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DAFTAR ISI

Halaman
RINGKASAN........................................................................................................... i
SUMMARY............................................................................................................... ii
KATA PENGANTAR................................................................................................. iii
DAFTAR ISI............................................................................................................. iv
DAFTAR TABEL...................................................................................................... vi
DAFTAR GAMBAR.................................................................................................. vii
DAFTAR LAMPIRAN............................................................................................... ix

I. PENDAHULUAN................................................................................................. 1
1.1 Latar Belakang.............................................................................................. 1
1.2 Perumusan Masalah..................................................................................... 4
1.3 Tujuan Penelitian........................................................................................... 4
1.4 Manfaat Penelitian......................................................................................... 4

II. TINJAUAN PUSTAKA........................................................................................ 5


2.1 Buah Naga.................................................................................................... 5
2.1.1 Tinjauan Umum Buah Naga.................................................................. 5
2.1.2 Buah Naga Super Merah...................................................................... 7
2.1.3 Kandungan Gizi dan Manfaat Buah Naga Super Merah....................... 9
2.2 Kulit Buah Naga Super Merah....................................................................... 11
2.3 Bahan Pengenyal.......................................................................................... 12
2.3.1 Karaginan............................................................................................. 13
2.3.2 Agar-agar............................................................................................. 17

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2.4 Kembang Gula Jelly...................................................................................... 19


2.4.1 Kembang Gula...................................................................................... 19
2.4.2 Kembang Gula Jelly.............................................................................. 21
2.5 Kembang Gula Jelly Kulit Buah Naga Super Merah...................................... 22
2.5.1 Pemilihan Buah.................................................................................... 23
2.5.2 Penambahan Gula................................................................................ 24
2.5.3 Penambahan Asam Sitrat..................................................................... 25
2.5.4 Penggunaan Pengenyal....................................................................... 25
2.5.5 Pemasakan........................................................................................... 26
2.5.6 Pendinginan.......................................................................................... 26
2.5.7 Penjemuran.......................................................................................... 27
2.6 Zat Antioksidan.............................................................................................. 27
2.6.1 Definisi dan macam-macam serat makanan......................................... 16
2.6.2 Manfaat dan mekanisme serat makanan dalam pencernaan................ 18

III. KERANGKA KONSEP PENELITIAN.................................................................. 32

IV. METODE PENELITIAN....................................................................................... 35


4.1 Tempat dan Waktu......................................................................................... 35
4.2 Alat dan Bahan.............................................................................................. 35
4.3 Metode Penelitian.......................................................................................... 36
4.4 Analisa Data.................................................................................................. 40
4.5 Analisa Biaya Produksi dan Kelayakan Usaha.............................................. 40
4.6 Batasan Masalah .......................................................................................... 41

V. PEMBAHASAN................................................................................................... 43
5.1 Penelitian Pendahuluan................................................................................. 43
5.1.1 Rasa..................................................................................................... 43
5.1.2 Warna................................................................................................... 44
5.1.3 Aroma................................................................................................... 46
5.1.4 Tekstur.................................................................................................. 48
5.2 Pemilihan Alternatif Terbaik Penelitian Pendahuluan..................................... 49
5.3 Penelitian Utama........................................................................................... 50
5.3.1 Kadar Air............................................................................................... 51
5.3.2 Kadar Abu............................................................................................. 53
5.3.3 Gula Reduksi........................................................................................ 55
5.3.4 Kadar Serat Kasar................................................................................ 58
5.3.5 Antioksidan........................................................................................... 60
5.3.6 Rasa..................................................................................................... 63
5.3.7 Warna................................................................................................... 65
5.3.8 Aroma................................................................................................... 67
5.3.9 Tekstur.................................................................................................. 68
5.4 Pemilihan Alternatif Terbaik Penelitian Utama............................................... 70
5.5 Analisis Finansial........................................................................................... 72
5.5.1 Biaya Produksi...................................................................................... 72
5.5.2 Harga Pokok Produksi (HPP)............................................................... 73
5.5.3 Break Event Point (BEP)...................................................................... 73
5.5.4 Payback Period (PP)............................................................................ 74
5.5.5 Net Present Value (NPV)...................................................................... 74
5.5.6 Profitability Index (PI)............................................................................ 74

