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The Human Brain

Dr. Thontowi Djauhari NS, MKes

Skull Anatomy
The skull is a rounded layer of bone
designed to protect the brain from
penetrating injuries.

Interior Skull Surface

tugas
Lobang lobang di cranium

Dilewati oleh apa saja

1.Foramen incicivus

1.n. maxillaris ( V2)

2.Foramen paltina mayor


3.Foramen palatine minor
4.Fissura orbitalis posterior
5.Fissura orbitalis inferior
6.Foramen rotundum
7.Foramen oval
8.Foramen spinosum
9.Foremen lacerum
10.Foramen stylomastoideus
11.Foramen jugulare
12.Canalis hipoglosi
13.Foramen magnum
14.Lamina cribosa
15.Canalis opticus

The Brain/Enchepalon

4 Parts
Cerebrum
Diencephalon
Brain Stem
Pons
Medulla
Midbrain

Cerebellum

Substansia alba and subsansia grisea

sulcus

gyrus

Longitudinal
Fissure

Fissure

Transverse
Fissure

http://williamcalvin.com/BrainForAllSeasons/img/bono

Lobes of the Brain (4)

Frontal
Parietal
Occipital
Temporal

http://www.bioon.com/book/biology/whole/image/1/1-8.tif.jp
g

* Note: Occasionally, the Insula is considered the fifth lobe. It is


located deep to the Temporal Lobe.

The Cerebrum
Terdiri dari 2 hemisphere yang dipisahkan falx cerebri.
Mengisi hampir seluruh cavum cranii diatas tenrorium cerebelli.
Pada permukaannnya terdapat sulcus dan gyrus.
Otak kiri dan kanan dihubungkan oleh corpus callosum
Cerebrum dibagi lima lobus

The Cerebrum
Neocortex

Permukaan cerebrum disebut


neocortex : neocortex merupakan
fungsi dari otak untuk menentukan
sesuatu
Subtansia grisea : berisi cell syaraf (neuron)
Subtansia alba : berisi serat syaraf (tractus)

Lobes of the Cerebrum


Limbic Lobe
Frontal Lobe

Parietal Lobe

Occipital Lobe
Temporal Lobe

Frontal Lobe
The frontal lobe
bertanggung jawab
terhadap fungsi cognitif
antara lain :
Problem solving
Spontanitas
Memory
bahasa
Motivation
Judgment
Social and sexual
Kebiasaan

Temporal Lobe

Auditory Area

Lobus temporal mengatur emosi,


bertanggung jawab pada
penciuman, rasa , persepsi,
memori, agresivitas dan
kebiasaan sexual.
Lobus temporalberhubungan
dengan area bahasa didalam
otak.

Temporal: smell, hearing, memory and abstract thought

Parietal Lobe

Cutaneous Sensory Area

Lobus parietal mengatur sensasi


rasa, raba dan pembauan.
Selain itu juga mengatur
koordinasi dan gerakan.
Lobus ini ada daerah yang
disebut dengan area Wernicks
yang bertanggung jawab pada
masalah tulis menulis dan
bahasa.

Parietal: reception and evaluation of sensory info

Occipital Lobe

Visual Area

Retina
Tractus Opticus
Corpus Genic.Lateral
Radiatio Optica
Kortek Primer Area 17
Tahu / Know

19

Kortek Sekunder Area 18


Kenal / Synthesis

17 18

Visual
Kortek Tertier Area 19
Faham / Analysis

Area 17 18 19
Visual

Adalah kumpulan sejumlah nucleus


dan tractus diantara cerebrum dan
diencephalonl
System ini lebih merupakan
kumpulan fungsional daripada
kumpulan anatomis.
Fungsi:
Mengendalikan dorongan emosi dan
perilaku.
Menghubungkan fungsi kesadaran
dan intelektual cortex dengan bagian
bawah sadar dan pusat otonom
Mengatur penyimpanan memory.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.

