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MIKROPALEONTOLOGI

Hadi Nugroho
PS TEKNIK GEOLOGI
UNIVERSITAS DIPONEGORO
2010

MIKROPALEONTOLOGI
PALEONTOLOGY
Paleo ~ ancient, Onto ~ life, Logos ~
science.
- The study of the life of past geology ages.
- Ilmu yang mempelajari sisa-sisa organisme
purba, baik dalam bentuk fosil maupun jejak
kehidupannya yang terekam dalam
batuan sedimen.
Paleozoologi
Paleobotani

MIKROPALEONTOLOGI

NEONTOLOGY
The study of
existing life

BOTANY
The science of
living plants

ZOOLOGY
The science of
living animals

PALEONTOLOGY
The study of the
life of past
geologic ages

PALEOBOTANY
The science of
fossil plants

PALEOZOOLOGY
The science of
fossil animals

BIOLOGY
The study of life
through time

Invertebrate
Paleontology
Vertebrate
Paleontology

MIKROPALEONTOLOGI
Ruang-lingkup Mikropaleontologi
Bagian dari paleontologi yang khusus mempelajari
sisa-sisa organisme yang berukuran mikroskopik,
sehingga dalam pelaksanaannya dibutuhkan
peralatan bantu mikroskop.
Studi sistematik mikrofosil, diantaranya yaitu
morfologi, struktur, ekologi, maupun klasifikasi untuk
kepentingan geologi.
Lingkungan pengendapan
Umur lapisan batuan

FOSSILS

Fossil terms
Fossil ~ L. fossilis, something dug up,
from fodere, to dig.
Some evidence of the existence of an animal or plant that
once lived.

As Noun
An organic trace buried by natural processes and
subsequently permanent preserved.
The term organic trace is here used to include
skeletal material, impressions of organisms,
excremental materials, tracks and trails, and borrings.
Human artifacts are not regarded as fossils.

FOSSILS
As Adjectives
Is widely used to indicate great age,
extinction (kepunahan) or having been
dug up.
Index fossil, a fossil species which
characterises a specific horizon by its
abundance, although not restricted to it in
time.

FOSSILS
Mikrofosil
Sisa-sisa organisme purba yang berukuran mikro,
berkisar antara 0,01 1,00 mm.

Kondisi fosil
(1) Bagian keras, tidak teralterasi
Sisa-sisa organisme terdiri dari material kerangka
(skeletal), kondisi stabil selama waktu tertentu,
umumnya dijumpai tidak teralterasi.
Contoh: calcitic shells teeth, aragonitic shells, umur
Mesozoikum Tersier.

FOSSILS
(2) Bagian lunak, tidak teralterasi
Tipe fosil ini jarang yang terawetkan, beberapa
yang dijumpai antara lain:
- Mammoths yang terawetkan pada lapisan es,
di Siberia Permeafrost.
- Insects (serangga) dalam amber.
- Belemnites-Mollusca, Cephalopoda.

FOSSILS
(3) Bagian keras teralterasi
- Hasil proses petrifikasi, masuknya suatu
substansi tertentu; misal: silika, kalsit, limonit,
pirit ke dalam ruang rongga pori kerangka,
shells, cellular plant material, atau tulang
(bones).
- Replacement either or coarse or molecular of the
original skeletal materials by either similar or
different substances.
Example: Calcareous shells
crystalline calcite
or silica.

FOSSILS
(4) Bagian lunak yang teralterasi
- Pemindahan total (completed removal), dengan
meninggalkan jejak (impression) berupa suatu
bentuk (formed).
Contoh: Precambrian Jellyfish,
Carbonisation lembar organik film tipis karbon
Graptolites,
Carbonisation of plant remains Cast and Moulds.

FOSSILS
(5) Impressions (Molds) and Cast
- Any organic structure may leave an impression if it
is pressed into or surrounded by soft material
capable of receiving or retaining the imprint.
- Shells, solid objects, and other organic structures
that are at first preserved in rock and later
removed by solution leave a cavity, on the wall of
which is an impression of the exterior of the
structure.
- This external impression commonly has been
designated an external mold or natural mold.

FOSSILS
- Suppose the shell is totally removed by solution.
There remains a cavity, the natural mold, bounded
by the external impression and the surface of the
internal filling.
- If the cavity is filled naturally with some mineral
substance, the filling is a natural cast of the
original object; if it is filled artificially, as with rubber
or some similar substance, the filling is an artificial
cast.

(6) Trails, Tracks, and Footprints


- Many animals, during their travels over mud
and sand bottom, leave impressions of
certain parts of their bodies.

FOSSILS
(7) Burrows, Borings, and Tubes
- Certain animals excavate burrows in the
sand, bore holes into solid rock, gather
granular bottom materials about their
bodies, or secrete chitinous and calcareous
tubes in which to live.
(8) Coprolites and Casting
- The terms coprolite and casting have been
applied to fossil excreta. Coprolite have the
form of scraplike markings, discrete pellets.

FOSSILS