VI. KESIMPULAN DAN SARAN.............................................................................. 75


6.1 Kesimpulan.................................................................................................... 75

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6.2 Saran............................................................................................................. 75

DAFTAR PUSTAKA................................................................................................. 77

LAMPIRAN.............................................................................................................. 82

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DAFTAR TABEL

Nomor Teks

Halaman

1. Klasifikasi Kaktus Berdasarkan Sifat Alamiah dan Kebiasaan...................... 7


2.Gizi untuk 100 g Daging Buah Naga Super Merah (Hylocereus
Costaricensis)............................................................................................... 10
3.Standar Mutu Karaginan.................................................................................. 16
4.Komposisi Kimi Agar-agar yang Bermutu Baik................................................ 18
5.Syarat Mutu Kembang Gula Lunak.................................................................. 22
6.Penilaian Perlakuan Terbaik terhadap Parameter Organoleptik pada
Kembang Gula Jelly Perlakuan Jenis dan Persentase Bahan Pengenyal.... 50
7.Rerata Kadar Air (%) pada Berbagai Kombinasi Perlakuan............................. 51
8.Rerata Kadar Abu (%)pada Berbagai Kombinasi Perlakuan............................ 54
9.Rerata Gula Reduksi (%)pada Berbagai Kombinasi Perlakuan....................... 56
10. Rerata Kadar Serat kasar (%) pada Berbagai Kombinasi Perlakuan............ 58
11. Rerata Kadar Antioksidan (%)pada Berbagai Kombinasi Perlakuan............. 61
12. Penilaian Perlakuan Terbaik terhadap Parameter Kimiawi dan Organoleptik
pada Kembang Gula Jelly Kulit Buah Naga Super Merah Perlakuan Persentase Penambahan Kulit........................................................................... 71
13. Ringkasan Hasil Analisis Finansial Kembang Gula Jelly Kulit Buah Naga
Super Merah dengan kapasitas 10 Kg/hari................................................... 72

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DAFTAR GAMBAR

Nomor Teks

Halaman

1. Rumus
Umum
Karaginan
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
14
2. Rumus
Bangun
Kappa,
Iota
dan
Lambda
Karaginan
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
16
3. Rumus
..............................

Bangun

Agar-agar

..............................17
4. Skema

Kerangka

Konsep

Penelitian

.............................. 33
5. Diagram
..............................

Alir

Penelitian

..............................34
7. Diagram Alir Pembuatan Kembang Gula Jelly Buah Naga Super Merah
(Hylocereus costaricensis)
..............................
..............................39
8. Rerata Kesukaan
..............................

Panelis

terhadap

Rasa

Kembang

Gula

Jelly

Panelis

terhadap

Warna

Kembang

Gula

Jelly

..............................43
9. Rerata Kesukaan
..............................
..............................39
10. Rerata Kesukaan Panelis terhadap Aroma Kembang Gula Jelly
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
47
11. Rerata

Kesukaan

Panelis

terhadap
ix

Tekstur

Kembang

Gula

Jelly

........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
48
12. Grafik Rerata Kadar Air (%) pada Berbagai Kombinasi Perlakuan
Persentase Penambahan Kulit Buah Naga Super Merah
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
52
13. Grafik Rerata Kadar Abu (%) pada Berbagai Kombinasi Perlakuan
Persentase Penambahan Kulit Buah Naga Super Merah
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
55
14. Grafik Rerata Kadar Gula Reduksi (%) pada Berbagai Kombinasi Perlakuan
Persentase Penambahan Kulit Buah Naga Super Merah
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
57
15. Grafik Rerata Serat Kasar (%) pada Berbagai Kombinasi Perlakuan
Persentase Penambahan Kulit Buah Naga Super Merah
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
59
16. Grafik Rerata Antioksidan (%)pada Berbagai Kombinasi Perlakuan
Persentase Penambahan Kulit Buah Naga Super Merah
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
62
17. Rerata Kesukaan Panelis terhadap Rasa Kembang Gula Kulit Buah Naga
Super Merah
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
64
18. Rerata Kesukaan Panelis terhadap Warna Kembang Gula Kulit Buah Naga
Super Merah

