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PERALATAN KESELAMATAN DI AIR

2. SASARAN YANG INGIN DICAPAI:<br />1. MENGETAHUI BAHAN DAN KEGUNAAN PERALATAN
KESELAMATAN DI AIR <br />2. MAMPU MENYEBUTKAN PERALATAN KESELAMATAN DI AIR<br />3.
MENJELASKAN FUNGSI PERALATAN<br />4. MAMPU MENGGUNAKANPERALATAN KESELAMATAN DI
AIR<br />

3. PENGERTIAN WATER RESCUE<br />Adalahkegiatanpertolongandanpemindahankorbandiperairan


(laut, sungai, dsb)<br />

4. PERALATAN KESELAMATAN DI AIR<br />RING BUOY<br />LIFE VEST/JACKET<br />RESCUE TUBE<br


/>SPINAL BOARD<br />TORPEDO BUOY<br />

5. TIPE LIVE VEST/JACKET<br />1. Offshore Life Jacket<br />Tipe jenis ini memang dirancang untuk
kondisi perairan terbuka, mengkondisikan daerah wajah tetap berada di atas karena dukungan 20
pon spon apung. Pada situasi terpencil yang dapat dipastikan bantuan akan lambat datang, Jaket ini
dirancang untuk bisa tahan lama.<br />2. Near-Shore Vest<br />Tipe klasik, biasanya bisa untuk
dewasa dan anak-anak. Dirancang untuk situasi air tenang dan tidak berarus. Sebaiknya bantuan
segera datang .<br />3. Flotation Aid<br />Tipe ini yang sering dan banyak digunakan oleh orang,
bentuknya sangat nyaman, banyak variasi, bentuk dan tipenya. Tipe standar ini juga untuk
penyelamatan di perairan yang tenang.<br />4. Special Use Device<br />Disebut juga jaket hybrid
(gabungan), menggunakan rompi khusus yang juga bisa dipergunakan untuk bekerja. Rompi khusus
ini juga menambah peralatan tiup untuk mendukung daya apung lebih tinggi.<br />

6. THROWABLE DEVICE<br />Bantal atau cincin pelampung yang dirancang untuk dilempar kepada
seseorang dalam kesulitan. Mereka tidak selama berjam-jam di perairan, tidak bisa berenang atau
tidak sadar (ring buoy, rescue tube dan torpedo buoy, dsb)<br />

7. Ж Spesifikasi Ring Buoy : Berbahan fiber atau busa<br /> Menampung beban 2 – 6 (max) orang
terapung <br /> Diameter Luar : 73cm<br /> Diameter Dalam: 45cm<br /> Tebal 12cm<br />
Berukuran 72 x 72 x 53cm<br /> Berat ± 2 Kg<br />Ж Spesifikasi Rescue Tube : Warna merah, kuning
dan orange<br /> Dimensi 128 x 14.5 x 9 Cm<br /> Pengait dari stainless steel<br /> Material dari
tertutup busa plastik yang baik, tahan lama <br /> dan fleksibel<br />ЖSpesifikasi Torpedo Buoy :
Ukuran 762 x 282 x 211mm<br /> Berbahan Busa atau fiber<br /> Berbentuk menyerupai
torpedo<br /> Menggunakan strap bahu dan tali sepanjang 2M<br />

8. Ж Spesifikasi Spinal Board : Berbahan fiber atau plastik<br /> Anti slip dengan densitas tinggi<br />
Central lengkap dengan Immobilisers Kaki Secara terpisah dan tahan terhadap Cairan Tubuh.<br />
Lebar Panjang 1830mm-410mm 227 KG Load Kapasitas<br />

9. SELF RESCUE<br />(SURVIVAL)<br />

10. SASARAN YANG INGIN DICAPAI:<br />ЖMENGETAHUI TENTANG SURVIVAL<br />ЖMENGETAHUI


TEKNIK SELF RESCUE TANPA ALAT<br />Ж MENGETAHUI TEKNIK SELF RESCUE DENGAN
MENGGUNAKAN ALAT APUNG<br />

11. PENGERTIAN SURVIVAL<br />“KEMAMPUAN BERTAHAN HIDUP DIMANA NYAWA DALAM


KEADAAN TERANCAM”<br />
12. SIKAP DALAM SURVIVAL<br />Ж SIKAP MENTAL POSITIF<br />Ж MAKSIMALKAN AKAL DAN
PIKIRAN<br />ЖSADARI KEADAAN DAN PELAJARI LINGKUNGAN<br />

13. HYPOTHERMIA<br />Kondisi yang


dapatmengancamnyawadimanatubuhgagalmempertahankansuhu normal
tubuhdanterjadinyapenurunansuhutubuhdibawah 35 derajatcelcius<br />

