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Biokimia

Biokimia
Bios kehidupan
Ilmu pengetahuan yang berhubungan dengan unsurunsur kimia dalam sel hidup dengan berbagai reaksi
serta proses yang dialami.
Suatu disiplin ilmu yang meninjau organisme hidup serta
proses yang terjadi di dalamnya secara kimia
Mencakup studi tentang susunan kimia sel, sifat
senyawa serta reaksi kimia yang terjadi di dalam sel
(metabolisme), senyawa-senyawa yang menunjang
aktivitas organisme hidup serta energi yang diperlukan
atau dihasilkan.

Tujuan
Pemahaman secara lengkap terhadap
semua proses kimia pada tingkat
molekuler yang berhubungan dengan sel
hidup.
Structure-function
Metabolism and Regulation

ASAL MULA TIMBULNYA


BIOKIMIA
Istilah biokimia pertama kali dikemukakan pada tahun
1903 oleh Karl Neuberg, seorang ahli kimia Jerman
Namun, satu setengah abad sebelumnya
(pertengahan abad XVIII) Karl Wilhelm Scheele,
seorang ahli kimia Swedia telah melakukan penelitian
mengenai susunan kimia jaringan pada tumbuhan dan
hewan serta telah dapat mengisolasi asam oksalat,
asam laktat, asam sitrat serta beberapa ester dan
kasein dari bahan alam.

History and development of


Biochemistry
1903, Neuberg
(German): Biochemistry

Chemistry of Life

Two notable
(1) Discovery of the role of enzymes
as catalysts
(2) Identification of nucleic acids as
information molecules
Flow of information: from nucleic acids to proteins
DNA

RNA

Protein

Perkembangan Biokimia

Abad XVII, Robert Hooke mengawali penggunaan mikroskop


penggunaan mikroskop elektron
Pertengahan abad XIX, Gregor Mendel mengemukakan gagasan
tentang gen
gen dapat diisolasi dan diketahui struktur kimianya
Tahun 1969, Friedrich Miescher telah mengisolasi asam nukleat.
Terbukti DNA sebagai pembawa informasi genetika
Tahun 1953, James Watson dan Francis Crick menjelaskan struktur
DNA yang heliks ganda.
Jadi, abad XX biokimia mengalami perkembangan pesat. Seperti
penemuan vitamin, enzim sebagai biokatalisator, metode analisis
kromatografi, dll.

Some historic events


In 1937 Krebs for the discovery of
the Citric Acid Cycle-won the Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1953

In 1953 Watson & Crick for


the discovery of the DNA
Double Helix -won the Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine
in 1962

In 1955 Sanger for the determination of insulin


sequence- won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or
Medicine in 1956
In 1980 Sanger & Gilbert for Sequencing of
DNA-won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1980
In 1993, Kary B. Mullis for invention of PCR
method -won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1993

Peranan Biokimia pada Kehidupan


Biokimia asam nukleat merupakan inti ilmu genetika.
Contoh dibidang pertanian : penggunaan pestisida
(prinsipnya menghambat enzim yg bekerja pada
hama/organisme tertentu)
Biokimia berperan dlm
meneliti mekanisme kerja pestisida.
Contoh bidang farmakologi & toksikologi (berhubungan
dengan pengaruh bahan kimia dari luar terhadap
metabolisme)
misal antibiotik penisilin dapat
membunuh bakteri dengan menghambat pembentukan
polisakarida pada dinding sel bakteri.
Dapat memahami reaksi-reaksi kimia yg penting dalam sel
serta proses-proses yang terjadi dalam tubuh.

Principles of Biochemistry
Cells (basic structural units of living organisms) are highly
organized and constant source of energy is required to maintain
the ordered state.

Living processes contain thousands of chemical pathways.


Precise regulation and integration of these pathways are
required to maintain life

Certain important pathways e.g. Glycolysis is found in almost all


organisms.
All organisms use the same type of molecules: carbohydrates,
proteins, lipids & nucleic acids.
Instructions for growth, reproduction and developments for
each organism is encoded in their DNA
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Cells
Basic building blocks
of life
Smallest living unit
of an organism
Grow, reproduce, use
energy, adapt,
respond to their
environment
Many cannot be seen
with the naked eye
A cell may be an
entire organism or it
may be one of billions
of cells that make up
the organism
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Cells
Prokaryotes (Greek: pro-before; karyon-nucleus) include
various bacteria
lack a nucleus or membrane-bound structures called organelles

Eukaryotes (Greek: eu-true; karyon-nucleus) include


most other cells (plants, fungi, & animals)
have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles

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Nucleoid region contains the DNA


Cell membrane & cell wall
Contain ribosomes (no membrane)
to make proteins in their cytoplasm

Contain 3 basic cell structures:


Nucleus
Cell Membrane
Cytoplasm with organelles

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Two Main Types of Eukaryotic Cells

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Characteristic Bio-membranes and Organelles


Plasma Membrane-Cells defining boundary
Providing a barrier and containing
transport and signaling systems
(permeabel-selektif)
Nucleus Cells information center
Double membrane surrounding the chromosomes and
the nucleolus. The place where almost all DNA
replication and RNA synthesis occur. The nucleolus is
a site for synthesis of RNA making up the ribosome
Mitochondria- the power generators
Mitochondria (Greek: mitos-thread; chondros-granule):
Surrounded by a double membrane with a series of
folds called cristae. Functions in energy production
through metabolism. Contains its own DNA.

