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Menurut logan belajar dapat diartikan sebagai perubahan tingkah laku yang relatif menetapkan sebagai

hasil pengalaman dan latihan. Senada, dengan ini winkel berpendapat bahwa belajar pada manusia
dapat dirumuskan sebagai aktivitas mental atau psikis yang berlangsung dalam interaksi aktif dalam
lingkungan, yang menghasilkan perubahan-perubahna dalam pengetahuan dan nilai sikap(saefullah,
Belajar dapat dipahami sebagai tahapan perubahan seluruh tingkah laku individu yang relatifmenetap
sebagai hasil pengalaman dan interaksi dengan lingkungan yang timbul akibat proses kematangan fisik,
keadaan mabuk, lelah, dan jenuh tidak dapat dipandang sebagai proses belajar.(Muhibbin Syah,
Hasil belajar merupakjan perubahan perilaku yang diperoleh siswa setelah mengalami aktivitas belajar.
Perolehan aspek-aspek perubahan perilaku tersebut bergantung ppada yang dipelajari oleh siswa. Oleh
karema itu, apabila siswa mempelajari pengetahuan tentang konsep, perubahan perilaku yang diperoleh
adalah berupa penguasaan konsep. Dalam pembelajaran, perubahan perilaku yang harus dicapai oleh
siswa setelah melaksanakan aktivitas belajar dirumuskan dalam tujuan pembelajaran. Tujuan
pembelajaran merupakan deskripsi tentang perubahan perilaku yang diinginkan atau deskripsi produk
yang menunjukkan telah terjadi proses belajar(saefullah, 2012:205).
Hasil belajar yang dicapai siswa dipengaruhi oleh dua faktor utama, yaitu faktor dari dalam siswa atau
faktor lingkungan. Faktor yang datang dari diri siswaadalah kemampuan yang dimilikinya. Faktor ini
besar sekali pengaruhnya terhadap hasil belajar yang dicapai. Dismping faktor kemampuan yang dimiliki
siswa, juga ada faktor lain, seperti motivasi belajar, minat dan perhatian, sikap dan kebiasaan belajar,
ketekunan, sosial ekonomi, faktor fisik, dan psikis (saefullah, 2012:206)

thinking aloud as they solve problems like the one shown earlier. Then they switch to physics or
engineering problems but continue to work in pairs aloud In contrast, various high schools and colleges will
have weaker students spend the entire semester solvi ng such problems They focus entirely on analytical skills
without involving specific content from physics, mathematics, or other subjects
Project SOAR (Stress On Analytical Reasoning), a five-week pre-first year program at Xavier Univers ity in
New Orleans, included Piagetian-based science laboratories in the morning, and vocabulary expans ion,
problem solving, and reading exercises using the thinking aloud format in the afternoon These gains were
reported by SOARs director
The 34 students who initially scored below grade 12 on the comprehension section of the Nelson-Denny Readi
ng Exam showed an average improvement of 1 4 years
The 43 students who scored below grade 12 on the vocabulary section of the Nelson-Denny gained an avera ge
of 1 8 years
The 21 students who scored less than 70 on the PSAT (equivalent to 700 on the SAT) gained an average of 11 4
points, and the entire group (113 students) gained 7 3
points These were equivalent to gains of 114 and 73, respectively, on the SAT (Carmichael, 1979, p 2)
In 1960 a front-page article in The New York Times reported an average IQ increase of 105 points for the 2.80
first year students at Whittier College who took a two semester course designed by English professor Albert
Upton The pedagogy of Uptons program was very similar to that of Bloom and Broder Classes met four times a
week, once for lecture and three times in small groups with tutors for problem solving with verbal
comprehension and reasoning problems.
Uptons approach has been incorporated into a remedial language arts program called THINK, spann ing
reading levels one-U, and a parallel math prog ram called Intuitive Mathematics The problem
solving/discussion format used by both programs is proving very effective In studies by June Gabler (1977),
superintendent of the Woodhaven school district in Michigan, THINK produced larger gains on the Nelson-
Denny than those produced by stand oth programs are available from IS! Think, mc, 300 Broad St. Stamford,
CT 06901
Problem Solving in Mathematics: National Assessment Results*
An important goal of the mathematics curnculum is to teach students to apply the mathematics they are
learning to new or unfamiliar situations Recently released results from the second mathematics assessm ent
of the National Assessment of Educational Progr ess (NAEP) indicate that although students are learni ng
many basic algorithmic or computational skills, they have difficulty applying these skills to solve even simple
nonroutine problems
The NAEP mathematics assessment results are based on the performance of a representative sample of over
70,000 9-, 13-, and 17-year olds who took a carefully developed set of about 500 exercises that assessed
important objectives of the mathematics curr iculum The results of this assessment represent the best
available measure of American students mathem atical achievement
Students were generally successful in solving simp le textbook problems that could be solved by applyi ng a
single operation to the numbers given in the problem However, any exercise that required students to do more
than decide whether to add, subtract, mult iply, or divide caused considerable difficulty
At all three age levels, students would frequently attempt to apply a single mathematical operation to
whatever numbers were given in a problem rather than analyzing the problem to decide how to solve at For
example, only about 10 percent of the 9-year-olds
and 30 percent of the 13-year-olds correctly solved the following problem
Mr Jones put a wire fence all the way around his rectangular garden The garden is 10 feet long and 6 feet wide How
many feet of fencing did he use?
Almost 60 percent of the 9-year-olds and 40 percent of the 13-year-olds simply added the 6 and the 10
An important aspect of problem solving is ident ifying which facts are relevant to a given problem The following item,
which includes extraneous data, illustrates the difficulty students had in analyzing a problem
One rabbit eats 2 pounds of food each week There are 52 weeks in a year How much food will 5 rabbits eat in a week
Almost a fourth of the 13-year-olds attempted to inc orporate all three numbers given in the problem into their calculation
When students could identify the appropnate
operation, they frequently had difficulty relating the result of their calculation to the given problem The following
exercise involves a simple application of
* This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No SED-7920066 Any
opimons, findings, and coridusions or recommendations exp ressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not
necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation

ard reading instruction for below average, average, and above average students in both middle and high schools
Also, Intuitive Mathematics resulted ji average gains on the Metropolitan Achievement Test which were three times
those from standard instruct ion for high school students with histories of diffic ulties in mathematics (Gabler, 1977)
Taking a somewhat different tack, Jill Larkin (1977) compared graduate students with outstanding physiasts at
Berkeley on the way they solved certain physics problems By having them think aloud she found that the graduate
students tended to be formu la bound while the physicists used mental pictures and other analytical devices to
understand situations before starting their computations Booklets were then developed which successfully taught the
analytic al strategies to introductory physics classes In this case the training did not involve small discussion groups,
students worked alone, but the booklets did require active responses from the students as they practiced the mental
activities reported by the outs tanding physicists Research indicates that small group discussion is useful at all ability
levels but is
most crucial for the students at the lower levels
The emphasis on thinking skills is reaching the highest educational settings, as illustrated in these excerpts from a
description of a program at McMaster University School of Medicine, written by the direct or, Howard Harrows
The problem solving skills of physicians are central to their ability to apply health care effectively and efficiently
McMaster University School of Medicine has chosen problem based, self directed learning in small groups as the
principal format for learning undergraduate medicine One of the objectives of problem based learning is to help
students develop appropriate cognitive skills in medical problem solving Therefore, a group of us in the School of
Medicine completed a live-year study of the problem solving process of the physician
The next stage of our work was to design appropriate learning units to develop this problem solving process in
postgraduate and continuing medical educational settings
At the present time we are formulating an overall sequence for the development of the problem solving process of
the medical student from small group learning around the simulated patient, through individual tasks with simulated
patients, ending with structured clinical situations with real patients under pressure to Finely tune the problem
solving process
long division But the answer to the problem is the remainder to the division calculation, not the quotient
A man has 1310 baseballs to pack in boxes which hold 24 baseballs each How many baseballs will be left over after the man has
filled as many boxes as he can?
Fewer than 30 percent of the 13-year-olds correctly answered this problem Over 20 percent gave the quot ient as their answer
Students mechanical application of computat ional algorithms often resulted in unreasonable ans wers that they should have
recognized if they had thought about the problem For example, consider the multiple choice estimation exercise in Figure 1 Many
of the students at each age level simply added the numbers in the numerator or denominator The magnit ude of the result is
completely unreasonable if one understands what it means to add two fractions less
than one However, rather than estimating the sum, many students appear to have attempted to find some calculation
involving the numbers given in the exercise with no concern for the reasonableness of the result Performance was
over 15 percentage points better on a direct computation exercise in which students were asked to calculate the sum
of the two fractions.
The results for the exercises described here as well as many other exercises on the assessment strongly suggest that
students have become accustomed to mechanically applying mathematical algorithms to problems without analyzing
the problems or thinking about the reasonableness of their answers In recent years, a great deal of attention has
focused on the teaching of basic skills, which are frequently equated with routine computational skills. Mathematics
skills, however, have little value if they cannot be applied to new or unfamiliar situations
The ability to analyze a problem situation is as important and as basic a skill as the ability to compute the answer
The assessment results suggest that problem solving is the basic skill most in need of attention in the mathematics
Thomas P Carpenter, Mary Kay Corbat, Henry
Kepner, Mary Montgomery Lindquzst, Robert E.
ApRIL 1960 563

Figure 1
ESTIMATE the answer to
e Estimation Problem

Percent R.epondkig
Ag. 13 Agi 17
o 1
o 2
o ig

7 8
24 37
2S 21
o 21
0, dont knc
14 18

Copyright 2002 EBSCO Publishing
berpikir keras karena mereka memecahkan masalah seperti yang ditunjukkan sebelumnya . Kemudian
mereka beralih ke fisika atau rekayasa masalah tetapi terus bekerja berpasangan keras Sebaliknya ,
berbagai sekolah tinggi dan perguruan tinggi akan memiliki siswa lemah menghabiskan seluruh semester
pemecahan masalah seperti Mereka sepenuhnya fokus pada kemampuan analisis tanpa melibatkan
konten yang spesifik dari fisika , matematika , atau mata pelajaran lain
Proyek SOAR ( Stres Pada Analytical Penalaran ) , program tahun pertama pra- lima - minggu di Xavier
Univers ity di New Orleans , termasuk laboratorium Piaget berbasis ilmu di pagi hari , dan ion kosakata
expans , pemecahan masalah , dan latihan membaca menggunakan pemikiran Format keras di sore hari
keuntungan ini dilaporkan oleh direktur SOAR ini
34 siswa yang awalnya mencetak gol di bawah kelas 12 pada bagian pemahaman Nelson - Denny Readi
ng Ujian menunjukkan peningkatan rata-rata 1 tahun 4
43 siswa yang mendapat nilai di bawah kelas 12 pada bagian kosa kata Nelson - Denny memperoleh ge
avera dari 1 tahun 8
21 siswa yang mendapat nilai kurang dari 70 pada PSAT ( setara dengan 700 pada SAT ) diperoleh rata-
rata 11 poin 4 , dan seluruh kelompok ( 113 siswa ) naik 7 3
Ini adalah poin yang setara dengan keuntungan dari 114 dan 73 , masing-masing , pada SAT ( Carmichael
, 1979, p 2 )
Pada tahun 1960 sebuah artikel di halaman depan The New York Times melaporkan peningkatan IQ rata-
rata 105 poin untuk 2,80 mahasiswa tahun pertama di Whittier College yang mengambil kursus
semester dua yang dirancang oleh profesor bahasa Inggris Albert Upton Pedagogi program Upton adalah
sangat mirip dengan bahwa dari Bloom dan Broder Kelas bertemu empat kali seminggu , sekali untuk
kuliah dan tiga kali dalam kelompok kecil dengan tutor untuk memecahkan dengan pemahaman dan
penalaran masalah lisan masalah .
Pendekatan Upton telah dimasukkan ke dalam program seni bahasa remedial disebut THINK , Spann ing
tingkat membaca satu - U , dan seekor domba jantan matematika prog paralel disebut Matematika
Intuitif Masalahnya pemecahan Format / diskusi yang digunakan oleh kedua program terbukti sangat
efektif Dalam studi pada bulan Juni Gabler ( 1977) , pengawas distrik sekolah Woodhaven di Michigan ,
BERPIKIR menghasilkan keuntungan yang lebih besar dari Nelson - Denny daripada yang dihasilkan oleh
program berdiri lembaga lainnya yang tersedia dari IS ! Pikirkan , mc , 300 Broad St Stamford , CT 06901
Problem Solving Matematika : Penilaian Nasional Hasil *
Tujuan penting dari curnculum matematika adalah untuk mengajar siswa untuk menerapkan
matematika yang mereka pelajari dengan situasi baru atau asing Baru-baru ini hasil dilepaskan dari
kedua matematika assessm ent Nasional Penilaian Kemajuan Pendidikan ( NAEP ) menunjukkan bahwa
meskipun siswa belajar banyak dasar keterampilan algoritmik atau komputasi , mereka mengalami
kesulitan menerapkan keterampilan ini untuk memecahkan masalah tidak rutin bahkan sederhana
The NAEP matematika hasil penilaian didasarkan pada kinerja sampel yang representatif dari lebih dari
70.000 9 - , 13 - olds , dan 17 tahun yang mengambil set dikembangkan dengan hati-hati dari sekitar 500
latihan yang dinilai tujuan penting dari iculum Curr matematika Hasil penilaian ini merupakan ukuran
terbaik yang tersedia dari mathem atical prestasi siswa Amerika '
Siswa umumnya sukses dalam memecahkan masalah simp le buku yang bisa diselesaikan dengan
menerapkan operasi tunggal ke nomor yang diberikan dalam masalah Namun, setiap latihan yang
diperlukan siswa untuk melakukan lebih dari memutuskan apakah akan menambah, mengurangi , mult
iply , atau membagi disebabkan kesulitan yang cukup
Pada ketiga tingkat usia , siswa sering akan berusaha untuk menerapkan operasi matematika tunggal
untuk nomor apa pun yang diberikan dalam masalah daripada menganalisa masalah untuk memutuskan
bagaimana memecahkan di Sebagai contoh , hanya sekitar 10 persen dari 9 - year-olds
dan 30 persen dari 13 - year-olds benar memecahkan masalah berikut
Mr Jones menempatkan pagar kawat sepanjang jalan di sekitar taman persegi panjang kebunnya adalah
10 kaki panjang dan lebar 6 kaki Berapa banyak kaki dari pagar dia gunakan ?
Hampir 60 persen dari 9 - year-olds dan 40 persen dari 13 - year-olds hanya menambahkan 6 dan 10
Sebuah aspek penting dari pemecahan masalah adalah ifying ident yang fakta-fakta yang relevan dengan
masalah yang diberikan Item berikut, yang meliputi data asing , menggambarkan kesulitan siswa
memiliki dalam menganalisis masalah
Satu kelinci makan 2 pon makanan setiap minggu ada 52 minggu dalam setahun Seberapa banyak
makanan yang akan 5 kelinci makan dalam seminggu
Hampir seperempat dari 13 - year-olds berusaha inc orporate semua tiga nomor yang diberikan dalam
masalah ke dalam perhitungan mereka
Ketika siswa dapat mengidentifikasi appropnate yang
operasi , mereka sering mengalami kesulitan terkait hasil perhitungan mereka untuk masalah yang
diberikan Latihan berikut melibatkan aplikasi sederhana
* Bahan ini didasarkan pada pekerjaan yang didukung oleh National Science Foundation di bawah Hibah
No SED - 7920066 Setiap opimons , temuan , dan coridusions atau rekomendasi exp ressed dalam
publikasi ini adalah dari penulis dan tidak mencerminkan pandangan dari National Science Foundation