Cingulate gyrus
Fornix
Anterior thalamic
nuclei
Hypothalamus
Amygdaloid nucleus
Hippocampus

The Limbic System

terdiri dari serebrum dan


diensefalon yang terlibat
dalam aktivitas emosional,
terutama aktivitas perilaku
tidak sadar

Cerebellum
Fungsi. Serebelum bertanggung
jawab untuk mengkoordinasi dan
mengendalikan ketepatan gerakan
otot dengan baik.
Bagian ini memastikan bahwa
gerakan yang dicetuskan di suatu
tempat di SSP berlangsung dengan
halus bukannya mendadak dan
tidak terkoordinasi.
a. Serebelum juga berfungsi untuk
mempertahankan postur.
b. Bagian ini membantu
mempertahankan ekuilibrium
tubuh. Informasi sensorik dan
telinga dalam dibawa ke lobus
serebelum.

Berhubungan dengan batang otak


dan merupakan tempat mengatur
keseimbangan dan gerakan.

Click image to play or pause video

11-41

Motor Skill

Balance

Hypothalamus
Hipotalamus berperan penting dalam
pengendalian aktifitas SSO yang
melakukan fungsi vegetatif penting untuk
kehidupan seperti :
pengaturan frekuensi jantung, tekanan
darah, suhu tubuh, keseimbangan air,
selera makan, saluran pencernaan, dan
aktifitas seksual.
Hipotalamus juga berperan sebagai
pusat otak untuk emosi seperti
kesenangan, nyeri, kegembiraan, dan
kemarahan.
Hipotalamus memproduksi hormone
yang mengatur pelepasan atau inhibisi
hormone kelenjar hipofisis, sehingga
mempengaruhi keseluruhan system
endokrin.

The hypothalamus is shaded blue. The


pituitary gland extends from the
hypothalamus.

The Brainstem
Midbrain

Pons
The brainstem is the most primitive
part of the brain and controls the
basic functions of life: breathing, heart
rate, swallowing, reflexes to sight or
sound, sweating, blood pressure,
sleep, and balance.

Medulla
Oblongata

Autonomic Functions

The brainstem controls the basic functions of


life. Damage to these areas of the brain are
usually fatal:
The pons plays a critical role in respiration.
The medulla oblongata is responsible for
respiration and cardiovascular functions.

Brainstem: Midbrain, Pons, Medulla


Passage of signals between spinal cord and cerebrum
*Midbrain: contains cell bodies of CN III, IV
*Pons: attachment of CN V, VI, VII
*Medulla: attachment of CN VIII, IX, X, XI, XII

The brainstem controls the basic functions


of life. Damage to these areas of the brain
are usually fatal:
The pons plays a critical role in respiration.
The medulla oblongata is responsible for
respiration and cardiovascular functions.

*
pg 366

The Cranial Nerves


I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.
IX.
X.
XI.
XII.

Olfactory nerve
Optic nerve
Oculomotor nerve
Trochlear nerve
Trigeminal nerve
Abducens nerve
Facial nerve
Vestibulocochlear nerve
Glossopharyngeal nerve
Vagus nerve
Accessory nerve
Hypoglossal nerve

Medulla Spinalis/Nervus Spinalis.


Substantia alba.
Sustantia gricea.
Gray matter : berisi cell syaraf
(neuron)
White matter berisi serat syaraf
(tractus)

The Meninges

Meninges
protect CNS
three layers : dura mater
arachnoid mater
pia mater

11-2

Cerebrospinal Fluid
Cerebrospinal fluid is a
colorless liquid that bathes the
brain and spine.
It is formed within the
ventricles of the brain, and it
circulates throughout the
central nervous system.
Cerebrospinal fluid fills the
ventricles and meninges,
allowing the brain to float
within the skull.

The Cranial Nerves


I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.
IX.
X.
XI.
XII.