14. FAKTOR YANG DAPAT MENINGKATKAN WAKTU SURVIVAL<br />Orang yang sehatlebih lama
bertahandiairdaripadaorangsakit<br />KONDISI FISIK<br />Tubuhbesar /
beratbadanlebihcenderungdapat survive lebih lama ketimbang yang berbadankecil / kurus<br
/>BERAT BADAN<br />Kenakansebanyakmungkindanjanganpernahmembuangnyadi air<br
/>PAKAIAN<br />Bagiantubuhtertentuditutupidarikehilanganpanastubuh yang berlebihan<br
/>POSISI TUBUH<br />

15. SELF RESCUE TANPA ALAT<br />Ж MENGAMBANG SURVIVAL<br />ЖDENGAN MENGGUNAKAN
BAJU UNTUK MENGAPUNG<br />ЖDENGAN MENGGUNAKAN CELANAUNTUK MENGAPUNG<br />

16. SELF RESCUE DENGAN ALAT APUNG<br />H.E.L.P POSITION<br />Ж Kepaladiatas air,
termasuktengkuk<br />Ж Kenakantopi / benda2x utkmenutupkepala<br />Ж
Rapatkanlengankesisitubuhdan dada<br />Ж Genggamalat bantu
apungdanbertahanserapatmungkin<br />Ж Silangkankaki, lututterangkat,
akanmemudahkanstabilisasibilaadaombak, usahakandanpertahankanlututtetaprapat<br />

17. HUDDLE Position<br />ЖKepaladiatas air, termasuktengkuk<br


/>ЖTangansalingbersilangdanmemelukteman lain disekitaralat bantu apung.
Usahakantetapserapatmungkin<br />ЖMaksimalkanpersentuhantubuh, terutamapadabagian
dada<br />Ж Kaki salingsilangdengan kaki teman lain<br
/>ЖSalingberbicarauntukmembangkitkansemangat / Percayadiri<br />ЖKelompok yang
lebihbesarmemberikankesempatanpertukaranbagiorang yang kelelahanuntukistirahatditengah-
tengahkelompok<br />

PENYEBAB SESEORANG MENJADI KORBAN TENGGELAM :

1. Tidak bisa berenang.


2. Kelelahan karena berenang.
3. Kram/kejang otot saat berenang.
4. Sebab lain.

Tindakan Pertolongan Pertama Kegawatdaruratan di Air

Pertolongan pertama pada kecelakaan di air adalah bantuan pertama yang dilakukan atau
diberikan kepada orang yang terkena cedera akibat kecelakaan yang berlangsung di air,
pertolongan pertama ini dilakukan sebelum ditangani oleh tenaga medis dengan sasaran
menyelamatkan nyawa si korban, menghindari cedera atau kondisi yang lebih parah dan
mempercepat penyembuhan pada korban.

Kecelakaan yang biaa terjadi di kolam renang adalah sebagai berikut.


A. Berhenti Bernapas Secara Mendadak

PPPK atau P3K bagi korban atau pasien yang berhenti bernapas secara mendadak yaitu, jika
seseorang mengalami napas yang mendadak berhenti haruslah segera dilakukan tindakan yang
berupa melakukan napas buatan. Langkah-langkah melakukan napas buatan, sebagai berikut.

 Kepala korban diletakkan dengan posisi dagu mendongak ke atas.


 Rahang ditarik sampai mulut terbuka.
 Pastikan mulut korban maupun penolong dalam keadaan yang bersih dan ebaiknya mulut
korban dibersihkan terlebih dahulu. Seorang penolong harus segera membuka mulut lebar-
lebar, ditempelkan ke mulut korban rapat-rapat dan pencet hidung atau tutup hidung
korban dengan pipi, atau dapat juga dengan jalan tutup mulut korban rapat-rapat
selanjutnya penolong menempelkan mulutnya ke hidung korban dan meniupnya.
 Tiup ke mulut/hidung korban, kepada :
a) Orang dewasa secara teratur dan kuat ditiupkan 12 kali tiupan pada setiap menit.
b) Anak-anak ditiupkan 20 kali tiap menit.
B. Memar

Memar bisa terjadi karena trauma atau benturan korban terhadap benda-benda keras. Misalnya
ketika berlari di sekitar kolam yang licin lalu terjatuh atau terbentur dinding kolam ketika
berenang akibat mata dalam keadaan mata kurang memperhatikan dengan baik ke dalam air.
Tanda yang muncul atau terlihat adanya benjolan pada bagian yang terantuk, kadang disertai
wama kebiruan memar (dapat muncul esok hari). Benjol dan kebiruan ini disebabkan karena
pembuluh darah pada bagian yang terkena benturan terjadi pecah dan darahnya masuk ke dalam
jaringan sekitarnya. Tindakan yang diberikan yaitu ebagai berikut:

 Cara mengatasinya jika tidak ada luka terlihat harus langsung dikompres dingin pada
bagian yang terbentur. Hal ini untuk mencegah bertambah banyaknya darah yang
merembes ke jaringan atau organ tubuh lain. Pengompresan juga akan mengurangi udema
atau pembengkakan.
 Pada hari berikutnya dilihat kondisi pembengkakan berkurang atau tidak. Pada periode ini
penatalaksanaan ditujukan untuk mengurangi atau menghilangkan pembengkakan pada
bagian yang terbentur. Cara yang digunakan dengan memberikan kompres panas selama 3-
5 menit, untuk melebarkan pembutuh darah setempat, setelah itu dikompres dingin selama
1-2 menit. Hal ini dilakukan 4 - 5 kali sehari sampai bengkak menghilang.
 Hal yang perlu diperhatikan saat melakukan kompres panas tetapi suhu panas jangan
sampai menimbulkan luka bakar.
 Kompres panas dapat menggunakan air panas dalam kantong atau dengan obat pemanas
kulit ( salep/ krim / balsam ). Penggunaan obat yang ditempatkan pada kulit korban perlu
diperhatikan efek yang terjadinya.
C. Shok

Pertolongan pertama dalam menangani hal shok yaitu, sebagai berikut.


 Setiap kecelakaan, kebakaran, keracunan yang parah, sering kali disertai dengan shok
baik ringan atau juga parah, bahkan sampai dapat terjadi kefatalan, karena shok merupakan
reaksi tubuh yang ditandai oleh melambatnya atau terhentinya peredaran darah dan
berakibat penurunan persediaan darah pada organ-organ penting.
 Tanda-tanda Shok
a) Denyut nadi cepat tapi lemah
b) Merasa lemas
c) Muka pucat
d) Kulit dingin, keringat dingin di kening dan telapak tangan, kadang-kadang pasien
menggigil
e) Merasa haus
f) Merasa mual
g) Nafas tidak teratur
h) Tekanan darah sangat rendah
 Pertolongan Pertama Mengurangi Shok antara lain dilakukan dengan cara :
a) Menghentikan pendarahan
b) Meniadakan hambatan-hambatan pada saluran nafas
c) Memberi nafas buatan
d) Menyelimuti dan meletakkan penderita pada posisi yang paling menyenangkan
 Langkah - langkah Pelaksanaan Pertolongan Pertama Mengurangi Shok :
a) Baringan korban dengan posisi kepala sama datar atau lebih rendah dari tubuh, dengan
tujuan untuk menambah aliran darah ke jantung dan otak. Bila kaki tidak patah, tungkai
dapat ditinggikan 30-45 cm di atas posisi kepala.
b) Selimuti pasien dan hindarkan dari lantai serta udara dingin
c) Usahakan pasien tidak melihat lukanya
d) Pasien/penderita yang sadar, tidak muntah dan tidak mengalami luka di perut, dapat
diberi larutan shok yang terdiri dari :
(1) 1 sendok teh garam dapur
(2) ½ sendok teh tepung soda kue
(3) 4-5 gelas air
(4) dan bisa juga ditambah air kelapa/kopi kental/teh
 Perlakukan pasien dengan lemah lembut, sebab rasa nyeri akibat penanganan yang kasar
bisa menjerumuskan korban pada shok yang lebih parah lagi.
D. Kram

Kram adalah sebuah kontraksi otot yang memendek atau kontraksi sekumpulan otot yang terjadi
secara mendadak dan singkat, yang biasanya menimbulkan rasa nyeri. Kram biasa terjadi pada
seseorang yang sehat, terutama setelah korban melakukan aktivitas yang sangat berat. Beberapa
orang lainnya mengalami kram pada tungkainya ketika sedang tidur pada malam hari. Kram bisa
disebabkan oleh kurangnya aliran darah ke otot yang terkena kram tersebut. Kram paling sering
terjadi pada otot betis atau kaki si korban. Kram biasanya tidak berbahaya dan tidak perlu diobati.
Kram bisa dicegah dengan menghindari olah raga yang dilakukan setelah makan dan
meregangkan otot-otot sebelum berolah raga dan sebelum tidur.
E. Pingsan

Pingsan merupakan suatu keadaan seseorang yang kehilangan kesadarannya. Hal ini sering terjadi
karena kondisi fisik ataupun mental seseorang sedang tidak baik. Cara untuk mengatasi keadaan
ini, sebaiknya sebelum melakukan tindakan perhatikan pernapasannya. Bila masih bernafas
segera baringkan posisi korban dengan posisi kepala lebih rendah dari dada dan kaki, pakaian
yang kencang dilonggarkan. Badan segera dihangatkan. Pingsan karena kejiwaan agak sulit
ditangani sebab biasanya disertai kejang yang misalnya dalam keadaan histeris. Bila tidak
bernapas, raba nadinya, bila tidak teraba, lakukan tindakan resusitasi jantung paru. Bila tidak
dapat dilakukan, segeralah rujuk ke rumah sakit.