instruksi membaca ard untuk di bawah rata-rata , rata-rata , dan di atas rata-rata siswa di kedua sekolah
menengah dan tinggi Juga , Matematika Intuitif menghasilkan keuntungan rata-rata ji di Metropolitan
Achievement Tes yang tiga kali orang-orang dari ion menginstruksikan standar untuk siswa SMA dengan
sejarah ulties diffic dalam matematika ( Gabler , 1977)
Mengambil taktik yang agak berbeda , Jill Larkin ( 1977) dibandingkan dengan mahasiswa pascasarjana
physiasts beredar di Berkeley pada cara mereka memecahkan masalah fisika tertentu Dengan memiliki
mereka berpikir keras ia menemukan bahwa mahasiswa pascasarjana cenderung " rumus terikat "
sedangkan fisika menggunakan mental yang gambar dan perangkat analisis lainnya untuk memahami
situasi sebelum memulai perhitungan buklet mereka kemudian dikembangkan yang berhasil
mengajarkan strategi al analitik untuk kelas pengantar fisika Dalam hal ini pelatihan tidak melibatkan
kelompok-kelompok diskusi kecil , siswa bekerja sendiri , tetapi buku itu memerlukan tanggapan aktif
dari siswa saat mereka berlatih kegiatan mental yang dilaporkan oleh out tanding fisikawan Penelitian
menunjukkan bahwa diskusi kelompok kecil berguna di semua tingkatan kemampuan tetapi
yang paling penting bagi para siswa di tingkat yang lebih rendah
Penekanan pada keterampilan berpikir mencapai pengaturan pendidikan tertinggi , seperti digambarkan
dalam kutipan-kutipan dari deskripsi program di McMaster University School of Medicine , yang ditulis
oleh langsung atau , Howard Penggaru ( 1979)
The keterampilan pemecahan masalah dari dokter sangat penting untuk kemampuan mereka untuk
menerapkan perawatan kesehatan secara efektif dan efisien McMaster University School of Medicine
telah memilih berbasis masalah , self diarahkan belajar dalam kelompok kecil sebagai format utama
untuk belajar kedokteran sarjana Salah satu tujuan dari pembelajaran berbasis masalah adalah untuk
membantu siswa mengembangkan keterampilan kognitif yang tepat dalam memecahkan masalah medis
Oleh karena itu , kelompok kami di School of Medicine menyelesaikan studi live- tahun proses dokter
pemecahan masalah
Tahap selanjutnya dari pekerjaan kami adalah untuk merancang unit pembelajaran yang tepat untuk
mengembangkan proses pemecahan pascasarjana dan melanjutkan pengaturan pendidikan medis
masalah ini
Pada saat ini kami sedang merumuskan urutan keseluruhan untuk pengembangan proses mahasiswa
kedokteran dari kelompok kecil yang belajar di sekitar pasien simulasi , melalui tugas individu dengan
pasien simulasi , berakhir dengan situasi klinis terstruktur dengan pasien nyata di bawah tekanan
pemecahan masalah untuk halus lagu pemecahan masalah proses
pembagian panjang Tapi jawaban untuk masalah ini adalah sisa perhitungan pembagian , bukan hasil
Seorang pria memiliki 1.310 bola untuk dikemas dalam kotak yang memegang 24 bola masing-masing
Berapa banyak bola akan tersisa setelah manusia itu telah diisi sebanyak kotak yang ia bisa ?
Kurang dari 30 persen dari 13 - year-olds benar menjawab masalah ini Lebih dari 20 persen memberikan
recipient quot sebagai jawaban mereka
Aplikasi mekanik Mahasiswa algoritma ional computat sering mengakibatkan ans masuk akal wers
bahwa mereka harus diakui jika mereka telah berpikir tentang masalah Sebagai contoh, perhatikan
beberapa latihan estimasi pilihan pada Gambar 1 Banyak siswa di setiap tingkat usia hanya
menambahkan angka dalam pembilang atau penyebut magnit ude hasilnya benar-benar tidak masuk
akal jika seseorang memahami apa artinya untuk menambahkan dua fraksi kurang
dari satu Namun, bukan memperkirakan jumlah itu , banyak siswa tampaknya telah berusaha untuk
menemukan beberapa perhitungan yang melibatkan angka-angka yang diberikan dalam latihan tanpa
mempedulikan kewajaran Kinerja hasilnya adalah lebih dari 15 persen lebih baik pada latihan
perhitungan langsung yang siswa diminta untuk menghitung jumlah dari dua fraksi .
Hasil untuk latihan yang dijelaskan di sini serta banyak latihan lain pada penilaian sangat menyarankan
bahwa siswa sudah terbiasa mekanis menerapkan algoritma matematika untuk masalah tanpa
menganalisis masalah atau berpikir tentang kewajaran jawaban mereka Dalam beberapa tahun terakhir
, banyak perhatian telah difokuskan pada pengajaran keterampilan dasar , yang sering disamakan
dengan keterampilan komputasi rutin . Keterampilan matematika, namun , memiliki nilai yang kecil jika
mereka tidak dapat diterapkan pada situasi baru atau asing
Kemampuan untuk menganalisis situasi masalah adalah sebagai penting dan sebagai dasar keterampilan
sebagai kemampuan untuk menghitung Jawabannya hasil penilaian menunjukkan bahwa pemecahan
masalah adalah keterampilan dasar yang paling membutuhkan perhatian dalam kurikulum matematika .
Thomas P Carpenter , Mary Kay Corbat , Henry
Kepner , Mary Montgomery Lindquzst , Robert E.
April 1960 563