........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
66
19. Rerata Kesukaan Panelis terhadap Aroma Kembang Gula Kulit Buah Naga
Super Merah
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
67
20. Rerata Kesukaan Panelis terhadap Tekstur Kembang Gula Kulit Buah Naga
Super Merah
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
69
21. Bobot Parameter Penelitian Tahap II Kembang Gula Jelly Kulit Buah Naga
Super Merah
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
71

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DAFTAR LAMPIRAN
Lampiran

Teks

Halaman

xii

1. Prosedur Analisa................................................................................................ 82
2. Lembar Uji Sensoris........................................................................................... 87
3. Penilaian Tingkat Kepentingan Parameter.......................................................... 88
4. Prosedur Pemilihan Perlakuan Terbaik............................................................... 89
5. Hasil Penilaian Uji Sensoris Penelitian Tahap I dengan uji Friedman
terhadap Rasa pada Berbagai Kombinasi Perlakuan......................................... 90
6. Hasil Penilaian Uji Sensoris Penelitian Tahap I dengan uji Friedman
terhadap Warna pada Berbagai Kombinasi Perlakuan....................................... 91
7. Hasil Penilaian Uji Sensoris Penelitian Tahap I dengan uji Friedman
terhadap Aroma pada Berbagai Kombinasi Perlakuan....................................... 92
8. Hasil Penilaian Uji Sensoris Penelitian Tahap I dengan uji Friedman
terhadap Tekstur pada Berbagai Kombinasi Perlakuan...................................... 93
9. Penentuan Perlakuan Terbaik Penelitian Tahap I............................................... 94
10. Penelitian Tahap II Kadar Air.............................................................................. 95
11. Penelitian Tahap II Kadar Abu............................................................................. 96
12. Penelitian Tahap II Gula Reduksi........................................................................ 97
13. Penelitian Tahap II Serat Kasar.......................................................................... 98
14. Penelitian Tahap II Antioksidan (DPPH).............................................................. 99
15. Hasil Penilaian Uji Sensoris Penelitian Tahap II dengan Uji Friedman
terhadap Rasa pada Berbagai Kombinasi Perlakuan......................................... 100
16. Hasil Penilaian Uji Sensoris Penelitian Tahap II dengan Uji Friedman
terhadap Warna pada Berbagai Kombinasi Perlakuan....................................... 101
17. Hasil Penilaian Uji Sensoris Penelitian Tahap II dengan Uji Friedman

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terhadap Aroma pada Berbagai Kombinasi Perlakuan....................................... 102


18. Hasil Penilaian Uji Sensoris Penelitian Tahap II dengan Uji Friedman
terhadap Tekstur pada Berbagai Kombinasi Perlakuan...................................... 103
19. Penentuan Perlakuan Terbaik Penelitian Tahap II.............................................. 104
20. Asumsi yang Digunakan dalam Analisis Finansial.............................................. 106
21. Penentuan Kapasitas Produksi.......................................................................... 107
22. Peta Proses Operasi.......................................................................................... 108
23. Kebutuhan Bahan Baku, Pembantu dan Pengemas.......................................... 109
24. Kebutuhan Air, Gas, Listrik, Premium dan Tenaga Kerja.................................... 110
25. Rincian Modal Tetap........................................................................................... 112
26. Rincian Modal Kerja Per Bulan dan Tiga Bulan.................................................. 113
27. Rincian Biaya Penyusutan.................................................................................. 114
28. Rincian Biaya Re-Investasi................................................................................. 115
29. Rincian Biaya Tetap Selama Satu Tahun............................................................ 116
30. Rincian Biaya Tidak Tetap Selama Satu Tahun.................................................. 117
31. Harga Pokok Produksi (HPP), Harga Jual dan BEP........................................... 118
32. Rincian Kenaikan Biaya Selama Lima Tahun..................................................... 119
33. Proyeksi Rugi Laba Selama Lima tahun............................................................. 120
34. Perhitungan PP, NPV dan PI.............................................................................. 121

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