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[t-net] Re: Cheng Ho, Islam dan Indonesia ==> Chan CT (bagian ke-II)

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<-- Terurut Topik --> <-- Terurut Waktu --> Cari sejarah islam di nusantara

[t-net] Re: Cheng Ho, Islam dan Indonesia ==> Chan CT (bagian ke-II)
indoshepherd
Fri, 11 Nov 2005 19:06:27 -0800
Pak Chan CT yth.,
Dibawah ini saya lampirkan bukti2/fakta2 sejarah yang bertentangan
dengan gagasan anda, bahwa (1) Islam di Nusantara disebarkan oleh
orang2 Cina, dan (2) bahwa sebagian (besar) dari Walisongo itu
keturunan Cina.
(1) Yang benar, laksamana Ceng Ho memang seorang Muslim. Alasannya
mudah ditebak, untuk menimbulkan SIMPATI dari negara2 yang
dikunjunginya, yang SUDAH DIKETAHUI oleh Kaisar Tiongkok
majoritasnya beragama Islam. Ini adalah politik yang sama, kenapa
Amerika mengangkat wanita kulit hitam Condoleeza Rice sebagai wakil
dari State Department dalam perundingan2 dengan negara2 Arab.
Samasekali TIDAK ADA BUKTI bahwa Islam di Jawa disebarkan oleh anak
buah Ceng Ho (Saya tantang anda untuk membuktikan kata2 anda).
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[t-net] Re: Cheng Ho, Islam dan Indonesia ==> Chan CT (bagian ke-II)

(2) Sebaliknya, hampir SEMUA walisongo diketahui dengan cukup pasti


berasal dari negara2 Timur Tengah (kecuali barangkali Sunan
Kalijogo). Fakta ini tertulis dibanyak sekali buku2 sejarah, yang
link website/URL-nya saya kutip dibawah ini (referensi2 [1] s/d
[11]), agar supaya bisa anda check/verifikasi sendiri, bahwa saya
tidak bohong atau mengisap jempol.

[1] BANTAHAN dari Dr. Asvi Warman Adam


Research Center For Politics, Indonesian Institues of Sciences
(LIPI)
http://www.republika.co.id/suplemen/cetak_detail.asp?
mid==5&id= 6938&kat_id= 5&kat_id1= 7&kat_id2=&9
REPUBLIKA Jumat, 05 Desember 2003
DR Asvi Warman Adam
Tuliskan di Buku Pelajaran Sejarah
Beberapa cuplikan:
**Begitu pula pada ekspedisi Laksamana Cheng Ho yang disebut-sebut
memiliki agenda tersembunyi untuk menyebarkan Islam di nusantara,
saya kira kok tidak sampai sejauh itu.**
** Hal itu 'kan masih menimbulkan perdebatan?
Memang betul bahwa pemikiran mengenai sebagian para Walisongo
berasal dari etnis Tionghoa hingga kini masih kontroversi. Tidak
hanya itu, keberadaan Walisongo sendiri tetap menimbulkan silang
pendapat apakah mereka benar-benar ada atau hanya legenda. **

[2] Babad Tanah Jawa dan Serta Kanda yang diandalkan oleh MO
Parlindungan dan prof. Slamet Mulyana itu TIDAK BISA DIPERCAYA sebab
bercampur-aduk dengan dongeng, mistik dan tahayul:
http://www.theswanker.com/macammacam/history/
http://www.theswanker.com/macammacam/2004/06/the_walisongo_j_1.html
June 18, 2004
The Walisongo, Java's muslim saints: an introduction
In the story of Islam's spread in Indonesia, the Walisongo hold a
special place. Said to have been a group of nine missionaries that
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[t-net] Re: Cheng Ho, Islam dan Indonesia ==> Chan CT (bagian ke-II)

lived during the 15th and 16th centuries AD, the Walisongo used
combined pious acts, supernatural displays of power, political
manoeuvring and outright military conquest, to extend Islam's reach
across Java and neighbouring islands. Their tombs are popular places
of pilgrimage, drawing devotees from all over Java and indeed,
Muslim South-East Asia.
These early missionaries of Islam were elevated to the status of
walis (an Arabic term for `saint') and ascribed the title Sunan (a
Javanese epithet akin to "Honourable"). Over the centuries many
stories surrounding the lives of these men and their exploits have
been told.
Much of what we know comes from a collection of QUASI-FACTUAL
Javanese manuscripts collectively known as Babad Tanah Jawi
("History of the land of Java). There is NO ATTEMPT TO SEPARATE THE
FACT FROM THE FICTION and no indication to laypersons such as myself
what can or has been corroborated by archaeological evidence. Yet
legends or myths still reveal much that can be of assistance to the
historian or fact seeker, especially if they still hold sway in the
hearts and minds of believers.

[3] Walisongo kebanyakan berasal dari ARAB: Mualana Malik Ibrahim


http://www.gimonca.com/sejarah/walisongo.shtml
Sunan Maulana Malik Ibrahim (also Syeikh Maghribi) was an Arab who
arrived in Java in 1404 and worked at Gresik and Leran until his
death in 1419. He founded the first Islamic school or pesantren on
Java. Cousin of Sunan Ampel. His work was carried out before the
time period normally associated with the wali songo, making him a
kind of pioneer for missionary activity on Java.
Sunan Ampel in a traditional portrait. Sunan Ampel was the first
notable member of the Nine Walis or Walisongo, Islamic teachers who
worked to spread Islam around Java in the late 1400s and early
1500s. See also the separate page on the Walisongo..