Gambar 1
MEMPERKIRAKAN jawaban sampl
+ E Estimasi Masalah
Peipons . persen R.epondkig
Ag. 13 Agi 17
o 1
o 2
o ig
o 21
0 , tidak KNC 7 8
24 37
2S 21
14 18

ISSN 1392-5369
Specialusis ugdymas. 2013. Nr. 2(29), 5564
Special Education. 2013. No. 2 (29), 5564
Liuda Radeviien, Adolfas Juodraitis
iauliai University
P. VLinskio SI. 25, L T- 76351 .iauliai Irmina Bendeviit
Seduva Town Association of Disabled Persons
Vilniaus St 6, LT-82225 Seduva, Radvilifids District Municipality
In the article, features of the participation of disabled persons in the activities of nong overnmental organisations are
presented with reference to their personal experience of involvement in the processes of problem solving. Using
qualitative research, it was established that due to the bureaucracy of institutions in forming policy, there are
negative public attitudes to members of NGOs, a lack of motivation to involve disabled people, and few possibilities
for disabled people to participate in decisions taking. NGOs should enable the development of a dialogue, oriented
towards supporting disabled people in the processes of problem solving, and through giving them the possibility to
participate in the administrative activities of NGOs.
Keywords: NGO activities, social participation, dialogue, involvement into the processes of problem solving,
In Lithuania, the activities of NGOs are various. They include the supply of social services, cultural activities and
educational activities. Therefore NGOs become significant organisations to disabled persons in a social network.
According to Silinskyt (2013), the activities of non-governmental organisations (hereinafter referred to as NGOs)
are oriented the welfare of a society or target social groups. They make it possible for citizens to get involved in
their activities of directly solving problems arising in society as well as in participating in state activities (Silinskyt,
2013). It has been acknowledged that not only the representatives of authorities play an important role, but also the
NGOs representing the interests of disabled people. The active ability of the participants of NGOs to cooperate, give
assistance, and use dialogue as the background to empowerment are reflected in the interaction of the following
components: equitable relationships, the active participation of participants in solving their fate, and the education of
competences (RuSkus, 2008).
The current situation in Lithuania reveals that the inequality of power is not reflected in the communities of disabled
or of their representatives. This demonstrates that the role of disabled people is insufficient when involving them in
the processes of decision taking in relation to their own lives. So far, institutional systems have considered that
disabled persons are only able to take insignificant decisions (RuSkus, Maeikis, 2007). Each person is not only
unique, but also unconditionally free. Therefore it is especially important for organisations to involve people in their
activities, and also in the process of decision taking (Godvadas, 2008), thus pursuing empowerment itself.
Donaldson (2004) emphasises that empowerment is oriented towards social activities and decision making, which
may be performed in groups of people and have objectives to overcome obstacles (for example, public attitudes
towards otherness) making an impact on the lives of the. According to l.unenburg (2010), it is important for every
person to be involved in problem solving, and to achieve results. Decision taking is efficient, where it helps to
pursue the particular objectives of an organisation. However, we have to admit that disabled people have not been
involved in problem solving due to their stigrnatisation by the environment. The stigma is related to disability,
which becomes a negative concept to people in society. The participation of disabled people is

especially important in problem solving and in the pursuit of positive changes in the life quality of disabled people.
It is also vital in establishing human relationships, cherishing dignity and functioning optimally in society (Amin,
Naqshbandi, 2013).
There has been insufficient research revealing the participation of persons with disabilitics in the activities of NGOs.
where decisions empowering them and based on their subjective experience are taken.
Many researchers (i1inskyt, 2013; Kvieskien, Kvieska. 2012; Zydiunaite. Lepait, Cibuiskas, Bubnys, 2012;
Radzcviien, Gerulaitis, Gudinaviius, Jureviien, BeneeviiQt, 2010; Rukus, 2008; Godvadas, 2008; Rukus,
Maeikis, 2007, Amin, Naqshbandi, 2013; Sadan, 2004; Donaldon, 2004) analyse the experiences of the participation
of disabled people in the activities of NGOs and this actualises the processes of the involvement of disabled people
in the processes of problem solving as the presumption to social empowerment.
This enables the formulation of the research problem question what are the factors determining the involvement of
disabled people in the processes of problem solving in the activities of NGOs.
The object of the research is what constitutes the features of the participation of disabled persons in the activities
of nong overnmental organisations.
The aim of the research is to reveal the features of the participation of persons with disabilities in the activities of
NGOs when taking decisions to empower them.
The tasks of the research:
1. With reference to the analysis of scientific
studies, to identify factors determining the
participation of disabled people in the
activities of NGOs.
2. To reveal the encouraging and limiting
factors of problem solving of the
involvement of persons participating in the
activities of NGOs.
The research methods. 1. Analysis of
scientific literature. 2. Qualitative research collecting empirical data using the method of an open interview. With
reference to the scientific literature analysis (Sadan. 2004; Kiaunyte, Puidokien, 2011; Godvadas, 2008; Bcrger,
2005; Kreisberg, 1992), the instrument of the research was developed. This instrument revealed the
structure of the participation of disabled persons in the activities of non-governmental organisations and their
involvement in the processes of problem solving. This structure consists of two notional areas: a) negative factors
limiting a disabled persons participation in the process of problem solving; b) empowering NGO factors directed
towards the development of dialogue involving disabled people in the processes of problem solving.
The research data was collected directly through the researchers interviewing respondents, and recording the
interviews on audiotape. Empirical material obtained during the interviews was transferred to text and data was
processed using the method of content analysis. The essential notional units were defined. These units are related
with the phenomenon under consideration as well as being rated by their meanings and calculated by the frequency
of the use of statements (Gailien, 2007).
The results of the qualitative research could not be applied to all strategies of NGO activities of involving disabled
people in the process of decision taking. They reflect only the features of several districts of Lithuania.
Participants of the research
The members of the non-governmental
organisations of Radvilikis, Pakruojis,
Panevys, iau1iai towns and districts (N = 16; 3
men, 13 women), aged from 25 to 70.
Methodological basis of the research
The NGO of disabled people is a significant institution engaging in direct participation in the social environment,
satisfying needs and expressing their interests as a group. The direct participation in decision taking determines the
right of citizens to use equal opportunities in relationships with the structures of administrative authority, This
means the possibility to ensure a defence of the interests, expectations and requirements of a disabled minority
(Buinskas, Raipa, 2001). However, the current situation demonstrated that authorities are not usually interested in
cooperating with NGOs (Kvieskien, Kvieska, 2012). The participation of citizens in decision taking has often been
complicated by bureaucratic mechanisms. This demonstrates that the participation of the interested groups in the
process of decision taking

