26
9.4. Prosedur Percobaan ............................................................. 9-27
9.4.1. Prosedur Percobaan Menurut ASTM D-3022 ......... 9-27
9.4.2. Prosedur Percobaan Menurut ISO 11722 ............... 9-29
9.5. Data Hasil Pengamatan ........................................................ 9-31
9.6. Pengolahan Data .................................................................. 9-32
9.6.1. Pengolahan Data Menurut ASTM D-3302 .............. 9-32
9.6.2. Pengolahan Data Menurut ISO 11722 ..................... 9-34
9.7. Pembahasan ......................................................................... 9-37
BAB X

PENUTUP
10.1. Kesimpulan ..........................................................................

10-1

10.2. Saran ....................................................................................

10-7

DAFTAR PUSTAKA
LAMPIRAN

DAFTAR GAMBAR

Halaman
Gambar 2.1. Sketsa Crusher...........................................................................

2-9

Gambar 2.2. Sketsa Sendok ............................................................................

2-9

Gambar 2.3. Sketsa Sieve ...............................................................................

2-10

Gambar 2.4. Sketsa Timbangan......................................................................

2-10

Gambar 2.5. Sketsa Palu .................................................................................

2-11

Gambar 2.6. Sketsa Kuas................................................................................

2-11

Gambar 2.7. Sketsa Toples .............................................................................

2-12

Gambar 2.8. Sketsa Peralatan Safety .............................................................

2-12

Gambar 2.9. Sketsa Penggaris ........................................................................

2-13

Gambar 2.10. Flowchart Preparasi Analisa Briket ..........................................

2-14

Gambar 2.11. Flowchart Preparasi Sampel Analisa Total Moisture ...............

2-15

Gambar 3.1. Sketsa Crusher...........................................................................

3-9

Gambar 3.2. Sketsa Sendok ............................................................................

3-9

Gambar 3.3. Sketsa Sieve ...............................................................................

3-10

Gambar 3.4. Sketsa Timbangan......................................................................

3-10

Gambar 3.5. Sketsa Palu .................................................................................

3-11

Gambar 3.6. Sketsa Safety Tools ....................................................................

3-11

Gambar 3.7. Sketsa Cetakan Briket ................................................................

3-12

Gambar 3.8. Sketsa Ember .............................................................................

3-12

Gambar 3.9. Flowchart Pembuatan Briket Batubara Non-Karbonisasi .........

3-14

Gambar 4.1. Sketsa Kompor Briket ...............................................................

4-10

Gambar 4.2. Sketsa Korek Api .......................................................................

4-10

Gambar 4.3. Sketsa Ember .............................................................................

4-11

Gambar 4.4. Sketsa Stopwatch .......................................................................

4-11

Gambar 4.5. Sketsa Safety Tools ....................................................................

4-12

Gambar 4.6. Flowchart Uji Pembakaran Briket Batubara Non-Karbonisasi .

4-13

Gambar 5.1. Sketsa Crusher...........................................................................

5-10

Gambar 5.2. Sketsa Cetakan Briket ................................................................

5-10

Gambar 5.3. Sketsa Tungku Karbonisasi .......................................................

5-11

Gambar 5.4. Sketsa Toples .............................................................................

5-11

Gambar 5.5. Sketsa Timbangan......................................................................

5-12

Gambar 5.6. Sketsa Palu .................................................................................

5-12

Gambar 5.7. Sketsa Sendok ............................................................................

5-13

Gambar 5.8. Sketsa Ember ............................................................................

5-13

Gambar 5.9. Sketsa Safety Tools ....................................................................

5-14

Gambar 5.10. Flowchart Pembuatan Briket Batubara Karbonisasi .................

5-15

Gambar 6.1. Sketsa Kompor Briket ...............................................................

6-9

Gambar 6.2. Sketsa Korek Api .......................................................................

6-9

Gambar 6.3. Sketsa Ember .............................................................................

6-10

Gambar 6.4. Sketsa Stopwatch .......................................................................

6-10

Gambar 6.5. Sketsa Safety Tools ....................................................................

6-11

Gambar 6.6. Flowchart Uji Pembakaran Briket Batubara Karbonisasi .........

6-12

Gambar 7.1. Sketsa Crusher...........................................................................

7-8

Gambar 7.2. Sketsa Alat Mixing.....................................................................

7-8

Gambar 7.3. Sketsa Timbangan dan Neraca Analitik ....................................

7-9

Gambar 7.4. Sketsa Ember .............................................................................

7-9

Gambar 7.5. Sketsa Safety Tools ....................................................................

7-10

Gambar 7.6. Flowchart Mixing Batubara Non-Karbonisasi ...........................

7-11

Gambar 7.7. Flowchart Mixing Batubara Karbonisasi ...................................

7-12

Gambar 8.1. Sketsa Crusher...........................................................................

8-7

Gambar 8.2. Sketsa Cetakan Briket ................................................................

8-7

Gambar 8.3. Sketsa Tungku Karbonisasi .......................................................