F. Tenggelam

Pertolongan pertama yang harus dilakukan pada korban yang tenggelam adalah sebagi berikut.
 Baringkan tubuh korban dalam posisi terlentang serta kepala menghadap ke belakang.
 Berikan nafas buatan dengan meniupkan udara nafas pada mulut korban.
 Miringkan kepala korban dan buka mulut korban dengan jari-jari tangan anda.
 Dalam posisi miring periksa denyut nadi korban pada bagian leher.
 Periksa mata korban.
 Lakukan napas buatan yang kedua dengan menekan tulang rusuk dada bagian bawah
berulang kali.
 Apabila napas korban sudah normal, ubah posisi terlentang menjadi telungkup kepala
dimiringkan.
 Apabila PPPK yang Anda lakukan belum juga berhasil, segera bawa ke dokter atau rumah
sakit terdekat.
Cara memegang korban tenggelam adalah pada rambut, pada pelipi, pada dagu, atau pada
dada.

Jaket Pelampung
Ring Buoy

APA YANG KITA LAKUKAN?

1. Berteriak sekuat mungkin untuk menarik perhatian orang lain.

2. Hubungi nomor telepon gawat darurat sesegera mungkin.

3. Lakukan pertolongan seaman mungkin JANGAN LAKUKAN masuk kelokasi tersebut


tanpa pengaman, kecuali anda mengenal lokasi. Bila tidak yakin dengan kemampuan diri
sendiri sebaiknya carilah bantuan." Lebih baik kehilangan satu orang daripada kehilangan
dua orang", maksudnya " Jangan menambah korban lebih banyak".

4. Cari kayu, tali, ring buoy yang dapat menjangkau korban, kalau tidak bisa baru berenang
menggunakan gaya bebas dengan kepala diangkat . Penolong saat melakukan pertolongan
terhadap korban harus tetap melihat kearah korban atau tempat terakhir korban agar bisa
mempelajari situasi dan kondisi disekitar korban.

5. Dekati korban, berhenti berenang dengan mengambil posisi sekitar dua meter dari korban
untuk memperkirakan bagaimana kondisi korban, lakukan komunikasi dengan korban, dan
sebutkan identitas penolong. untuk kasus korban yang masih sadar, berikut ini adalah kutipan
percakapan penolong dengan korban :

" Tenang, saya akan menolong anda, Nama saya Arizal Maulana, saya anggota Ganespa
Tangerang Selatan. Saya akan menolong anda, tolong ikuti perintah saya dan jangan
meronta".

Apabila korban meronta dan berusaha merangkul penolong, maka penolong harus berusaha
menjauhi korban, karena dalam kasus ini cukup sering ditemukan si penolong ikut tenggelam
juga akibat si korban panik dan meronta ketika berusaha ditolong, baik tenggelam dalam air
tawar maupun air laut.

6. Hindari kontak langsung bila korban panik dan lakukan teknik defends and release sampai
si korban terlihat kelelahan, baru kemudian lakukan teknik penyelamatan. Teknik ini
digunakan bila tindakan korban dapat mengancam nyawa penolong dan dikhawatirkan dapat
menambah korban baru. Catatan : Saat menarik korban untuk korban yang tidak bernafas,
diberi bantuan nafas mulut ke hidung sebanyak 1 kali dengan hitungan pemberian nafas
dengan jeda hitungan ke - 9 hitungan (Ref : ADS International)

7. Membawa korban ke darat dan letakkan ditempat yang aman.

8. Mengecek kesadaran korban dengan cara mengoyang - goyangkan tubuh korban sambil
menegur korban.

9. Selanjutnya dilakukan pertolongan dengan suatu rumusan sederhana yang mudah diingat
yaitu ABC. Hal ini diartikan sebagai :

A = Airway ( Jalan nafas )


B = Breathing ( Bernafas )
C = Circulation ( Sirkulasi, Peredaran Darah yakni jantung dan pembuluh darah )

10. Selanjutnya korban dibawah ke klinik atau rumah sakit terdekat untuk mendapatkan
pertolongan yang intensif.

Untuk kasus korban yang sadar tapi mengalami kesulitan bernafas maka dilakukan langkah -
langkah sebagai berikut :
 Posisikan korban pada posisi pulih atau posisi istirahat
 Bersihkan benda - benda yang menyumbat rongga mulut korban, contoh : gigi palsu,
makanan dll
 Kembalikan posisi normal, tekan dahi dan naikkan dagu ( posisi ini bertujuan untuk
memperlancar jalan nafas
 Bila diperlukan diberikan nafas buatan dua kali dari mulut ke mulut ( untuk
menghindari penularan penyakit, contoh Hepatitis, sebaiknya menggunakan alat bantu
pemberian nafas dari mulut ke mulut )
Untuk korban yang tidak sadar, mempunyai nafas yang tidak kuat atau belum bernafas,
langkah - langkahnya sebagai berikut :
 Pada posisi normal dengan dagu terangkat sambil mengecek nadi di leher
 Jika tidak ada nadi maka dilakukan pertolongan ABC
 Jika nadinya kecil maka lakukan pertolongan AB + Supportive C, gunakan Algoritma
syok
Jika nadinya cukup maka lakukan pertolongan A dengan / tanpa B Untuk korban yang tidak
sadar, mempunyai nafas yang tidak kuat atau belum