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) The transport network for molecules

Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)


Covered with ribosomes (causing the "rough"
appearance) which are in the process of
synthesizing proteins for secretion or
localization in membranes
Ribosomes
Protein and RNA complex responsible for
protein synthesis
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER)
A site for synthesis and metabolism of lipids.

Golgi apparatus -process and package the


macromolecules.
Terdiri atas membran berbentuk kantong
pipih. Fungsinya sebagai sekresi polisakarida,
protein, dan lendir.
Lysosomes-contain digestive enzyme
membran yang berbentuk kantong kecil berisi
enzim hidrolitik yg fungsinya untuk pecernaan
intrasel. Fungsi lain :
Mencerna materi yg diambil secara endositosis
Menghancurkan organel sel yg sudah tidak
berfungsi,disebut autofage.
Menghancurkan selnya sendiri

Cytoplasm
enclosed by the plasma membrane, liquid
portion called cytosol and it houses the
membranous organelles. Fungsinya sebagai
tempat reaksi metabolisme sel.
Kloroplas
sebagai organ sel tempat terjadinya proses
dan reaksi kimia pada proses fotosintesis.
1 sel daun mempunyai 40 50 kloroplas

Biolog. Nanostructures
Biochemistry

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Water
About 60-90 percent of
an organism is water

Water is used in
most reactions in
the body
Water is called
the universal
solvent
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Bio-molecules
Just like cells are building blocks of tissues likewise molecules are
building blocks of cells.
Animal and plant cells contain approximately 10, 000 kinds of
molecules (bio-molecules)
Water constitutes 50-95% of cells content by weight.
Ions like Na+, K+ and Ca+ may account for another 1%
Almost all other kinds of bio-molecules are organic (C, H, N, O, P, S)
Infinite variety of molecules contain C.

Most bio-molecules considered to be derived from hydrocarbons.

The chemical properties of organic bio-molecules are determined by


their functional groups. Most bio-molecules have more than one.
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Carbon
Carbon is more abundant in living
organisms than it is in the rest of the
universe.
What makes Carbon Special? Why is
Carbon so different from all the other
elements on the periodic table?
The answer derives from the ability of
Carbon atoms to bond together to form long
chains and rings.

Carbon can form immensely diverse


compounds, from simple to complex.

Methane with 1
Carbon atom

DNA with tens of Billions


of Carbon atoms

Biomolecules
are
compounds
of carbon
with a variety
of functional
groups

Types of biomolecules
Small molecules:

Lipid, phospholipid, glycolipid, sterol,


Vitamin
Hormone, neurotransmitter
Carbohydrate, sugar

Monomers:
Amino acids
Nucleotides
Monosaccharides

Polymers:
Peptides, oligopeptides, polypeptides, proteins
Nucleic acids, i.e. DNA, RNA
Oligosaccharides, polysaccharides (including cellulose)

Chemical composition of a normal man


(weight 65 kg)
Constituent

Percent (%)

Weight (kg)

Water

61.6

40

Protein

17.0

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Lipid

13.8

Carbohydrate

1.5

Minerals

6.1

Structural hierarchy in the molecular organization of cells

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Biomolecules Structure

Building block

Macromolecule

Simple sugar
Amino acid
Nucleotide
Fatty acid

Polysaccharide
Protein (peptide)
RNA or DNA
Lipid

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Linking Monomers
Cells link monomers by a process
called dehydration synthesis
(removing a molecule of water)
Remove
H
H2O Forms

Remove OH

This process joins two sugar monomers


to make a double sugar
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Breaking Down Polymers


Cells break down
macromolecules by
a process called
hydrolysis (adding
a molecule of
water)

Water added to split a double sugar


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Similarities among all types of cells

All cells use nucleic acids (DNA) to store information

All cells use nucleic acids (RNA) to access


stored information
All cells use proteins as catalysts (enzymes) for
chemical reactions

A few examples of RNA based enzymes, which may reflect


primordial use of RNA

All cells use lipids for membrane components

Except RNA viruses, but not true cells


(incapable of autonomous replication)

Different types of lipids in different types of cells

All cells use carbohydrates for cell walls (if present),


recognition, and energy generation

How much biochemistry do you need to


know for this course?
1. You are expected
to learn the
structure and
functions of these
organic compounds:

Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleic Acids

2. You will be expected to learn the basic


biochemical processes of major cell
functions, such as respiration, protein
synthesis and so on.