[4] Sunan Ampel adalah keponakan Raja Majaphit Kertawijaya, lahir


dari Puteri CHAMPA yg bernama Darawati. Champa BUKAN CINA, bahkan
Vietnam sajapun bukan, melainkan adalah negara (Islam) yang letaknya
didekat kota DaNang sekarang (lihat referensi website:
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[t-net] Re: Cheng Ho, Islam dan Indonesia ==> Chan CT (bagian ke-II)

<http://www.lonelyplanet.com/mapshells/south_east_asia/vietnam/vietna
m.htm>)
Sunan Ampel (also Raden Rakhmat) who did his work in Surabaya, and
spread Islam in East Java. Sunan Ampel was the original leader of
the walisongo. He was a nephew of the King of Majapahit, and a
cousin to Raden Patah, first Sultan of Demak. He was actually born
in Champa, an Islamic kingdom located where the southern part of
Vietnam is today. Sunan Bonang and Sunan Drajad were both his sons.
Sunan Giri lived with him alongside his sons as a young man.
<http://solo.manuatele.net/farwest.htm>
1447 AD: Kertawijaya, brother of Suhita, becomes King of Majapahit.
He converts to Islam on the advice of his wife, Darawati, a princess
of Champa (in what is now Vietnam). Sunan Ampel, nephew of
Kertawijaya, works to spread Islam around Surabaya. Sunan Ampel in a
traditional portrait. Sunan Ampel was the first notable member of
the Nine Walis or Walisongo, Islamic teachers who worked to spread
Islam around Java in the late 1400s and early 1500s.
[5] TIME LINE SEJARAH RESMI PENYEBARAN ISLAM di INDONESIA:
Earlier history on the spread of Islam in Indonesia & Malaysia:
1405 AD: Chinese Admiral Cheng Ho visits Semarang.
1406 AD: Wirabumi is executed, and his head is brought to the court
of Majapahit. The war of succession ends.
1409 AD: Cheng Ho visits Melaka for the first time.
1411 AD: Paramesvara visits Beijing on a state visit.
1414 AD: (Indonesia) Paramesvara converts to Islam, and takes the
name Iskandar Syah, after marrying the daughter of the Sultan of
Pasai. Melaka is now an Islamic sultanate. Islam, one of Indonesia's
five religions. The Islamic religion had been common among traders
in Sumatra and Java for some time. The Singhasari and Majapahit
kingdoms probably had a few Muslims involved in their courts. Largescale conversions to Islam began when local kings adopted the new
religion. Aceh and Melaka were among the first. Most of Java did not
become Muslims until the early 1500s. (Today, over 85% of
Indonesians are Muslims.)

[6] SEJARAH SINGAPURA (HISTORY OF SINGAPORE)


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[t-net] Re: Cheng Ho, Islam dan Indonesia ==> Chan CT (bagian ke-II)

<http://www.country-studies.com/singapore/history.html>
A Malay seventeenth-century chronicle, the Sejarah Melayu (Malay
Annals), recounts the founding of a great trading city on the island
in 1299 by a ruler from Palembang, Sri Tri Buana, who named the city
Singapura ("lion city") after sighting a strange beast that he took
to be a lion. The prosperous Singapura, according to the Annals, in
the mid-fourteenth century suffered raids by the expanding Javanese
Majapahit Empire to the south and the emerging Thai kingdom of
Ayutthaya to the north, both at various times claiming the island as
a vassal state.
The Annals, as well as contemporaneous Portuguese accounts, note the
arrival around 1388 of King Paramesvara from Palembang, who was
fleeing Majapahit control. Although granted asylum by the ruler of
Singapura, the king murdered his host and seized power. Within a few
years, however, Majapahit or Thai forces again drove out
Paramesvara, who fled northward to found eventually the great
seaport and kingdom of Malacca. In 1414 Paramesvara converted to
Islam and established the Malacca Sultanate, which in time
controlled most of the Malay Peninsula, eastern Sumatra, and the
islands between, including Singapura. Fighting ships for the
sultanate were supplied by a senior Malaccan official based at
Singapura. The city of Malacca served not only as the major seaport
of the region in the fifteenth century, but also as the focal point
for the dissemination of Islam throughout insular Southeast Asia.
[7] JATUHNYA KERAJAAN2 HINDU DI ASIA TENGGARA
(menurut sumber/website agama Hindu)
<http://www.sulekha.com/expressions/column.asp?cid=(0475>
Indian website on History of Hinduism
Fall of Hinduism in South East Asia
The failure of leadership is strikingly seen in the fall of Hinduism
in South East Asia. Let us examine the conversion of the Malay and
Indonesian archipelago to Islam. The following account has been
gleaned from the Indonesian time line[20] and an analysis of the
defeat is offered. In the 1300s, Indonesia and Malaysia were being
ruled by the powerful Hindu-Buddhist Majapahit empire but its
influence was declining towards the end of the 14th century.
In 1401 a war of succession began in Majapahit, lasting four years
and the power of Majapahit begins to lessen. At this time,
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[t-net] Re: Cheng Ho, Islam dan Indonesia ==> Chan CT (bagian ke-II)