Teknik defends
1. Menghalangi dengan kaki (leg block)
2. Menghalangi dengan tangan (arm block)
3. Elbow lift ( mengangkat siku)
4. Duck away

Untuk korban yang mematuhi perintah, lakukan tehnik penyelamatan dengan cara :
 Under arm carry
 Tired swimmer carry
 Wristow
 Hip carry
 Hip carry with pistol grip
 Double chin carry

Bila korban dapat diajak berkomunikasi dan tidak panik, maka penyelamat dapat melakukan
teknik pertolongan Sebagai penolong dalam melakukan pertolongan selalu dianjurkan
menggunakan alat bantu, namun demikian seorang penolong harus siap untuk melakukan
pertolongan dengan atau tanpa alat bantu.

Kalau korban sudah tenggelam, pertolongan harus dilakukan dengan menggunakan alat
pertolongan selam.

Water Rescue Awareness

2 Some quick statistics King County in 2006 31 people drowned


Of these 21 took place in open waterMost occurred in June and July- almost 30% of them in June.WA
State in 2005104 unintentional drowning deaths.Drowning is the second leading cause of unintentional
death for Children ages 17 and younger.

3 continuedCosts:One drowning death can be associated with up to $3 million in total costs, according to
the National Safety Council.

4 Basic characteristics of moving water


PowerfulRelentlessPredictableTest Question #2:Name two characteristics of moving water:A. Powerful
and fastB. Deep and challengingC. Relentless and predictableD. Cold and unpredictableWater has different
personality traits that can change based on: speedwater amountbed constructionbank formation.

5 Learn to respect the forces associated with moving water.


BeforeBig Thompson FloodColorado, July 31, 197632,800 cfs during the flood and ~400 cfs
normallyAfter

6 Laminar flowLayers of moving water which are slower on the bottom and along the banks (due to
increased friction)Moving water is faster toward the center, midstream and on the outside of bends
7 Laminar flowOutside BendStraight SectionFastestFastSlowSlowestWater layers slow near the bottom
and along banks due to frictionLaminar flow refers to how the current travels downstream. Several layers
of water will be moving together at different speeds.Faster water is usually located near the center of the
river just below the surface.Faster water should NOT have a wider path on the outside of a curve.Things
floating top river center are more likely to travel greater distances.

8 Helical flowA circular flow of water along the bank forcing water to midstreamPhenomenon caused by
friction between current and debris and material on the bankTest Question #4:Water flows down a river
bed in two forms, laminar and ____________.A. HydraulicB. HydroformC. HelicalD. HeliformHelical
flow: water traveling along the banks of the river. The friction between the water and the banks will cause
the water to spiral downstream between the banks and main current.

9 Helical & Laminar flow Laminar Flow Helical Flow


Helical flows can be used by the rescuer to move upstream with little effort.Helical flows can also be areas
of safe refuge and provide a place to rest.Helical flow is an area of high probability when searching for
victims or other evidence materials.Helical Flow

10 Water dynamics Water is fastest… at the surface and midstream.


Water slows down… along banks and bottom.Water is faster… at the outside of bends and slower on the
inside of bends.Water slows down and deepens… in front of dams and other obstructions.Test question
#5:Moving water is normally fastest atA. River center, close to the surfaceB. Upstream of an eddyC. In a
hydraulic or holeD. Below a low head dam

11 Time for float to travel 100 feet


Surface VelocityTime for float to travel 100 feetThrow a floating object (e.g. stick) in the water and record
the time it takes to travel 100 feetI knot = 1.15 mph.This will give you a quick reference to determine
potential downstream travel.* Advise students to add the “Seconds” column to their notes.Velocity:
measured in feet per second

12 Force of moving water Rule of thumb...


Water Velocity x 2 = Water Force x 4Test Question #9When the water velocity doubles, the force of the
water goes up by:A. 2B. 3C. 4D. 5All personnel must have the knowledge and a clear understanding of the
power of water.It doesn’t take much velocity to create considerable force, which can overcome a victim or
rescuer. The force can also knock you down and/or pin and trap you.(double the velocity = quadruple the
force)

