Anda di halaman 1dari 7

DAFTAR ISI

Halaman
ABSTRAK ..................................................................................................

iii

ABSTRACT ..................................................................................................

iv

KATA PENGANTAR ................................................................................

DAFTAR ISI ...............................................................................................

vii

DAFTAR TABEL .......................................................................................

DAFTAR GAMBAR ..................................................................................

xi

DAFTAR LAMPIRAN ...............................................................................

xii

BAB I

PENDAHULUAN ......................................................................

1.1 Latar Belakang Penelitian ....................................................

1.2 Identifikasi Masalah .............................................................

1.3 Tujuan Penelitian .................................................................

1.4 Kegunaan Penelitian ............................................................

1.5 Metode Penelitian ................................................................

1.6 Waktu dan Tempat Penelitian ..............................................

BAB II TINJAUAN PUSTAKA ..............................................................

2.1 Skizofrenia ...........................................................................

2.1.1 Definisi ........................................................................

2.1.2 Etiologi ........................................................................

2.1.3 Gambaran Klinis .........................................................

13

2.1.4 Penatalaksanaan Skizofrenia .......................................

15

2.2 Klozapin ..............................................................................

17

vii

viii

2.3 Haloperidol ...........................................................................

19

2.4 Risperidon ............................................................................

17

2.5 Farmakoekonomi ........................................................................

21

2.5.1 Pengertian Farmakoekonomi .......................................

22

2.5.2 Tujuan Farmakoekonomi .............................................

23

2.5.3 Metode Farmakoekonomi ............................................

24

2.5.4 Biaya ............................................................................

26

BAB III METODE PENELITIAN ...........................................................

28

3.1 Desain Penelitian .................................................................

28

3.2 Populasi ...............................................................................

28

3.2.1 Populasi Target ..........................................................

28

3.2.2 Populasi Terjangkau ..................................................

29

3.3 Kriteria Populasi .................................................................

29

3.3.1 Kriteria Inklusi ..........................................................

29

3.3.2 Kriteria Eksklusi.........................................................

30

3.4 Waktu dan Tempat Penelitian.............................................

30

3.5 Cara Pengumpulan Data ......................................................

30

3.6 Perhitungan Analisis Minimalisasi Biaya (CMA) ...............

32

BAB IV HASIL DAN PEMBAHASAN ..................................................

42

4.1 Data Demografi Subjek Penelitian ......................................

42

4.1.1 Jenis Kelamin .............................................................

42

4.1.2 Usia .............................................................................

43

4.1.3 Diagnosa Penyakit ......................................................

45

ix

4.1.4 Lama Rawat Inap ........................................................

45

4.1.5 Alasan Keluar Rumah Sakit .......................................

46

4.1.6 Outcome Klinis ....................................................

48

4.2 Obat penginduksi Kerusakan Ginjal ....................................

49

4.2.1 Penggunaan Obat Penginduksi Kerusakan Ginjal


pada Subjek Penelitian ..............................................

49

4.2.2 Jumlah Penggunaan Obat ..........................................

54

4.3 Perlakuan Khusus Pada Pasien ...........................................

56

4.3.1 Perlakuan Khusus Pada Subjek Penelitian .................

56

4.3.2 Penyesuaian Dosis terhadap Subjek Penelitian ..........

57

4.3.3 Penyesuaian Dosis terhadap Obat Penginduksi

BAB V

Kerusakan Ginjal........................................................

59

4.4 Perubahan Fungsi Ginjal.. ..................................................

60

4.4.1 Perubahan Nilai Kreatinin .........................................

60

4.4.2 Perubahan Nilai Klirens Kreatinin .............................

62

SIMPULAN DAN SARAN........................................................

64

5.1 Simpulan ..............................................................................

64

5.2 Saran ....................................................................................

64

DAFTAR PUSTAKA .................................................................................

LAMPIRAN .............................................................................................

69

xi

DAFTAR TABEL

Tabel

Halaman

4.1 Jenis dan persentase obat penginduksi kerusakan ginjal yang


digunakan oleh subjek penelitian .....................................................

51

4.2 Pola penggunaan jumlah kombinasi obat penginduksi kerusakan


ginjal pada subjek penelitian dengan perbaikan nilai klirens
kreatinin ...........................................................................................

55

xii

DAFTAR GAMBAR
Gambar

Halaman

2.1

Anatomi Makroskopik Ginjal ........................................................

10

2.5

Mekanisme kerentanan ginjal terhadap toksisitas obat .................

23

4.1

Jumlah subjek penelitian berdasarkan jenis kelamin .....................

42

4.2

Jumlah subjek penelitian berdasarkan kriteria usia ......................

43

4.3

Jumlah subjek penelitian berdasarkan kriteria penyakit ................

45

4.4

Jumlah subjek penelitian berdasarkan lama rawat inap .................

45

4.5

Jumlah subjek penelitian berdasarkan alasan keluar rumah sakit .

46

4.6

Jumlah subjek penelitian berdasarkan Outcome Klinis .................

48

4.7

Golongan obat penginduksi kerusakan ginjal yang digunakan


pasien dengan kreatinin di atas normal ..........................................

49

4.8

Jumlah subjek penelitian berdasarkan jumlah penggunaan obat ...

54

4.9

Jumlah subjek penelitian berdasarkan kriteria perlakuan khusus


terhadap subjek penelitian .............................................................

54

4.10 Jumlah subjek penelitian berdasarkan kriteria penyesuaian dosis .

58

4.11 Penyesuaian dosis terhadap jenis obat penginduksi kerusakan


ginjal ..............................................................................................

59

4.12 Perubahan kreatinin pada kelompok pasien yang mendapat


perlakuan Khusus...........................................................................

60

4.13 Perubahan klirens kreatinin pada kelompok pasien yang


mendapat erlakuan khusus ............................................................

61

xiii

DAFTAR LAMPIRAN
Lampiran

Halaman

1. Daftar Obat Penginduksi Kerusakan Ginjal Mekanisme Kerusakan


Beserta Penyesuaian Dosis Berdasarkan Klirens Kreatinin ..............

69