Paramesvara, a prince of Palembang ( a port in Sumatra ) was driven


from Palembang to Tumasik (today's Singapore) where he founded the
kingdom of Melaka. In 1414, Paramesvara converted to Islam. The
archipelago depended on trade and Arab merchants with Islamic
proselytizing zeal had been persuading local kings to convert in
order to benefit from increased commercial ties with West Asia. A
thousand years earlier, trade with India had brought Hinduism. Now
with the ascendancy of the Arabs, Islam was to be favoured. But the
conversion process was complex and protracted and took over two
centuries to complete.
Under the rule of Parameswara (who now called himself Iskander Shah)
and that of his successors, Melaka's trading fleets brought Islam to
coastal areas of the archipelago. But resistance to Islam was
strong. In 1447 Kertawijaya, became King of Majapahit. He converted
to Islam on the advice of his wife, Darawati, a princess of Champa
(in what is now Vietnam) and began to spread Islam around the
Javanese city of Surabaya. In 1451 he was murdered and replaced by
Rajasawardhana, who hindered the spread of Islam in Majapahit.
[8] Sheikh Maulana Ibrahim berasala dari SAMARKAND (Uzbekistan)
Sumber lain mengatakan bahwa bapak Sunan Ampel adalah Sheikh Maulana
Ibrahim, yang gelarnya Asmorokandi seringkali dikaitkan dengan
daerah kelahirannya, yaitu Samarkand di Uzbekistan:
<http://planet.time.net.my/Parliament/jwan/htmstuff/WaliSongoPilgrima
ge.htm>
As to the origins of Sunan Ampel, it is believed that his father
Syekh Maulana Ibrahim Asmorokondi, who came from the Middle East or
somewhere in Central Asia, married a princess of Campa, from where
the young Raden Rachmad (Sunan Ampel) arrived in Java early in the
15th century. He died in A.D. 1479 and was buried at Ngampeldenta,
Surabaya.

[9] Babad Tanah Jawi TIDAK PERNAH MANYATAKAN Sunan Ampel orang Cina:
<http://www.seasite.niu.edu/Indonesian/Islam/Ibrahim.htm>
Maulana Malik Ibrahim, atau Makdum Ibrahim As-Samarkandy
diperkirakan lahir di Samarkand, Asia Tengah, pada paruh awal abad
14. BABAD TANAH JAWI VERSI MEINSMA menyebutnya Asmarakandi,
mengikuti pengucapan lidah Jawa terhadap As-Samarkandy, berubah
menjadi Asmarakandi.
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[t-net] Re: Cheng Ho, Islam dan Indonesia ==> Chan CT (bagian ke-II)

Maulana Malik Ibrahim kadang juga disebut sebagai Syekh Magribi.


Sebagian rakyat malah menyebutnya Kakek Bantal. Ia bersaudara dengan
Maulana Ishak, ulama terkenal di Samudra Pasai, sekaligus ayah dari
Sunan Giri (Raden Paku). Ibrahim dan Ishak adalah anak dari seorang
ulama Persia, bernama Maulana Jumadil Kubro, yang menetap di
Samarkand. Maulana Jumadil Kubro diyakini sebagai keturunan ke-10
dari Syayidina Husein, cucu Nabi Muhammad saw.
Maulana Malik Ibrahim pernah bermukim di Campa, sekarang Kamboja,
selama tiga belas tahun sejak tahun 1379. Ia malah menikahi putri
raja, yang memberinya dua putra. Mereka adalah Raden Rahmat (dikenal
dengan Sunan Ampel) dan Sayid Ali Murtadha alias Raden Santri.
Merasa cukup menjalankan misi dakwah di negeri itu, tahun 1392 M
Maulana Malik Ibrahim hijrah ke Pulau Jawa meninggalkan keluarganya.
KESIMPULAN indoshepherd:
Opini bahwa Walisongo itu Cina, agaknya mula2 bersumber pada
kekeliruan mahasiswa MO Parlindungan yang salah-sangka bahwa Champa
itu letaknya di China. Kesalahan mana kemudian dilanjutkan olehnya
dengan me-reka2 nama2 Cina, hingga seluruh 8 dari 9 Walisongo
mendadak disulapnya menjadi orang2 Cino. Kekeliruan ini dikutip
tanpa kritik oleh Prof. Slamet Mulyono (alm.) hingga tersebar luas.
Belakangan ini opini tersebut di-tiup2 kembali oleh penulis2
keturunan Cina, seperti a.l. Mang Ucup, Andreas Miharja, dan Chan
CT, malahan ditambahi bumbu2 supaya lebih sedap rasanya. Tulisan2
saya telah jelas membuktikan bahwa anggapan dasar Champa == China dan
etnis Champa == Cino itu samasekali KELIRU. Dengan demikian, teori
bahwa 8 dari 9 walisongo adalah Cino itu kini sudah terbukti AMBRUK.
Menurut banyak catatan sejarah yang bisa dipercaya (sumber2nya
dicantumkan dalam artikel dibawah ini) para penyebar Islam di
Indonesia adalah orang2 Arab. Sama seklai tidak pernah ada indikasi
bahwa penyebarnya adalah orang2 Cina. Jika ada sumber yang kurang
bisa dipercaya, misalnya Javanes Chronicles (yaitu a.l. Babad Tanah
Jawi) maka jelas disebutkan bahwa sumbernya adalah LEGENDA (dongeng)
yang mengikut-sertakan ilmu ghaib, dan justru oleh karena itu tidak
boleh dipercaya secara ilmiah, kecuali faktanya bisa dikonformasi
oleh sumber2 lain yg bisa dipercaya (tulisan2 dibatu kuburan,
laporan Marco Polo, naskah2 sejarah Tiongkok, laporan pedagang Arab,
dlsbnya).