13 Forces exerted by moving water...


The force exerted on an object in water is proportional to the surface area that is exposed to the
force.Double velocity, quadruple the forcelbf =Pounds of ForceThe force trapping a body depends on the
amount of surface area exposed.Moving water creates tremendous forces that have the power to move cars,
boulders, etc.Rescuers must consider the amount of force not only on themselves but when retrieving
victims as the surface area will be double or more.This also needs to be mentioned when considering live
bait rescue. The forces are increased when the rescuer make positive contact with a victim. This has a
profound effect on the shore personnel holding the rope.River Rescue, Ohio Department of Natural
Resources, 1980

14 Rivers in Flood

15 Classifications of water
Are in reference to that particular body of water based on normal flows and are not compared to other
water systemsAre used in relation to describe the conditions for recreational use of that particular body of
waterOnly apply when that body of water is within its banks
16 Categories of swiftwater
Class IClass IIClass IIIClass IVClass VClass VIFew obstructions, very small wavesEasy rapids up to 3
feet wide, obvious clear channelsHigh irregular waves, narrow channels, requires scoutingDifficult long
rapids, turbulent water requires scouting, rescue is difficultViolent long rapids, scouting is mandatory,
extremely dangerous rescueAlmost impossible to navigate, rescue is almost impossibleTest Question
#7:Class IV swiftwater can be described as:A. Very violent long rapids, mandatory scouting, rescue
extremely dangerous.B. High irregular waves with narrow channels.C. Almost impossible to navigate,
rescue almost impossible.D. Difficult long rapids with turbulent water, difficult rescue.

17 Rivers in floodMost rivers have a normal water level or range of normal levels of flow depending on
dry spells, recent storms or spring run off but the river flow stays within its banks and is relatively
predictable.Floods, however, are outside of the usual range of river conditions, because in flood, a river
overtops its banks, begins to flow through the flood plain and in the process becomes less predictable and
more dangerous.

18 Rivers in flood continued


The size and power of the river are both greatly increased, as is its carrying capacityAlmost all of the river
hazards become much more dangerous during a flood and there are often additional hazards due to the
floodFlood waters are laden with debris, which can clog intakes and foul propellers on rescue boatsTrees
and other large heavy objects join the river’s flow

19 Rivers in flood continued


Water flows through things on the flood plain like trees, fences, brush and debris, which greatly adds to the
danger of being “strained”As the river flows through “civilized” areas like streets, fields, and
neighborhoods, the danger of contamination from pesticides, fecal matter, dead livestock, and ordinary
household as well as industrial chemicals greatly increases

20 Rivers in flood continued


Eddies and eddy lines become a dangerEddies are wideEddy fences are high and can become difficult to
crossThe eddies themselves are rapidly-moving whirlpools from which escape is difficult

21 Site reference Four river references relate to facing downstream


River CenterFour river references relate to facing downstreamRiverRightCurrentRiverLeftTest Question
#3:Orientation on a river is made in _____ basic directions.A. 4B. 3C. 2D. 1River orientation is always
relative to facing downstream.Four (4) basic directions from river center.*Advise students that some labels
in the river drawings in their notes did not print and they may want to add labels to their
drawings.Upstream

22 Site referenceUpstreamReferences remain the same even when the perspective is reversedRiver
RightRiver CenterReferences stay the same no matter which way you’re facing!CurrentRiver
LeftDownstream

23 Basic communication on the water


One whistle blastAttention on meTwo whistle blastsAttention upstreamThree whistle blastsAttention
downstreamFour or more whistle blastsAttention on me, either myself or someone else is in trouble

24 Rescuer Safety Considerations


The search of moving water is at best difficult and challenging. Such activities present great obstacles for
swiftwater rescue teams and often expose searchers to the threat of personal injury or death.Remind
students that swiftwater rescue is dangerous. They always have the right to say NO!

25 Rescuer Safety ultimately depends on Training and Education “Common sense” may lead you
astray!
Rescuers must always remember rescue priorities: 1. Self rescue/safety 2. Rescue of or assurance of the
safety of other team members 3. Rescue/recover victim“Common sense” for example, might suggest that
tying a line to a rescuer and swimming out into moving water is a good idea when in fact such a practice is
extremely dangerous and has lead to the many deaths.Decision making must be backed by education and
training. Clear, rational thinking is necessary.Don’t let emotions direct the decision making process.

26 Safe and effective search operations near moving water depend on proper...
PreparationTrainingEquipmentPre-planning and training are crucial to the safety and success of the
swiftwater rescue team. Continually updating skills is highly recommended to insure that all members are
ready for any situation.

27 Hazards include... Water hydraulics


Strainers (barb wire, tree limbs, log jams, debris)Slippery, unsure footingTopography (access, cliff faces,
drop-offs)Manmade obstructions (dams, bridges, debris)Cold waterRescuers must be alert and aware to the
many hazards in the swiftwater environment.

28 The safety of all personnel must always be the highest priority!


Test Question #17:A rescuer always has the right to:A. Leave when tiredB. Get in the waterC. WaterD.
Say noAssign tasks according to skill level, always making safety the FIRST priority.Insure the comfort
level of the team for the task at hand.