is an unwanted phenomenon (Masiulis, 2006). This applies also to the participation of disabled people
taking various decisions influencing their lives. Due to a lower social-economic situation, disabled people
lack influence and power (Sutton, 1999). Power, accordingly (2012), are related to social, cultural,
economic, and communicational factors, therefore it is probable that people with disabilities experience a
lack of power in the processes of problem solving more often than other groups of society. The lack of
power according to Zydianait (2002), tends to have negative connotations. Where one person limits the
freedom of actions of another person, or power may be related with personal status and may be prevalent
in the organisational hierarchy, being weakened from top to bottom. It is probable that in limiting the
participation of disabled people in the process of problem solving, the power of others against disabled
people is demonstrated. Negative environmental factors determining the limited participation of persons
with disabilities (Berger, 2005, Kreisberg, 1992) demonstrate the power used against them, i.e. the power
over them, which is defined as the power of a dominant relation, where decisions are controlled from the
top and others are not allowed to have power.
It is to be emphasised (Berger, 2005, Kreisberg, 1992) that disabled people have experienced negativity in
life, such as compulsion, force, discrimination, and where their initiatives to participate in decision taking
have not been encouraged. Due to the lack of power and sensitivity as well as negative public attitudes in
respect of disabled people, the lack of motivation of disabled people and their dissociation from various
activities have been observed. On the one hand, the dissociation of disabled people from activities
demonstrates the lack of a dialogue, the involvement of disabled people in problem solving has not been
encouraged, and therefore conflicts are created. On the other hand, such conflicts arc latent, without
mutual understanding and usually a disabled person is seen to remain at fault. This is confirmed by
studies (Rukus, Daugela et al., 2007), where such conflict of interests is more latent, unexpressed and not
institutionalised. This is treated as the essential problem of the inequity delineating the interests and
cooperation with and of disabled people. However whilst there is some indication of equity as a
prerequisite to change
there remains the continuation of the illusion of change where the illusive and pragmatic situations of
unbalanced interests and discrimination abide. (Rukus, Daugla ci al., 2007).
The latency of conflicts demonstrates that the subjective voice of disabled people remains inaudible.
However, as noted by Ma.eikis (2006), public conflicts, economical processes and social structures
determine the existential content of honour, dignity and bravery. The active participation of disabled
people is a way towards the involvement to participate in the process of the decision taking in solving
their own problems.
Through cooperating in NGO activities and active involvement in the problem solving process, disabled
people may obtain more power. According to Radzevidien, Gerulaitis et al. (2010), the ability of
disabled people to cooperate is determined by a motivation towards joint activities and the development
of dialogue. The dialogue between the disabled members and between various institutions helps to reveal
not only the needs and existing problems of disabled people, but also to solve them, provide assistance,
and to represent a disabled person. Keeping ones ears open in mutual interaction promotes the
acceptance of the otherness of the world, to perceive it and change creating together human relationships,
mutual respect and empowerment (Kiaunyte, Puidokien, 2011). According to Rappaport (1987),
empowerment should be described as an opportunity for people to control their life themselves, to make
independent decisions that influence their own life. The empowerment to take decisions independently is
the process of transit from the state of helplessness to the relative state of control of their life, fortune and
environment (Sadan, 2004). Nong overnmental organisations are some of the institutions, where disabled
people may feel the effectiveness of their own power taking decisions, planning and organising the
organisations activities, which ensure the solving of topical problems, the sense of community, solidarity
and development. Thus the independence of the organisation and wider participation of all members of
the orgamsation in decision taking is also ensured (Godvadas, 2008). A disabled person is not only a
taker, he/she is also the creator of new activities. ydiunait, Lepaite, Cibulskas, Bubnys (2012) stated that
teamwork, discussions, listening and hearing dominated in NGOs, thus social relationships were created
and developed as

well as opportunities for new activities, creative expression and the performance of real changes were
made. Meanwhile, the NGO is oriented towards self-empowerment for activities, and imbibing the
influence of others.
With reference to the analysis of scientific literature (Sadan, 2004; Kiaunyte. Puidokien,
2011; Godvadas, 2008; Berger, 2005; Kreisberg, 1992), the theoretical structure of participation in
problem solving for disabled people in the activities of non-governmental organisations of and for
disabled people was defined (Figure 1)
The opportunities of the activation of the involvement of disabled
people in the process of decision taking in the activities of NGOs
Fig. I. The theoretical structure to promote the activation of the participation of disabled people in the
activities of non-governmental organisations
The research results and the discussion thereof
16 members of the NGOs of Panevys, Pakruojis, Radvilikis, and iauliai cities and districts participated in
the survey. These were people with limited working capacities, who actively participated in NGO
activities since their establishment or for a long period participated in the survey of the present research.
This enabled abetter understanding of the existing situation.
Qualitative research was carried out using the method of a structured interview. .The qualitative research
was based on the knowledge necessary towards the development the theory and the perspective of
participants, oriented towards making changes, decision making, problem solving, policy creation and
cooperation. The qualitative methodology enabled a consistent development of knowledge about the
situation through striving to describe social reality (ydiUnait, 2007). The qualitative research was
targeted, whereas it was aimed at revealing comprehensively the involvement of disabled people in the
problem solving processes and based on the subjective experience of the disabled people.
The research aimed to reveal the prerequisites of the empowerment of the members of NGOs through their
participation in the activities of NGOs. Individual respondents interviews were organised. 179 statements were
received in the interviews. Processing the research data, the two groups of factors encouraging and limiting the
involvement of disabled people in the processes of decision making in the activities of NGOs, were set. The main
criterion of the participants selection was the practical experience of the participation of disabled people in the
process of decision making of NGOs.
Negative factors deternining limited participation ofpersons with disabilities in the process of
decision making
People, who participated in the research, defined negative NGO factors determining the limited participation of
disabled people in the process of decision making (see Table I). One of the reasons limiting the activeness of
disabled people is the lack of their power, insufficient social sensibility of their environment, a societally diminished
opinion of disabled people as well as a lack of dignity.
Negative factors determining the limited participation of persons with disabilities in the process of decision taking
Empowering NGO factors directed towards the
development of a dialogue involving disabled people in the processes of problem

Table 1
Negative factors limiting the decision making process of persons with disabilities participating in the
activities of NGOs (N = 16)