[10] Sejarah Islam menurut salah satu universitas di Amerika (NIU)


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[t-net] Re: Cheng Ho, Islam dan Indonesia ==> Chan CT (bagian ke-II)

THE COMING OF ISLAM


<http://www.seasite.niu.edu/Indonesian/Islam/coming_of_islam.htm>
Like the introduction of Indian civilization, the process of
Islamization is obscure because of the lack of adequate historical
records and archeological evidence. The archipelago was not invaded
by outsiders and forcibly converted. Yet states that had converted
to Islam often waged war against those that adhered to the older,
Hindu-Buddhist traditions. Religious lines, however, do not appear
to have been clearly drawn in Javanese statecraft and war.
Over the centuries, merchants from Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean
ports and mystics and literary figures propagated the faith. Because
commerce was more prevalent along the coasts of Sumatra, Java, and
the eastern archipelago than in inland areas of Java, it is not
surprising that Islamization proceeded more rapidly in the former
than the latter. According to historian M.C. Ricklefs, LEGENDS
describe the conversion of rulers to Islam in coastal Malay regions
as a "great turning point" marked by miracles (including the magical
circumcision of converts), the confession of faith, and adoption of
Arabic names. JAVANESE CHRONICLERS tended to view it as a much less
central event in the history of dynasties and states. BUT THE
JAVANESE CHRONICLES mention the role of nine (or ten) saints (wali
in Arabic), who converted rulers THROUGH THE USE OF SUPERNATURAL
POWERS.
Doubtless small numbers of Muslims traveled through and resided in
the archipelago at a very early date. HISTORICAL RECORDS OF THE
CHINESE TANG DYNASTY (A.D. 618-907) TELL OF ARAB TRADERS who must
have stopped at Indonesian ports along the way to Guangzhou and
other southern Chinese ports. Yet the conversion of rulers and
significant numbers of indigenous peoples to Islam apparently did
not begin until around the late thirteenth century.
Many areas of the archipelago resisted the religion's spread. Some,
such as Ambon, were converted to Christianity by Europeans. Others
preserved their distinctiveness despite powerful Islamic neighbors.
These included small enclaves on Java and the adjacent island of
Bali, where animist and Hindu beliefs created a distinct, inwardlooking culture.
THE FIRST RELIABLE EVIDENCE of Islam as an active force in the
archipelago COMES FROM THE VENETIAN TRAVELER MARCO POLO. Landing in
NORTHERN SUMATRA on his way back to Europe from China in 1292, HE
DISCOVERED AN ISLAMIC TOWN, PERLAK, SURROUNDED BY NON-ISLAMIC
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[t-net] Re: Cheng Ho, Islam dan Indonesia ==> Chan CT (bagian ke-II)

NEIGHBORS. An INSCRIPTION FROM A TOMBSTONE DATED 1297 reveals that


the FIRST RULER OF SAMUDRA, ANOTHER SUMATRAN STATE, WAS A MUSLIM;
the ARAB TRAVELER MUHAMMAD IBN-'ABDULLAH IBN-BATTUTA VISITED THE
SAME TOWN IN 1345-46 and wrote that its monarch was a Sunni rather
than a Shia Muslim. By the LATE FOURTEENTH CENTURY, INSCRIPTIONS ON
SUMATRA WERE WRITTEN WITH ARABIC LETTERS rather than older,
indigenous or Indian-based scripts.
There also were important Chinese contacts with Java and Sumatra
during this period. Between 1405 and 1433, a Chinese Muslim military
leader, the Grand Eunuch Zheng He, was commissioned by the Ming
Dynasty (1368-1643) emperor to make seven naval expeditions, each
comprising hundreds of ships and crews numbering more than 20,000.
The various expeditions went from China to Southeast Asia, South
Asia, the Arabian Peninsula and East Africa. Rather than voyages of
exploration, these expeditions followed established trade routes and
were diplomatic in nature and helped expand contacts among and
provide information about the regions visited. Zheng used Java and
Sumatra as waystops and, on his first voyage, destroyed a Chinese
pirate fleet based near Palembang on the north coast of Sumatra. He
also is said to have developed close contacts with Melaka on the
Malay Peninsula.
The major impetus to Islamization was provided by Melaka, a rich
port city that dominated the Strait of Malacca and controlled much
of the archipelago's trade during the fifteenth century. According
to LEGEND, Melaka was founded in 1400 by a princely descendant of
the rulers of Srivijaya who fled Palembang after an attack by
Majapahit. Originally a Hindu-Buddhist, this prince converted to
Islam and assumed the name Iskandar Syah. Under his rule and that of
his successors, Melaka's trading fleets brought Islam to coastal
areas of the archipelago. According to the SIXTEENTH CENTURY
PORTUGUESE CHRONICLER TOM PIRES, whose Suma Oriental is perhaps THE
BEST ACCOUNT OF EARLY SIXTEENTH CENTURY INDONESIA, most of the
Sumatran states were Muslim. The kingdom known as Aceh, founded in
the early sixteenth century at the western tip of Sumatra, was a
territory of strong Islamic allegiance. In Pires's time, the ruler
of the Minangkabau people of central Sumatra and his court were
Muslim, but their subjects were not.
In eastern Indonesia, Islamization proceeded through the sixteenth
and seventeenth centuries, often in competition with the aggressive
proselytization of Portuguese and other Christian missionaries.
According to Pires, the island states of Ternate and Tidore, off the
west coast of Halmahera in Maluku, had Muslim sultans, and Muslim
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[t-net] Re: Cheng Ho, Islam dan Indonesia ==> Chan CT (bagian ke-II)