29 Rescuer/entrant priorities
Fellow team membersVictimProperty

30 Always use the SANE approach to swiftwater rescue!


S imple approachA dequate backupN ever take chancesE liminate the “beat the water” attitudeTest
Question #1:In the SANE approach to swiftwater rescue, the “S” stands for:A. Shore personnelB.
Shouldn’t take chancesC. Swimming the river is dangerousD. Simple approachTest Question #22:In the
SANE approach to swiftwater rescue, the “E” stands for:A. Examine personnelB. Eliminate the “beat the
water” attitudeC. Evaluate costD. Enter the waterMaintain a step by step approach in all aspects of the
operation.

31 Any waterborne operation must be treated the same if the water environment poses a hazard to
personnel entering the water.The situation does not have to be a rescue situation to be dangerous to the
entrants.

32 Before any rescuer (entrant) enters the water always ensure that:
Upstream spotters are in place.Downstream safety/containment teams are in place.Rescuers have all of the
appropriate safety gear on.

33 Associated risks to rescuers include...


DrowningEntrapmentHypothermiaBlunt traumaCuts and lacerationsDeath may result due to improper
training and equipment.

34 Public safety personnel that are untrained and ill-equipped to handle water-related emergencies,
expose themselves to untold risks. Firefighters, law enforcement officers and members of the search and
rescue community can all become victims during search and rescue events.Rescuers are not immune!
Stress that deaths of rescuers during rescue or recovery operations can happen in both still and moving
waters.

35 Always consider the Risk/Benefit Analysis of every operation!


Rescuer safety is the first priority in any operation. In many cases the operation will transition from rescue
to recovery. The search efforts may stop and be re-evaluated before proceeding in recovery mode.Consider
the following:Is it safe to be here?Does the risk equal or exceed the benefit?What factors may effect a
change in the operational plan?
36 The role of search teams is to facilitate clue location...
Only personnel appropriately trained in swiftwater rescue should enter the water to recover any object.Do
not only focus on in water operations, many times victims exit the water on their own and need assistance
but get overlooked initially because rescue teams focus on searching the water onlyHave preplan in place
for appropriate action prior to object location.

37 There is safety in numbers


Never search alone; search teams should consist of three or more person/teams (optimal).Searchers should
have knowledge of self-rescue and victim-rescue techniques.Exercise caution, continually re-evaluate the
Risk/Benefit Analysis and be prepared to assist teammates in an emergency.Be properly equipped.Instruct
students to stay with their search teams. Insure that all students are skilled in self-rescue and the rescue
float.Teams of 3 or more allow for more eyes on the water and a higher margin of safety to assist other
rescuers in need.

38 Shored-based Personal Protective Equipment


PFD with whistle & knifeEnvironmental protectionGloves and bootsThrow line bags (at least 2 per person
if available)HelmetWhen operating near moving water, land-based searchers must be properly equipped
with PPE mentioned here.

39 Shored-based Personal Protective Equipment cont.


RememberNo bunker gearNo fire helmetsIf you have a choice between no helmet and a fire helmet, go
with no helmet. Fire helmets are designed to protect from falling debris, not falling down.

40 Water-based PPE for swiftwater rescue


Thermal protectionPFD with knife & whistleHelmetSwiftwater rescue boardHand & foot
protectionFins/mask/snorkelThrowline bagsStress the importance of securing all equipment to keep a
streamlined and low profile to minimize the threat of entanglement or entrapment in the water. No loose
straps!Mask and snorkel may help rescuer to visualize areas otherwise difficult to search.

41 Search equipment includes...


Probe deviceBinocularsPolarized sunglassesFlagging & permanent markerRope and climbing
equipmentGPSUse rope or webbing to secure the victim. For victim retrieval a Body Recovery System ©
can be used.

42 Victim rescue Scene assessment Safety first Evaluate Risk/Benefit


Victim contact Make attempt to talk with victimAlways choose rescue methods that provide the highest
degree of effectiveness while minimizing the risk to the rescuer.In order to minimize the risk to the
rescuer, choose only those tactics that have been proven and practiced.

