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BIOLOGI SEL:
PENDAHULUAN
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Sejarah perkembangan
Robert Hooke : sel mati : sel dari
gabus
Anton van Leeuwenhoek : sel
hidup
Matthias Schleiden : sel pada
tumbuhan
Theodor Schwann (1839): Teori
sel
Semua organisma terdiri dari satu
atau lebih sel
Sel : unit struktural hidup
Schleiden & Schwann : sel dapat
berasal dari materi-materi
nonselular
Rudolf Virchow (1855) : sel
berasal dari pembelahan sel yang
sudah ada sebelumnya
Penggunaan sel dalam penelitian
in vitro : HeLa (sel kanker
manusia) George Gey
(1951)
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Karakteristik sel
Sel sangat kompleks
Molekul-molekul
sederhana
kompleks organel
sel
misalnya
C, H, O, N, S, P
asam amino
protein misalnya
salah satu komponen
dalam mitokondria
yang merupakan
organel dari sel
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Karakteristik sel
Sel memiliki informasi genetik
Gen : blueprint untuk struktur sel, seluruh
aktivitas dan fungsi sel
Sel dapat ber-reproduksi
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Karakteristik sel
Sel memperoleh
dan menggunakan
energi
Sel melakukan
metabolisme sel
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Karakteristik sel
Terdapat suatu aktivitas mekanis dalam sel yang
dinamis
Misalnya perubahan bentuk sel akibat aksi dari
protein-protein dalam sitoplasma
Sel dapat memberi respons terhadap suatu stimulus
Reseptor hormon, reseptor faktor tumbuh, reseptor
matriks ekstraselular, atau reseptor lainnya (G)
Respons : misalnya metabolisme sel, proliferasi sel
atau gerakan sel
Istirahat teraktivasi retraksi
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Karakteristik sel
Sel mampu mengatur diri sendiri (self
regulation)
Misalnya pengaturan siklus sel
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Prokaryot -Eukaryot
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Persamaan
antara eukaryot dengan prokaryot:
konstruksi membran plasma sama
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Persamaan
antara eukaryot dengan prokaryot
informasi genetik dikode
oleh DNA, dengan kode
genetic yang identik
mekanisme transkripsi dan
translasi
Eukaryotes
Prokaryotes
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reaksi metabolisme
apparatus yang sama untuk konversi energi kimiawi
prokaryot membran plasma
eukaryot membran mitokondria
Persamaan antara eukaryot
dengan prokaryot:
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mekanisme fotosintesis yang sama (tumbuhan
sianobakteri)
mekanisme sintesa dan penyisipan protein membran
konstruksi proteosom yang sama (archaebacteria
dengan eukaryot)
Persamaan antara eukaryot
dengan prokaryot:
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Perbedaan antara organisme prokaryot dengan
eukaryot
Prokaryot Eukaryot
Organisme Bakteri,
cyanobakteri
Protista, jamur,
tumbuhan dan hewan
Ukuran sel Umumnya 1-10
m
Umumnya 5-100 m
Metabolisme Anaerobic atau
aerobik
Aerobik
Organel Sedikit Mitokondria, kloroplas,
retikulum endoplasma,
dll
Inti Tidak ada Ada
DNA DNA sirkular
dalam sitoplasma
DNA linier dan sangat
panjang, memiliki
daerah yang dikode
(ekson) dan tidak
dikode /intron (sangat
banyak); berada dalam
inti
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Perbedaan antara organisme prokaryot
dengan eukaryot
Prokaryot Eukaryot
RNA danprotein RNA danprotein disintesispada
ruangyang sama
RNA disintesisdandiprosesdi inti
Protein disintesisdi sitoplasma
Sitoplasma Tidakmengandungsitoskeleton,
tidakadaaliransitoplasmadalam
sel, tidakadaendositosisdan
eksositosis
Dalamsitoplasmaterdapat sitoskeleton
: filamen-filamenprotein, adaaliran
sitoplasmadalamsel, adaendositosis
daneksositosis
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Perbedaan antara organisme prokaryot dengan
eukaryot
Prokaryot Eukaryot
Pembelahansel Kromosomditarikdengancara
pelekatanpadamembranplasma
Kromosomditarikapparatus mitosis
(komponensitoskeleton)
Organisasi sel Umumnyauniselular Umumnyamultiselular, danterjadi
prosesdiferensiasi / spesialisasi sel
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Virus
membawa
informasi genetic
berupa rantai
tunggal atau ganda
RNA atau DNA
Materi genetiknya
mengkode :
Protein kapsul /
kapsid
aktif jika berada
pada sel hidup
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Bioenergetika
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Cell metabolism can
be compared to an
elaborate road map
of the thousands of
chemical reactions
that occur in the cell
It is an intricate
network of metabolic
pathways
The Chemistry of Life: A network
of metabolic pathways
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Catabolic pathways: They
release energy by breaking down
complex molecules to simpler
compounds
A major catabolic pathway found
in a cell is respiration which breaks
down sugar glucose and other
fuels into carbon dioxide and water
with release of energy
C
6
H
12
O
6
+ 6O
2
6CO
2
+ 6H
2
O +
Energy
Anabolic pathways: Build
complex molecules from simpler
ones by consuming energy
e.g. Photosynthesis in plants
6CO
2
+ 6H
2
O + Light energy
C
6
H
12
O
6
+ 6O
2
+ 6H
2
O
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Organisms Transform Energy:
Energy: The capacity to do work
Kinetic energy: The energy of motion possessed by
all moving objects e.g. water gushing through a dam
turns turbines
Potential energy: Energy that matter possesses
because of its location or structure
Bioenergetics The study of how organisms
manage their energy resources
to maintain its high level of activity, a cell must