merchants had settled in the Banda Islands. In 1605 the ruler of


Gowa in southern Sulawesi (Celebes) converted to Islam and
subsequently imposed Islam on neighboring rulers. Muslim
missionaries were sent from the north coast of Java to Lombok,
Sulawesi, and Kalimantan until the late seventeenth century.
Because of the antiquity of Java's civilizations and the relative
isolation of some of its most powerful kingdoms, the process of
Islamization there was both complex and protracted. The DISCOVERY OF
MUSLIM GRAVESTONES DATING FROM THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY near the site
of the Majapahit court suggests that members of the elite converted
to Islam while the king remained an adherent of Indian religions.
The early focus of conversion was the northern coastal region, known
as the Pasisir (Javanese for coast). Melaka's domination of trade
after 1400 promoted a substantial Islamic presence in the Pasisir
region, which lay strategically between Melaka to the west and
Maluku to the east. MUSLIM MERCHANTS WERE NUMEROUS, ALTHOUGH THEIR
ROLE IN THE CONVERSION OF ROYAL COURTS IS UNCLEAR. The north shore
state of Gresik was ruled by one of the nine saints. During the
sixteenth century, after Melaka had ceased to be an Islamic center
following its capture by the Portuguese in 1511, the Malay trading
network shifted to Johore and northwest Kalimantan.
Download pdf file:
<http://epublishing.library.cornell.edu/Dienst/UI/1.0/Summarize/seap.indo/1106
968368>

[11] Penyebaran Islam diAsia menurut sumber2 sejarah lain yang bisa
dipercaya:
<http://www.ccg.org/english/s/b7_9.html>
The Origins and Method of Islams' Arrival in Sumatra
According to Ethnic Groups of Insular Southeast Asia vol 1, Human
Relations Area Files Press, New Haven,1972, pp. 15ff. at p.16,
Chinese sources dating from as early as 500 AD contain references to
the Kingdom of Poli in North Sumatra, within the present bounds of
Aceh, which apparently was ruled by Buddhists of Indian extraction.
In the middle of the fourteenth century. Ibn Battuta found at Pase a
flourishing Islamic state, which had evidently been in existence for
some time before his arrival. By the beginning of the sixteenth
century, the center of power had moved to the valley of the Aceh
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[t-net] Re: Cheng Ho, Islam dan Indonesia ==> Chan CT (bagian ke-II)

River, and from 1507 until the beginning of the twentieth century a
long line of sultans existed here, whose domain at some periods
extended over most of Sumatra but whose actual power was quite
limited outside the confines of Great Aceh.
The Acehnese people:
have been divided by some into hill people (ureueng tunong) and
lowland people (ureueng baroh) on the basis of physical type and
minor cultural differences. Racially, they are a product of many
centuries of interbreeding of indigenes with Bataks, Hindus,
Dravidians, Javanese, Arabs, Chinese, and Niasan slaves. No good
anthropometric data exist, but observers agree that there is
considerable physical divergence between the inland population, of a
fairly homogeneous proto-Malay type, and the coastal Acehnese, who
are physically quite heterogeneous, although relatively slim, tall
and almost Caucasoid in appearance (Kennedy 1935).
According to William Dampier in 1688 (Voyages and Discoveries, ed. C
Wilkinson, London, Argonaut Press 1931), as well as importing the
majority of their rice, agriculture was by:
... Slaves brought lately by the English and the Danes from the
Coast of Coromandel, in the Time of a Famine there, I spoke of
before, who first brought this Sort of Husbandry into such Request
among the Acehnese. Yet neither does the Rice they have this way
supply one Quarter of their Occasions, but they have it brought to
them from their Neighbouring Countries." (Quoted by A Reid in Trade
and the Problem of Royal Power in Aceh. Three Stages: c. 15550-1700
in Monographs of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society,
No. 6, Pre-Colonial State Systems in Southeast Asia, Anthony Reid et
al, Kuala Lumpur, Rajiv Printers 1975, p 54).
This influx of Indian slaves is confirmed later by Charles Lockyer
and Snouck Hurgronje (see ibid., p. 54).
The use of slaves, or bondmen, by the lowland city groups is noted
by Reid in Southeast Asia in the Age of Commerce 1450-1560 Vol. 1:
The Lands below the Winds at pp. 131 ff.
This form of labour was common over an extended period. The hill
peoples provided the labour either selling captives or more often
simply being raided for slaves. The city populace often had to
provide half their time in labour to the king. So often it was more
profitable to enter into bondship. This was sometimes abused and was
denounced, according to Reid, by some monarchs. It is obvious from
this practice that tribal custom would be syncretised repeatedly.
It is clear that by 1281 Islam had made some progress in Sumatra at
Malayu as the Chinese chose to dispatch the Muslims, Sulaiman and
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[t-net] Re: Cheng Ho, Islam dan Indonesia ==> Chan CT (bagian ke-II)

Chams ud-din to Malayu as emissaries. Ten years later Marco Polo


noted in his description of Perlak in the extreme north of Sumatra
(he refers to it as Ferlec) that the people were all idolaters but
on account of the Saracen traders were converted to "The law of
Mahomet."
According to G W J Drewes, "New Light on the Coming of Islam to
Indonesia" reprinted in Readings on Islam in Southeast Asia,
compiled by Ahmed Ibrahim et al, Institute of Southeast Asian
Studies, Singapore, 1985, p. 7-17:
...Pijnappel ascribes the spread of Islam in the Indonesian
Archipelago to these Shafii Arabs of Gujerat and Malabar (pp. 7-8)
The inhabitants of the Deccan resided in the port cities as
middlemen in great numbers (p.8)
...Pijnappel ascribes the spread of Islam in the Indonesian
Archipelago to these Shafii Arabs of Gujerat and Malabar, especially
because these regions are mentioned so frequently in the early
history of the Archipelago. The Persian influence would also be
explained, partially at least, by this contact with the western
coast of India.
Thus the preaching of Islam is still thought of as proceeding from
Arabs, but these no longer come directly from the Arab countries,
but from India, and in particular from the west coast - from Gujerat
and Malabar. (pp. 7-8)
Snouck Hurgronje:
first developed the proposition of the South Indian origin of
Indonesian Islam. When Islam had once gained a firm hold in the port
cities of South India, 'the inhabitants of the Deccan, who resided
in great numbers in the port cities of this island-world as
middlemen in the trade between the Muslim states (i.e. the states of
western Asia) and the East Indies, were as if in the nature of
things destined to scatter the first seeds of the new religion'
(Drewes p. 8)
Both he (for Achenese literature) and Bausani (for Malay) noted the
incidence of Persian words in Malay and Javanese literature,
demonstrating the derivation from Indian sources.
Numerous Persian words and names appear in Malay and Javanese
stories, and famous Persian names appear in Achenese literature.
These were summarised by Snouck Hurgronje (De Atjehers) in 1894 and
more deeply in 1907 (Arabia and the East Indies). Bausani made the
observation that 90% of the Persian words in Malay indicate concrete
objects and "not even 10% abstract or adjectival concepts, and that
only for a limited number can definite borrowing from India not be
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[t-net] Re: Cheng Ho, Islam dan Indonesia ==> Chan CT (bagian ke-II)