Category Illustrated statements
Bureaucracy of
social policy
Bureaucracy is going on and on. We request for this and that. Well, they are tired of us. We arc not able to
change this authority, arc we able to change bureaucracy?; Municipalities promise to us and forget, and
then they say us that they dont have funds; They would rather satisfy the needs of those disabled people,
not only write theoretically, just to be. If there were more disabled people in the Seimas or municipalities,
everything would be done for people with disabilities, There should usually be meetings, the meetings with
the mayor, Partially problems are solved both on the state and municipal levels, however this issue requires
much more work. We, people with disabilities, would like to feel such support, that someone would stand
for us against the large bureaucratic Lithuania, Perhaps we should avoid bureaucracy. They do not do
anything bureaucracy is everywhere. They only promise when elections are coming; People with
disabilities like beggars, like a scab to authorities, therefore there is bureaucracy, not otherwise.
towards the
members of
Negative approach to people with disabilities, such a barrier between healthy people and people
with disabilities, like a hindrance. Lack of tolerance, after all, people are tired of diseases.
They watch who is going, no graves for live people, The society makes those disabled people
nervous. Lots of people look at you as if you were a fool. You are with disabilities, you are a
fool. How harasses that I have a son with intellectual disabilities, It pains me greatly, however
everybody is just pretending that is helping, Real case, where he is labelled due to mental
disabilities, like he is not a human; It is more so called making of public kindness, and in
reality a disabled person does not have any value, Our society has not matured yet not to mock
at us. Hence, we are of no value, An attitude to a disabled person should be first of all changed.
After all he or she also has his or her value.
Lack of social
sensitivity to
people from
Vvhat will you get, if the authorities do not understand, they lack scnsitivity; Municipalities arc the most
insensitive to disabled people. They just think that a person with disabilities gets his or her group and thats
all. They do not understand. They arc not sensitive to us; We just go, ask and get tired, why our authonties
have no compassion on us?; Well, before elections they supposedly represent us, are highly concerned,
visit a lot
our organisatlon, disabled people, but; The government counts us for nothing, but in reality, how many
people have disabilities; There has not been such understanding from the state yet, that some people need
one and other another: You have a disability plus you are ill, and you still have tu beg. And if a healthy
strong person comes puts a gifi into a drawer and thats it. He leaves, and laughs.
Lack of powers
people with
We cannot d anything, any influence, any effect. As if we were absent here at all. First of all people with
disabilities need to have some powers; Disabled people cannot make any
influence on authorities. They do not care about us, because not everything is in our hands
If the government fails to contact with a disabled person, so what can we talk about making influence, well,
there is not any equality; ,jts far from making influence by an ordinary person with disabilities. Power and
authority is necessary; We are unable to have such powers over others; You have to apply like for alms.
Disabled people like beggars, like a scab to the government. Its too bad that we do not have our powers.
Nothing will be, if
another group dominates against us, it is wrong for us ; We do not o anywhere, because,
anyway, we do not have any authority; If I had power in my hands, everybody would treat mc otherwise.
of disabled
participating in
Previously we had a manageress. who was a total intrigue and did not have such disability like
ours. Ve were always told you are blind, you must remain silent, and you nuist do what I wish;
It is difficult to work with disabled people, and especially where a disability is not only one, if
there are lots of disabilities; Its more like a performance, acting of the good image of an
organisation How nice and kind everybody of them, how careful they are. God forbid a healthy
person to work in the organisation; The organisation itself is not very able to represent
everybody; It has been requested more even from chairmen than it

Continuation of the table I
On the grounds of the research data analysis, we may state that, according to the assessment of the participants of
the research, the bureaucracy of representatives who form social policy is a negative factor limiting the involvement
of disabled people in the process of decision making. The members of NGOs emphasised that the representatives of
authorities ignored and avoided interaction with them (one member stated of an NGO: Perhaps, bureaucracy
should be avoided). It was indicated that NGOs as organisations had little power to influence representatives
forming social policy and to represent efficiently the interests of disabled people. It is important to represent the
interests of disabled people, where disabled people are one of the most vulnerable groups in society. Assessing the
content of the category, the respondents emphasised negative public attitudes to disabled people. Thus, the
ambivalence of interpersonal Contacts emerges, where the behavioural standards do not coincide with the social
constructs and attitudes, thus concern, sympathy or open underestimation of another person is demonstrated
(Redkus, 2008). The lack of sensitivity demonstrates that disabled people would like to feel genuine help, and this
determine their passiveness, lack of motivation, and dissociation from the activities of NGOs.
The helplessness of disabled people due to the lack of power impacts on the limited participation of
disabled people, whereas the needs of disabled people are considered insignificant and unimportant.
Cooperation based on the unequal ratios of power causes conflict situations to arise. Analysing the
respondents responses, it becomes clear that conflict situations are related to the transfer of conflicts onto
disabled people, therefore they usually feel at fault in conflict situations not only in NGOs, but also in
other institutions. Kepalaite (2008) indicates that not only the lack of a dialogue, but also the lack of
power may be the obstacle to disabled people in taking constructive decisions. With reference to the data
obtained in the research, we may state that conflict situations stimulate the further passiveness of disabled
people. This demonstrates that disabled people feel weak and without power to deal with their problems
with public authorities.

and lack
of motivation
in NGOs
We will not change the government, but maybe we are a bit passive; Disabled people may not make
any influence on authorities if they do not have any motivation; Anyway, I am passive and therefore I
can not give anything to the organization, and I do not require anything from it; Anyone does not do
anything, they consider, it ended as it started with the disappointment of disabled people, when anybody
does not do anything; I cannot give anything to this organisation; Our organisation, God forbid, we
personally do not go anywhere; Usually a disabled person has some wishes, but he or she does not want
to do anything himself or herself, lie or she wants everything to bc prcpared and given. They are used to
that you have to give me. It happens that our members arc lazy to do something somewhere; I am not
very interested, although I am in the association, but, in fact, I am not very concerned or interested in its
activities; People with disabilities often lack desire to participate.

Transfer of
conflicts to
the disabled
of NGOs
Whatever matters would be in an organisation, in case of conflicts, a disabled person is always at fault;
What to say about those conflicts. After all troubles, curse is throti on him; Wherever some help is
given to a disabled person, conflicts arise immediately, it seems that a person with disabilities is always at
fault; And these conflicts, you will say your opmion, thats it. a conflict. They will blame you and you
remain in the position of a fool; Oh, bickers happen, misunderstandings, disagreements between a
person with disabilities and this authority. The disabled person is like a third brother Jonas in that fairy
tale, it is difficult.
people from
the activities
of NGOs,
Maybe I feel some guilt that I dissociate myself flora that association; I see that dissociation from a
disabled person and various authorities exists; Anybody does not do anything, they consider, as it
started, so it ends with the disappointment of disabled people. where anybody does not do anything, what
should be wanted? We also dissociate from everything; I dont have any reproaches, I have dissociated
from activities and not going to take any decisions.

Total of statements: 99

Empowering NGO factors directed towards the development of a dialogue, involving disabled people in the
processes ofproblem solving
In order to answer the problem posed by the research, empowerment was central to the disabled people mvolved in
the process of
decision making. The research data presented indicates the support to a person representing and solving
his/her problems as vell as the involvement of the members of NGOs (see Table
Table 2
Support to a person representing and
solving personal
Factors Empowering the Process of Decision Making in Disabled People Participating in the Activities
___________ of NGOs (N = 16) ______
Category Illustrated statements of
It is important to me that the organisation is a real support to a human being; The president of disabled people suffered a fire, so I brougbt
sonic pie to her It is very pleasing that you may help to a disabled person, that they can feel such support, it is really pleasing to reduce at least
some pain; We refer on the knowledge of each other about diseases in order to feel better, it is the best support. Ve feel that .akaris
represents. He represents us a lot Well, a chairwoman represents traditionally, when she goes to the elder to ask for a bus, it is some support to
our needs. Our chairwoman represented, helped, when we had to manage documents; Well, not traditional representation, when we needed
money for tuition fee. The organisation defended a disabled person. He had to get the group I. but got the group 111, but this person is a half
dead, he hardly walks. We wrote complaints to health services. So now its a bit better, really, when there is akaris, our rights are efficiently
defended, he is our representative it was immediately felt. The organisation struggles for privileges, advantages and exemptions to us, which
we need; we feel the support of our organisation of disabled people. Lots of thanks to the Association of Disabled Persons, which helped me
personally to integrate into the society.