acquire & expend energy
Water behind dams has
potential energy because
of altitude
Chemical energy stored in
molecules as a result of the
arrangement of the atoms in
these molecules
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Conversion of Energy from
one form to the other:
Thermodynamics -
study of the changes
in energy that
accompany events
in the Universe
Two laws of
Thermodynamics
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The First Law of
Thermodynamics
energy can be neither created nor destroyed (Law of Conservation
of Energy); total energy in Universe remains constant (regardless of
transduction process)
Energy can, however, be transduced - burning fuel, polysaccharide
breakdown, photosynthesis
Several organism communities are independent of photosynthesis
communities residing in hydrothermal vents on ocean floor; depends on
energy obtained by bacterial chemosynthesis
Some animals (fireflies, luminous fish) convert chemical energy back into
light
E = Q W, where Q = heat energy & W = work energy
Reactions that result in heat lost
to the environment are called
exothermic;
those that result in heat gained
from the environment are called
endothermic
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Couple of terms
System: Is used to denote the matter under
study and refer to the rest of the universe-
everything outside the systems the
surroundings
1. Closed system: e.g. a liquid in a thermos bottle is
isolated from its surroundings
2. Open system: Energy (&often matter) can be
transferred between the system and its
surroundings e.g. organisms
Entropy: A measure of disorder or
randomness
Free energy: Is the portion of a systems
energy that can perform work when
temperature is uniform through out the system
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The Second Law of
Thermodynamics
Every energy transfer or transformation
increases the entropy of the universe
(no machine is 100% efficient which
would be necessary)
Some energy is inevitably lost as machine
works (same is true of living organism)
car
chemical energy (gasoline) converted to
kinetic energy + the disorder of its
surroundings will increase in the form of heat
and small molecules that are the breakdown
products of gasoline
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Together the 1st & 2nd laws of thermodynamics show
that the energy of the universe is constant, but that
entropy continues to increase toward a maximum
Gibbs combined concepts inherent in 1st & 2nd Laws to
get equation: H = G + TS
where:
1. G is the change in free energy (the change during a process in
energy available to do work)
2. H - change in enthalpy (total energy content of system; equivalent
to E for our purposes)
3. T - absolute temperature (K; K = C + 273)
4. S - change in entropy of system
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Rearrange to G = H - TS - can predict direction in
which process will proceed & the extent to which the
process will occur
1. G size shows the maximum amount of energy that can
be passed on for use in another process
2. Spontaneous process has -G (exergonic) & proceeds
toward state of lower free energy; such a process is
thermodynamically favored
3. Non-spontaneous process, +G (endergonic); cannot
occur spontaneously; it is thermodynamically unfavorable;
make it go by coupling to high -G (energy-releasing)
reaction
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An important renewable high energy compound that powers cellular
work
ATP hydrolysis is used to drive most cellular endergonic processes
A. ATP is used for diverse processes because its terminal phosphate
group can be transferred to a variety of different types of molecules
(amino acids, lipids, sugars, & proteins)
B. In most coupled reactions, phosphate group is transferred in initial step
from ATP to one of above acceptors & is subsequently removed in
second step
ATP:
Adenosine Triphosphate
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Enzymes: Biocatalysts
A catalyst is a chemical agent that changes the rate of
reaction without being consumed by the reaction
An enzyme is a catalytic protein
Enzymes are substrate-specific (key-lock relationship)
Enzymes are sensitive to temperature, pH and to some
chemicals
Some Enzymes need
co-factors/coenzymes
to function
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Enzymes:
Biocatalysts
Substrates can
compete with other
substrates to bind
on the same
position of the
same enzyme
interrupt the
reaction
Enzymes can be
inhibited by the
addition of
inhibitors
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Enzymes: Biocatalysts
Feed back inhibition of
enzymes: Feed inhibition is the
switching off of a metabolic
pathway by its end product
which acts as an inhibitor of an
enzyme within the pathway
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ATP formed 2 ways in cell:
oxidative phosphorylation inner
membrane of mitochondria
substrate-level phosphorylation
Oxidative phosphorylation -
dehydrogenases move 2 electrons &
proton to NAD+ to make NADH
1. High energy NADH donates electrons to
other molecules at electron transport (ET)
chain
2. Because NADH transfers electrons so
readily, it is said to have high electron
transfer potential
3. As electron travels down ET system, it loses
energy used to make ATP & is added to O
2
to make H
2
O
Substrate-level phosphorylation -
phosphate group moved from a
substrate to ADP ATP
1. ATP formation is not that endergonic,
formation of other molecules is more
endergonic
2. Such molecules can donate their
phosphates to ADP to make ATP