established". (cf. Drewes, p. 9). Snouck Hurgronje (in his work on


the Gayo country in the south of Greater Aceh of 1903) considers the
significance of Marco Polo's report on Sumatra very much
exaggerated, and the report of just 50 years earlier was mentioned
only in passing by Ibn Battuta who visited the place on his journey
from Bengal to China.
Snouck makes note of three Muslim gravestones from the first half of
the 15th century discovered in the 'Pase' district of which Ibn
Battuta spoke. One of these was of an "Abbasid prince, a great-greatgrandson of the caliph al-Muntasir" who had "undoubtedly floated in
from Delhi, where his father had lived for a long time at the
expense of the maharaja of Hindustan" (Drewes ibid). Snouck further
notes that, as Van Ronkel had first observed, these three
gravestones from northern Sumatra show a striking resemblance to the
gravestone in Gresik of Malik Ibrahim "who died in 1418 and belongs
to the eight or nine chief saints of Java who are recorded in
tradition as the bringers of Islam." (ibib.) Drewes goes on to say
that:
Moquette had then not yet made his discovery that these stones were
imported ready-made, but without names from Gujerat.
Snouck proposed the year 1200: "as the earliest date for the 'first
serious steps' toward inclusion of the Indonesian Archipelago into
the territory of Islam" (ibid.) ostensibly taken by Arab merchants
from India.
Professor Aboebakar Atjeh (Sekitar Masuknja Islam ke Indonesia
Semarang, 1971) considers that the argument for the Gujarati based
movement, as identified by the Dutch, is incomplete and even after
identifying the six grounds on which it would be correct, attempts
to establish an earlier chain of descent for Islam in Indonesia.
Others have attempted to start from the Prophet himself. He seems to
dispute Western historical analysis on the grounds that not enough
Arab writers were taken into account save Ibn Battutah (ibid., p.34)
and that these untranslated works will inevitably reveal the Dutch
errors, although it is not clear which works he means.
The attempts at establishing a chain of authority with the Prophet
is very necessary for the Tariqahs, as their syncretic Indianized
traditions are quite at variance with the Koran and involve a
metaphysical system, which is Chaldean and not Abrahamic. This is
dealt with in the section on the philosophy of Mysticism. At any
rate there appears to be no real evidence for the construction of
direct chain or lineage and in fact a great deal of hard evidence
against the proposition.
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[t-net] Re: Cheng Ho, Islam dan Indonesia ==> Chan CT (bagian ke-II)

Moquette, importantly, discovered in 1912 that the gravestones in


the Pase district, as well as those in Gresik, originated from
Cambay in Gujerat and all were from the 15th century and later
(ibid.). The gravestone of Malik al-Salih who died in 1297, was of
another quite different type than those of Cambay and Moquette
suggests placement on the grave "some time after the death of the
ruler". According to Drewes, from this assertion of Moquette, came
the 'peculiarly Dutch error' regarding origins of time and location.
Cambay is held to have been Hindu in 1293. Gujerat came under Muslim
rule in 1297, although the Muslims were extant among the Moplahs
from 782/3 in northern Malabar and also in Ceylon and among the
Maracayars of the Coromandel Coast.
G.E. Marrison, (1951) noted that Marco Polo describes Cambay as a
Hindu city in 1293 and that Gujerat came under Muslim rule only in
1297. The Muslims are held to have been extant among the Moplahs,
from a grave dated 782/3) in (northern) Malabar and also in Ceylon
and among the Maracayars of the Coromandel Coast. Drewes points out
that Moquette overlooked the work of the Lisbon apothecary Tome
Pires, the Suma Oriental (published in English in 1944 with the
title page An Account of the East, from the Red Sea to Japan). Pires
was sent to India in 1511 at 40 years of age 'as an agent for
drugs.' He was sent to Malacca within a year by Alfonso
d'Albuquerque in a more responsible position. He returned to Cochin
in 1515 and completed the Suma Oriental. He was then despatched to
China as the head of a mission. He sailed via Pase and Malacca to
Canton arriving in 1517. He was imprisoned there because the
Portuguese had seized Malacca in 1511, which was under suzerainty to
the Chinese Emperor. He was released after some years and died as an
exile at about 70.
>From Marco Polo's observation of Cambay and the gravestone of Malik
al-Salih of Pase who died in 1297 and is assumed to be already a
Muslim, Drewes considers Pires to erroneously assert the following:
a. Cambay was seized by the Muslims some 300 years prior i.e. in
1215, and even in Pires' own time was still mainly in non Muslim
hands, as he himself says; and
b. Pase still had a heathen king until about 160 years before or
about 1355. i.e.:
"he reports that Pase still had a heathen King until about 160 years
before then - hence till about 1355 -while we know from the
gravestones of the earliest princes of Pase that Malik al-Salih, who
died in 1297, was already a Muslim." (Drewes)
His assertion that the king of Aru was said to have "turned Moor
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[t-net] Re: Cheng Ho, Islam dan Indonesia ==> Chan CT (bagian ke-II)