43 As a rescuer...Never tie yourself (or a victim) to a rope when working in moving waterNever tie a line
across the river, perpendicular to the flow, in hopes of catching a victimNever enter swiftwater wearing
firefighter turnout or bunker gearRemember, specialized ice rescue suits are not designed for swiftwaterIn
reference to being tied off in moving water:The force of moving water will tension the line, push anything
tied to it under the water and hold it there as long as the line remains under tension.SPECIAL NOTE:
Some students may be aware of a swiftwater rescue technique referred to as a “Live Bait Rescue”. This
rescue method involves the rescuer attached to a rope with a quick release that is woven into the buckle of
the PFD. The rescuer enters the water, secures the victim and pendulums to shore. In the event of a
problem, the rescuer escapes by releasing the buckle and freeing themselves from the tether.The “Live Bait
Rescue Technique” will not be discussed in SWR1 class. It is considered a specialized tactic with limited
application. Obstructions along the bank or in the water prevent the safe deployment of rescuers using this
technique. Flood operations or white water are extremely dangerous environments with a high probability
of entanglement. It is advised that rescuers not attempt this technique under these conditions.
44 Rescue Methods in order of preference...
ReachThrowRowGoHeloTest Question #16:Arrange the following in the proper rescue sequence that
should be carried out at the scene of a water rescue:1. Throw (rescue ring, throwline)2. Reach (pike pole,
fire hose, branch or stick)3. Go (rescuer in the water with proper equipment and training)4. Row (inflatable
boat with motor or tether system)Choices:A. 2, 1, 3, 4B. 3, 4, 1, 2C. 2, 1, 4, 3D. 3, 2, 1, 4

45 “Reach” Method Simple technique used when the victim is close to shore
Makes use of any object that can be extended to the victim for them to holdVictim must be able to assist in
rescue by holding on to object extended to themMaintains high degree of safety for rescuerThe REACH
method minimizes the threat to the rescuer while still achieving a high degree of success.Allows the
rescuer to stay warm, safe and dry.Examples of reach devices include: Pike pole, hose, branch, jumper
cables, antennae, paddle, etc.

46 “Throw” MethodThrow method is used when distance to victim exceeds ability to use the reach
methodMethod limited by distance and throwing accuracy of the rescuerVictim must be able to assist in
rescue by holding on to object thrown to themStill maintains high degree of safety for rescuerThe victim
MUST be able to assist for this method to be effective!Effective range is generally limited to feet.
Effectiveness drops substantially when distances exceed 75 feet.Throw devices include: Rescue ring,
throwline, line gun, etc.Other improvised throw devices include…CoolerPicnic jugSpare tireBoat seat
cushion

47 Water rescue throwline bags


There is a right way...…and a wrong way.The top, left picture is correct while the lower left picture is
incorrect.Never place your hand through the loop of the throwline rope. Instead, place the loop over the
thumb, wrap around the back of the hand and back through the palm of the hand. Then form a fist to secure
the rope. In this fashion, if an emergency arises, simply open the hand and the rope will immediately
release.

48 Water rescue throwline bags


Throwline bags are a highly effective tool in swiftwater rescueEasy tool to master but requires some
practiceDynamics of throw bag use: stay on shore stay on the move coach victimTerrain
considerations/victim accessThrow the bag just above the head and shoulders on the upstream side of the
victim. If your throw is slightly off, the line will drift quickly downstream into the victim’s reach. Do not
throw the line downstream of the victim. This is much more difficult to reach as the victim will have to
swim after a rope that is quickly floating away.It is best to have more than one throw bag available. If you
miss on the first throw or the line becomes entangled, there will be another readily available to attempt
another throw. Rule of thumb, “If you grab one throwline bag, grab two”.If multiple rescuers are available,
coordinate your efforts and have the upstream rescuer make the first throw attempt followed up by the
downstream rescuer(s).

49 Throwline bagsCoach victim onto their back with the line coming across their shoulder.Victim must
keep feet pointed downstream.Pendulum victim to shore.Depending of the characteristics of the victim and
the force of the current at work, a dynamic (or walking) belay may be necessary to bring the victim to
shore and keep their head above water.

50 “Row” MethodThis method enables rescuers to close the gap between victim and the
shoreIncorporates use of watercraft and allowing rescuers a safe approach to victimA reach, throw or go
rescue can now be attemptedAllows for working platform to be brought to the victim.This method is
limited by the rate of flow and by obstructions and other hazards (strainers, boulder sieves, etc.).Depending
on location, water craft may be tethered or motorized.

51 “Go” Method Most dangerous method of victim rescue


Requires approach and direct contact with victim in waterLast resort when reach and throw methods will
not work or the victim is unable to help themselvesPlaces rescuer in greatest dangerDecision to “go”
requires an accurate assessment of the victim and potential dangers of the situationThis method may be
necessary when victim is unable to help self.Requires an accurate assessment of victim and hazards.Is
rescuer capable of safely entering the environment?Is rescuer able to secure and control victim?Is rescuer
in danger from down-stream hazards?Rescuer must enter water properly prepared with proper equipment
and training.Approach victim from rear or extend a swiftwater rescue board for them to grab onto. Then
tow the victim to safety.

52 “Helo” method This method should only be used as a last resort


The use of helicopters, while effective for trained personnel (i.e. Coast Guard), may not be as effective for
the average rescue operation due to the lack of training between the various agencies involved in the
operation

53 SummaryThere are inherent dangers associated with moving water. Operating in such an environment
can prove deadly for victim and rescuer alike.Preparation, proper training and equipment allow rescuers to
accurately assess the Risk/Benefit Analysis of every operation.

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