Olfactory nerve
Optic nerve
Oculomotor nerve
Trochlear nerve
Trigeminal nerve
Abducens nerve
Facial nerve
Vestibulocochlear nerve
Glossopharyngeal nerve
Vagus nerve
Accessory nerve
Hypoglossal nerve

NERVUS CRANIALIS

The Olfactory Nerve (I)


Carries sensory information
Sense of smell

Synapse within olfactory bulbs

The optic nerve (II)


Neural pathway
for vision

Retinal cells

2x binocular vision
plus accessory
structures

Optic disk - blood supply


optic nerve

Retina

The oculomotor nerve (III)


Primary source of innervation for
extra-ocular muscles
Move the eyeball

The trochlear nerve (IV)


Smallest cranial nerve
Innervates superior oblique eye
muscle

The abducens nerve (VI)


Innervates lateral rectus muscle of
eye

The Trigeminal Nerve (V)


Largest cranial nerve
Mixed nerve
sensory touch, pain & thermal

Ophthalmic branch
sensory upper eyelid, eyeball
lacrimal glands, side of nose, forehead
and scalp

Maxillary branch
sensory nose, palate, part
of pharynx, upper teeth, upper
lip and lower eyelid

Mandibular branch
sensory tongue, cheek,
lower teeth, skin over mandible
and side of head anterior to ear
-motor muscles of chewing

-inferior alveolar nerve (branch of mandibular)


-often anesthetized in dental procedures lower jaw
-numbs to mental nerve (branch of the IAN)
-superior alveolar nerve (branch of the maxillary)
-numbs the upper jaw

The Facial Nerve (VII)


Mixed
nerve
Controls
muscles
of scalp
and face
Pressure
sensation
s from
face
Taste
sensation
s from
tongue

The Vestibulocochlear Nerve (VIII)


Vestibular nerve
Monitors sense of balance, position and
movement
Cochlear nerve
Monitors hearing

The Glossopharyngeal Nerve (IX)


Mixed nerve
Innervates the
tongue
Controls
swallowing

The Vagus Nerve (NX)


Mixed nerve
Vital to
autonomic
control of
visceral
function

The accessory nerve (XI)


Internal branch
Innervates swallowing muscles

External branch
Controls muscles associated with pectoral girdle

The hypoglossal
nerve (XII)
Voluntary motor
control over tongue
movements

Aliran Darah Otak


Otak butuh energy tinggi sehingga aliran
darah otak sangat intensif.
Otak mendapat darah dari :
A. carotis interna.
A. vertebralis.
CVA ( Stroke ) adalah keadaan dimana
terjadi gangguan fungsi otak akibat
adanya hambatan aliran darah.

Arteri : Circulus Willisi

Circulus Willisi
Letak
Basis cranii
Melingkari infundibulum lek
hypophyse
Komponen
A. carotis interna (2)
A. cerebri anterior (2)
A. communicans anterior (1)
A. communicans posterior (2)
A. cerebri posterior (2)

Components of
the Nervous
System
CentralNervousSystem
brain,spinalcord
PeripheralNS
Sensoryinput
afferent(approach)
Motoroutput
efferent(exit)

Figure 11.1

Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)


Simpathetic

Parasympathetic
Most active in non-stressful
situations
Resting and Digesting
System
Concerned with keeping body
energy low
BP, HR, RR are low
GI Tract is active
Skin is warm
No need for blood to go to
skeletal muscle

Most active in stressful


situations
Fight-or-Flight System
Concerned with providing
extra energy
BP, HR, RR are high
GI activity is halted
Blood diverted to skeletal
muscles

ANS
Pembagian ANS.
Divisi symphatic
(Divisi Thoracolumbal)

Divisi parasymphatic.
(Devisi Craniosacral)

Organ

Sympathis

Parasympathis

Pupil

Dilatasi/Midriasis

Konstriksi/Miosis

Cor

Tachycardia

Bradycardia

Bronchus

Bronchodilatasi

Bronchokonstriksi

Pemb. darah

Vasokonstriksi

Vasodilatasi

Kelenjar

Hipersekresi

Hiposekresi

M. Erector pili

Kontr bulu roma

Relaksasi

Dinding usus

Relaks peristaltik <


Kontr.sphincter defekasi -

Vesica urinaria

Relaks.detrusor / kontraksi
sphincter Mictie -

Konst peristaltik >


Rel.sphincter defekasi
+
Kontr. Detrusor / relaksasi
sphincter mictie +

Genital

Vasokonst c.cavernosus -- Vasodil c.cavern ++


vena terbuka Ereksi vena tertutup Ereksi +

SELAMAT BELAJAR