before any of the others, even before the king of Pase" (II:245 cf.
Drewes p. 11) is devalued by Drewes although it is logically
possible. Pires described Pasai as a rich city, containing many
Moorish and Indian traders, among whom the Bengalis were the most
important. He distinguishes further Rumis, Turks, Arabs, Persians,
Gujeratis, Klings, Malays, Javanese and Siamese. The people
consisted mainly of Bengalis or people of Bengal origin. The people
under Moorish influence appointed a 'Moorish king of the Bengali
caste' but the countryside was still heathen, although Islam was
progressing daily. The kings were killed on a repetitive basis, as
in Bengal and whoever killed him provided he was Muslim succeeded in
his place. Drewes considers Pires may have been told this by a
Bengali, out of nationalistic exaltation.
This information of Pires is the basis for the assertions of the
Bengal origin of Islam in Indonesia and was taken up by Professor
S.Q. Fatimi in 1963 (Islam Comes to Malaysia, Malaysian Sociol,
Research Institute Ltd. Singapore). He refers (from Parker) to the
Chinese report of the Chinese traveller at Qui[l]lon in South India
in 1282 meeting with the official from Su-mu-ta (Samudra) who was
urged to send envoys to China. Soon after the envoys Hasan and
Suleiman were sent, thus it was taken that they were Muslim. But
note the Chinese mission of 1281 above. It may have been deemed
politic to send Islamic Samudran envoys after receiving Islamic
Chinese ones. Another alternative is that the accounts themselves
have been confused. Certainly the title of the Samudran King at this
time was ta-kur which is of North Indian derivation and not Muslim.
Drewes notes from the Chinese report of 1282 (cf. Parker 'The Island
of Sumatra" in The Imperial and Asiatic Quarterly Review, 3rd
series, vol. IX, 1900 and referred to by Drewes p.13). It is
apparently derived from the Hindi thakur or the Sanskrit thakkura
meaning lord or master and which occurs in many North Indian
languages, but sometimes in other meanings (see Turner A Comparative
Dictionary of the Indo-Aryan Languages No. 5488).
Both Fatimi and Drewes are in agreement on one fundamental point and
that is that, long before Islam, relations existed between Bengal
and the Indonesian Archipelago. It was by travelling from the port
of Tamralipta in Bengal, as well as overland that the Sailendra
realm received the form of Mahayana Buddhism, which became dominant
in the Archipelago.
It has been mentioned above that in the middle of the 9th century
the Sumatran Sialendra king Balaputra Deva, founded a Buddhist
monastry at Nalanda in Bengal, setting aside the five villages
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[t-net] Re: Cheng Ho, Islam dan Indonesia ==> Chan CT (bagian ke-II)

granted him by the king of Bengal for their maintenance (cf.


Professor Bosch's 1925 article and quoted by Drewes ibid.). This is
probably the common point for the fusion of Tantric rites and the
Mother Goddess and possibly the manifestation of Princess of the
Southern Ocean among others.
Bengal was overcome by Muslims about 1200, and Islamised. This was a
century before Gujarat and South India. Fatimi thus reasons, from
the history of Islam in India, which mentions many great Mystics who
went to Bengal and from there demonstrated missionary fervour; that
they would have proceeded to Sumatra.
Drewes considers that the Southern Indian origin of Islam is more
correct, presumably from the derivation of the Malay religious
teacher lebai, from the Tamil word labbai (written ilappai). He
considers it irrelevant whether this is interpreted from the South
Indian Shafi'i Muslims called Labbai centred at Nagore on the
Coromandel Coast. To Drewes the question has been re-opened and
requires research in Northern Sumatra.
Drewes considers Professor Johns correct in opposing the conception
attributed to Schrieke and Wertheim that the coming of the
Portuguese contributed to a large degree to the spread of Islam in
Indonesia. Drewes differs with Professor Johns, attributing to him
the postulation of "a world-wide Muslim mission, and in the spirit
sees Muslim preachers going on board amid bales of produce 'to
attend to the spiritual needs of the craft or trade guild they were
chaplain to, or to spread their gospel'". As Professor Johns says
this may well be irrelevant.
Professor Johns holds that the beginnings of Islam in the Malay
world derive from trade and a specific point of origin, for any
particular Muslim community is not of primary concern and is in fact
irrelevant, coming from the Muslim character of the mercantile
history of the Indian Ocean and of the silk road through central
Asia, with new Muslim trading communities generated at the focal
points of international trade and local barter. "There is no single
answer as to the question of the whence of Islam in the Malay
world". Trade in the Indian Ocean was by Tamil, Chinese, Persian and
Arab vessels with a wide variety of crews, travellers and religious
teachers and far predated Islam. (Johns, p.39)
The concept of trade is only part of the story of the spread of
Islam. It was not written on a blank page, but superimposed on an
animistic system influenced by Hindu and Buddhist concepts and
already syncretised in the north.
Whilst there is no simple answer, the question is clearly of
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[t-net] Re: Cheng Ho, Islam dan Indonesia ==> Chan CT (bagian ke-II)