Ability of people
with disabilities
cooperate in
Disabled people smile more and with more gladness, if we are always going to meet together; Our target is to
bring together an organisation with groups, We arc disabled, physically handicapped people, thcrcforc we pursue
to band together and it is necessary to us; Anyway, we need to unite in order to perform activities in an
organisation; Only integration into society, trooping together will make us a bit more similar to healthy people.
We join ourselves with others, in connection with other disabled people. We feel safe in a group. nobody will
laugh at us; We feel positively, when we all together; The organisations of disabled people are their unification
into associations. Other associations also organise various cultural events, where we can meet. I am happy that I
troop together so many disabled people. It is good that we band together in the association of disabled people,
whereas I fell freedom and democracy there.
ta ogue onn
tovards decision ta
ing an ,
memers 0 S an eir
As I think, a disabled person is the first one, who has to start to do something, he or she must be active, involve
everywhere himself or herself. The dialogue of disabled people may change lots of things positively in the
organisation in future. It is necessary to be able to persuade authorities that there has to be a person, as I say, to
work actually, to represent the organisation of disabled people, intellectual potential and activeness are necessary.
Perhaps everything starts from the fact that we have a representative as a chairman, who, however, goes to talk
with authorities, who often applies to authorities, and thus authorities get to know about the presence of such a
disabled person. I always take decisions independently, I dont allow anybody else to do this for me, maybe I am
active and get involved myself, we all just have to talk. Parents, who bring up a disabled child, must themselves
show more initiative, get more involved into decision making; It is necessary that disabled people would go to
fight for themselves, of course I understand that sometimes it hard due to their disabilities, but if we were all
together, it would be easier to make influence on authoritics; Disabled people should be more often invited in
order to tell to authorities what we need.
of the
activte fNGOs II
SO ,
activIties o
I invite disabled people to come, I agitate to support our organisation, two percents are good, then we may
efficiently develop activities; More efficient finding of concerts, we need to organisc, where we can give a
concert, where we can get charity. 1 write a project for
. . .
computer course, in order to train, it was necessary to organise ; I conmbute to bands, my person songs were
recorded. Certainly, also organising concerning the supply of social services to disabled people. Here, lots of
things are told by the life experience of an ordinary disabled person, therefore I wish to be useful in the
organisation. My contribution into the activities of the association is landscaping; we have a nice rock-garden;
A contribution is that you bring your ideas to the organisation, when you come here; I contribute with my work
and then I feel needed.

Continuation of the table 2
Total of statements:
The most important positive empowering factor of NGOs involving disabled people in the process of
problem solving, which is perhaps the most essentially seen by the disabled people, is the support to the
person representing and solving personal problems. The support to a person in NGOs is the prime
direction of the activities of NGOs. Disabled people envisaged that in the future it is expected that NGOs
will solve personal problems of disabled people and the disabled people will get more involved in the
processes of problem solving. Resource mobilisation to increase the benefits of action is seen as the
activation for motivation and cooperation. Such benefits are received by all cooperating participants of
the activities of NGOs (Rukus, Maeikis, 2007). On the basis of the data analysis the most significance to
cooperation in the activities of NGOs was the aim for empowerment and a dialogue oriented towards the
involvement of disabled people in the process of problem solving. It is probable, that the need for such
dialogue is important to disabled people, because they have lived for so long in social exclusion and felt
insufficiently represented by the authorities. The involvement of disabled people in the processes of
problem solving makes the activities of NGOs more effective, demonstrating that disabled people can
take responsibility and arc able to take decisions on their own behalf.
Responsibility is related to those disabled people, who have particular obligations in NGOs. It is obvious
that disabled people, who participate more actively in problem solving, are more involved in the activities
of NGOs. Involvement in the processes of problem solving has a wider and deeper meaning, where the
dignity of these disabled people is fostered. Research performed by Gerulaitis. Gudinaviius et al. (2011)
confirmed that NGOs became a significant public power helping to ensure human dignity. This enables
the more effective development of new activities of NGOs and the implementation of ideas. However, as
it was noticed by the respondents, voluntary work in the activities of NGOs is also important.
I. The scientific literature review demonstrated an analysis of the most frequent involvement of disabled
people in the processes of problem solving, through the prism of the concept of empowerment. A
qualitative research approach was used, and factors activating the participation of disabled people in the
activities of NGOs were determined. Such factors, notwithstanding their ambivalence, encourage disabled
people to participate

Disabled persons could be a bit more responsible; 1 am a member of a board, thus I cazry

responsibilitics; It is very responsible to give information to disabled people, how will you

Responsibility of convey it to the disabled?; I provide a service to disabled people, it is a very responsible

disabled people in
the activities of
work; It is good that I have the education of a kinezitherapist and can responsibly help to
disabled people, here we have lots of fitness devices; I was elected to the board to organise

sports activities for disabled people, hence such are my responsibilities; I am an ordinary
member here, but if any problem incur or it is necessary to organise a festival, I am responsible for

Fostering of
I feel huge respect in our association, and this makes me feel a respectful person; 1
somehow feel here like a human being. because this environment of disabled people

disabled persons
dignity in the
encourages me to feel dignified; in the activities of disabled people, simple values of a
disabled person are appreciated, and they are real; I may bravely say that, when I became

activities of NGOs
disabled, I feel a dignified person, I am not respected in society, but here I am respected. They
do not allow you humbling yourself, I am somehow special.
It is necessary that disabled people would themselves develop new activities; It would be

Development of the
new actlvftaes
more favourable to thc organisation that we would take decisions togcthcr, especially
. ,,
concerning new actmtics ; When we started new activities in our organisation, lots of disabled people not only
got involved, but they also had their own opinion and solutions how to make them, they all were creative;
When I come, I always thing various new activities, and then I dont manage to be in time anywhere.