8-8

Gambar 8.4. Sketsa Sketsa Timbangan dan Neraca Analitik .........................

8-8

Gambar 8.5. Sketsa Sendok ............................................................................

8-9

Gambar 8.6. Sketsa Ember .............................................................................

8-9

Gambar 8.7. Sketsa Kompor Briket ...............................................................

8-10

Gambar 8.8. Sketsa Korek Api .......................................................................

8-10

Gambar 8.9. Sketsa Stopwatch .......................................................................

8-11

Gambar 8.10. Sketsa Safety Tools ...................................................................

8-11

Gambar 8.11. Flowchart Pembuatan Briket Batubara Non-Karbonisasi .........

8-13

Gambar 8.12. Flowchart Pembuatan Briket Batubara Karbonisasi .................

8-14

Gambar 8.13. Flowchart Uji Pembakaran Briket Batubara Non-Karbonisasi .

8-15

Gambar 8.14. Flowchart Uji Pembakaran Briket Batubara Karbonisasi .........

8-17

Gambar 9.1. Sketsa Oven ...............................................................................

9-22

Gambar 9.2. Sketsa Cawan Porselen ..............................................................

9-22

Gambar 9.3. Sketsa Neraca Analitik ..............................................................

9-23

Gambar 9.4. Sketsa Sendok ............................................................................

9-23

Gambar 9.5. Sketsa Kuas................................................................................

9-24

Gambar 9.6. Sketsa Termometer ....................................................................

9-24

Gambar 9.7. Sketsa Penjepit ...........................................................................

9-25

Gambar 9.8. Sketsa Stopwatch .......................................................................

9-25

Gambar 9.9. Sketsa Desikator ........................................................................

9-26

Gambar 9.10. Sketsa Safety Tools ....................................................................

9-26

Gambar 9.11. Flowchart Analisa Total Moisture ASTM D-3302 ...................

9-27

Gambar 9.12. Flowchart Analisa Total Moisture ISO 11722 ..........................

9-29

DAFTAR TABEL

Halaman
Tabel 2.1. Data Hasil Pengamatan Preparasi Batubara ..................................

2-16

Tabel 3.1. Data Hasil PengamatanPembuatan Briket Batubara NonKarbonisasi ....................................................................................

3-15

Tabel 4.1. Data Hasil Pengamatan Uji Pembakaran Briket Batubara NonKarbonisasi .....................................................................................

4-14

Tabel 5.1. Data Hasil Pengamatan Pembuatan Briket Batubara


Karbonisasi ....................................................................................

5-17

Tabel 6.1. Data Hasil PengamatanUji Pembakaran Briket Batubara


Karbonisasi ....................................................................................

6-13

Tabel 7.1. Data Hasil Pengamatan Mixing Batubara ......................................

7-13

Tabel 8.1. Data Hasil Pengamatan Pembuatan Briket Non-Karbonisasi........

8-19

Tabel 8.2. Data Hasil Pengamatan Pembuatan Briket Karbonisasi................

8-20

Tabel 8.3. Data Hasil Uji Pembakaran Briket Non-Karbonisasi ....................

8-21

Tabel 8.4. Data Hasil Uji Pembakaran Briket Karbonisasi ............................

8-22

Tabel 9.1. Daftar Parameter-Parameter Kualitas Batubara Umum ................

9-8

Tabel 9.2. Komponen-Komponen Batubara yang Ada Dalam Suatu Hasil


Analisis dengan Dasar Pelaporan yang berbeda ...........................

9-13

Tabel 9.3. Data Hasil Pengamatan Dengan Metode ASTM D-3302 .............

9-31

Tabel 9.4. Data Hasil Pengamatan Dengan Metode ISO 11722 ....................

9-31

Tabel 9.5. Hasil Pengolahan Data ..................................................................

9-36

DAFTAR RUMUS

Halaman
Rumus 7.1. Perhitungan Kualitas Campuran Batubara ..................................

7-6

Rumus 7.2. Perhitungan Berat Tumpukan Campuran Batubara ....................

7-6

Rumus 9.1. Perhitungan Kadar Lengas Bebas ...............................................

9-17

Rumus 9.2. Perhitungan Kadar Lengas Tertambat ........................................

9-17

Rumus 9.3. Perhitungan Kadar Lengas Total ................................................

9-18

Rumus 9.4. Perhitungan Fixed Carbon ..........................................................

9-21

DAFTAR LAMPIRAN

Lampiran 1. Kartu Kontrol


Lampiran 2. Cover Laporan Sementara Praktikum Batubara
Lampiran 3. Penutup Setiap Bab
Lampiran 4. Daftar Pustaka Setiap Bab
Lampiran 5. Daftar Istilah
Lampiran 6. Nilai-Nilai Pre-test

DAFTAR KELOMPOK I

NAMA

NIM

Ahmad Zaidan

H1C111013

Teguh Hermanto

H1C111010

Wira Rizkillah Pradana

H1C111058

Heru Cahyanto

H1C111201

Muhammad Azmi Rahman

H1C111212

Frans S. Lebangan

H1C111227