relevance in establishing a certain history, even if only in


controlling the assertions of Indonesian Muslim Historians in their
quest for antiquity.
The first Islamic port city in the region was the Sultanate of Pasai
in the thirteenth century. It was followed by others, at other
points on Sumatra, on the Malay Peninsula, the north coast of Java,
Borneo and the Celebes. These port cities either developed to fill a
power vacuum where no rival state existed (as in the case of
Malacca) or challenged and took over already existing maritime
states, and from there spread to the hinterland. (Johns, p. 39.)
Islamization began when Muslim merchants stopped off and sometimes
married at particular settlements, between monsoons etc. The nucleus
of the Islamic state in any environment is established in the
principles of social order, community government and a selfsustaining educational system. The legitimacy of any other power
exercising authority over it is not tolerated and thus:
there is a progression then from a group, to a self-governing
community, to a politically active community which becomes strong
enough to seize power and establish its own authority. (Johns pp.3940)
The study of these local states is vital to understanding. The
starting point must be the Sejarah Melayu itself. (ibid.)
The Sejarah Melayu is ad hoc in character from which it is difficult
to understand the role of Islam in either fifteenth century Malacca
or fourteenth century Pasai. (Johns, pp.41-42)
But from 1291 the Islamization was only in the cities and probably
confined to 'Perlak' in north Sumatra as Marco Polo states in
Observations of Sumatra, which had degenerated to six kingdoms. Of
Perlak he observed that the Muslims were inhabitants of the city
only and "the inhabitants of the mountains are like Beasts." (from
Coedes p. 203). He also states that Pasaman on the south west coast
have no law unless it be that of brute beasts." (ibid.) They said
they were "lieges of the Great Kaan" but paid no tribute. He
allegedly resided for five months in Sumudra or Pasai, where he
drank palm liquor. In Dagroian, he described cannibalistic rites.
(These rites were practised by many Malay peoples from Borneo to
Sumatra as punishments for breaches of the adat, i.e. death by
ritual feast.)
At Lamuri or Achin he mentions men with [?] tails, and at Baros he
refers to this as the country of camphor and of trees that yield
flour for bread. We can therefore establish that in 1291 Islam had
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[t-net] Re: Cheng Ho, Islam dan Indonesia ==> Chan CT (bagian ke-II)

virtually made no significant penetration of Sumatra outside the


city of Perlak in the north.
With the fall of the Srivijaya Kingdom caused by the loss of its
peninsular possessions to the Thai and its island possession to the
Javanese, Hindu power and thus its religion was eclipsed, and the
void was filled by, Islam and later Christianity.
According to current Javanese opinion, the Majapahit had not yielded
to Islam until 1478 and so the inscriptions on the stones at Tralaya
near the supposed site of the kraton of the Majapahit Empire, are
assumed to be of a later date. However from Damais' interpretation
of the dates there was Muslim influence in the hinterland of the
Javanese from 1376 at the height of the Majapahit Empire under Hayam
Wuruk thus indicating its extent. According to Drewes notations, the
years on the gravestones are with one exception of the Saka era and
according to the decipherment of Damais, run from 1298S to 1397S,
i.e., from CE 1376 to 1475. One stone is of later date i.e., from
1533S or 1611. The stone with a Hijra year is from A.H.874, or
1391/92S or CE 1469/70. The stones with the Saka dates bear only
verses from the Koran and pious formulas, but the one with the Hijra
year mentions the personal name Zainuddin an Arabic name, but one,
which could have been borne by a Javanese. Thus according to Damais'
interpretation there were already Muslims of Javanese race in the
capital of the realm, in the time of Majapahit's greatest prosperity
under the reign of Hayam Wuruk. Thus Muslim influence in the
interior previously thought to be limited to 1370S from the grave of
the princess of Cempa, (a Muslim wife of one of the kings of
Majapahit) is now demonstrable over 70 years earlier in 1298S or CE
1376.

--- In tionghoa-net@yahoogroups.com, "ChanCT" <[EMAIL PROTECTED]> wrote:


>
> Pak Indoshepherd yth,
>
> Jangan buru-buru mendamprat "omong-kosong", "Kebohongan
Besar", "Isapan-jempol" bahwa kemungkinan Islam dibawa masuk ke
Indonesia oleh Laksamana Cheng Ho, 600 tahun yl itu. Sejarah terus
berputar sebagaimana adanya, yang menjadi soal adalah catatan
sejarah yang kita pelajari, seringkali bisa berbeda dengan kenyataan
sejarah yang terjadi sesungguhnya. Pertama, bisa karena belum
diketemukannya fakta-fakta sejarah secara menyeluruh, terjadi
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[t-net] Re: Cheng Ho, Islam dan Indonesia ==> Chan CT (bagian ke-II)

kesalahan kesimpulan akibat dari data yang hanya sepotong itu;


kedua, adanya penafsiran subjektif yang tidak berdasar fakta
kenyataan, kesalahan data yang didapat; ketiga, penguasa jalim yang
memaksa penulisan sejarah sesuai dengan kehendak penguasa untuk
menegakkan "kebenaran tunggal", sebagaimana yang terjadi semasa Orba
berkuasa 32 tahun itu.
>
cut oleh moderator.
---Catatan moderator.
Tulisan2 sebelumnya yang dikutip lengkap dalam tulisan ini telah dibuang
sebagian oleh moderator. Harap dalam menanggapi suatu tulisan, indoshepherd
tidak menyertakan semua tulisan2 lama yang bisa dilihat di arsip, cukup
diambil
sebagian kecil saja agar pembaca tahu tulisan mana yang ditanggapi.
JT

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[t-net] Re: Cheng Ho, Islam dan Indonesia ==> Chan CT (bagian ke-II) indoshepherd

Kirimkan email ke

indoshepherd

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