Voluntary work of If you wish to achieve something in your organisation, you have to work voluntarily yourself,

disabled people in to donate your time for the work; All of us in the organisation mostly work voluntarily but

NGOs honestly.

actively in the activities of NGOs as well as in the processes of problem solving.
2. The following factors limiting the decision taking by disabled people in the activities of NGOs were determined:
the bureaucracy of the representative of authorities who form social policy, negative public attitudes to the members
of NGOs. the authorities lack of social sensitivity to disabled people, the negative experiences of disabled people
participating in the activities of NGOs, the passiveness of disabled people and the lack of motivation participating in
NGOs, the lack of the powers of disabled people, the transfer of conflicts to the disabled members of NGOs, and the
dissociation of disabled people from the activities of NOOs. These factors were understood by the members of
NGOs and the respondents of the research, as negative, determining their limited participation in the process of
decision making.
3. Informants actualised factors that helped to participate in decision making through participating in the activities of
supporting people to represent and solve personal problems; the ability of disabled people to cooperate in NGOs; a
dialogue oriented towards decision making by the members of NGOs and the activation of such decisions; the
efficient organising of the work activities of NGOs and the responsibility of disabled people in the activities of
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Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Among the periodicals:
Evaluating Problem solving in Mathematics
Neil, Marilyn s
childhood Education; 1993; 69, 5; ProQuest
pg. 312
SCHOOL REFORM WHATS MISSING? Theodore R. Sizer World Monitor. November 1992. For the first time, in 1992. schools and
school improvement played a central part in a presidential Campaign Sizer traces the school reform debate back to the 1960s. Mediocre
edutional performance motivated president Bush and the 50state governors to set national education goals in 1989 that were to be reached by
the ,year 2000
Sizer categorizes the remedies being pursued in the 1990S into three strategies. The oblique strategy reflects government-promoted school
reform through increased regulation and testing as well a, mere flgurous b.dwr education and llcsn.lng The direct qy lt die r thinkmg and
redesign at indisidual schools inspired by the premise that sdl reform requires a fresh and sons ible approach The third strategy is systex and
aunie that the ftrit two approaches cannot work and that par. eth must be able to select ,diin if we are to energize pidhc school reform
Sizer totes other coenpeuirig lactate that rr*wnwrs do , corr. Fwst, he petorives a remarkable siknce about hv sct reform wdl be hnan He alan
tielieses there should be ne conc ern about television as the biggest chiol system and pnnc.paI shaper at cultute. sser peupi that ii ictiiils are to be
changed. iekammiaiications should abe be changed and cornnwt deirred kir pi*& educabonal pipnes.
Filucahcm reformers an ,ltnt about still another isew: the es..mple that .ijults act trw children. Sizer suggests that if we want our yorwig to
lust cmt arn behaviors and values, we must rncidc-I *ese he them Such nodeng is the respatu4bihev of teachers. parenb. politicians and the
public media. 1k SLIW% that 11w ichnol earviot he .,kwrrird ii adult adiuwu oornmwwatr csmIcei4 he the desIred ichoril valet.. hriiiIrr bern
should rot only ,mpeine how )dOL evv yie propte. but abe add ress the other aspects of culture that must be accow*d tat d rettem . tosuc. cord.
Kttsmed by Sr C. W.irtham. T lliuwerzty 4 Ywse..r as Araonio
Cythii Nicd F.duiitgee4 LiriAip. 1992 The authats believe that die lint dire, standard, at the National Councd uu Teactesi. cit
a, Picbbm Solving. MaUie nsati as Rsescweng and %ladwrnabcs as Commurcatcncrraee ,
nwn* chaftenpi because they insolve higiwe-biet shah. Steed, arid Nicd do tine pi..Jkm tahie dw poc of contenting a novel s.bubjrr. buemulati ng
conncclxww between gn-en taab, identifying the goal and esplonng sbalr gieshechirigdegoa) border to amess Ow mebcognet pesies inv alved in
pecibleir solving. situations that 1aalitaie sisidenb ol due, ttunkjr mii be created
studrnb dit nut cueiunwecase c.early arid often make cakulatanris widjt esplanabien. simply ditching for curved answers is riot enough to ass ees pnblens
anhing The autltcwi. beb est that to asees. peu*lrm wIt trig. general Impre-sucins about itt. quaht cit ,ch. rrusa be rioted. they recatw mend
using the scale devised b) Chagle, Lester and ODafte, that as ugT. separate wwes to the stages of sinJ erstaruditig Ow pr.bleni. ants stag the
,ic*slrm and ansueruig the quesIm (flme etaps ate lulls esplared ma 11g. ss itt. article)
In edditsin, %crbita aasJ \e cite the 1990 flhsIi Coluwb.a aw-.sewrt he p.*kvn soh as anudsrr uteful scar. In this assessment, teachers
analyze p.Nem .spowes cm the bases cit ane ners. strategy selic
and strategy tJtwwl
Va peisnow greater catnmun.caticwi an rattesnabis. cs*t.rm situatioru mutt be devised that ssia ,re*vab udrnb to ccmrnunicatr- Itt-si thin
sing. wveral form, of questions are suggested to achieve this psiL dreaiird p.*lr-rr.t ui is hesh itudent, write questiuien about the pnthlem aid
dns*r their peecr tiiins about the solut.os adequacy. problems with partial solutions pn.*b ees with unrelated facb us wtuds itud onb c-.ansr..t on
the quahtv of the profkir arid rvvw the pk pei* Irma requiring ,luda-r4, Irs r-iipta.n ifs words how they wouki solve lit. pnib1 cm arid then to
construct a ,imilar pn-*dem id tinily. pei*lrnw in which
shedeiste sqply appeupnaw numbers to an esisling problem w,t$im.ut nunOwr,.
If these assessment methods are n,d, the author, belies, that teachers wil heroine aware of ,udersW bowl- edge and thinking and cat nwce
tively plan Instruction that achieves brtbr burning of haglwrorder skaIh Keiwid lv Marilyn S Ned. Wett Cmg se Cal kg. Carroll rmi
PtRFOR%IANCE ASSISSMEsT: The Message I rain England. L)eanond L. NidtalL Liacat,,aI LrsI. M 1992 Nuetall noses that although
pefliwivunce aseesnent a latin of evaluation can .mpnwe teaching and learning. niany tasks have br,n dropped from the isab anal essminabor.
an EngLand beiaute cit Ow aatompanying cc*te in time and nwy. The Am.-.mgie..g of Performance UrWi (Aft!) had been used in England since
Ow ned-197k ft applied a evadib urial and practical acisnwid that do sa*ed student acharvenwnt on a broad freest ft abe provided many ideas
for (lasatuo,Ts ams-wnwflL
A new ee.acunatstws li,, the C.eneral Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSF) sa as e,Ubkaiied about tour wrs
It CeWSwats cit perfnensancr ames.m erit he us tagatisew in mattwmatic,.
puwttuhos us English and pec4rca in hu rnaeihrs and the social sciences Three oldie wien grades that have been es tamed over the past four
vers have rec eived top awatds. leading a nvrity of people us Fngland to betreve that edu cation standards are rising (A few people Iwl thtt die
standards ase sleepi ng arid die ajj.. .unzig is tin easy)
Nuttall daicussed the National Curr a.utum ui England mandated by the 11 Educational Reform Act. He hiI ts-es tht a,sessnwnl and the
National Curnculsam is crc drsagned to give gay eminent control aver what it taught in Ing!ands whouls. hr the summer of 991. every child an
C.rade 2 was as, c.ied Iii, itandard Assessment Ia,k, which contain no standardized WLibiic lions, Wqie tell Out Weeks bel ure the actual
.aswssnwnt. leaher, were encouraged to introduce the tasks in their ours wairts - Students were auasaed andnvidsialy or us small poups os-er
a period of about 44 hours
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