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Geologi Struktur

SOURCE. Laurel Goodwin, Basil Tikoff, Paul Riley


Structural Geology vs.
Tectonics
Tectonics - how Earth was built Structural geology -
(Tektonik - bagaimana Bumi deformation processes.
dibangun)
(geologi struktural
Broader than Structural geology Proses deformasi)
(Lebih luas dari pada geologi
Struktural) Integral part of tectonics,
Encompassing study of surface to particularly in respect to
core (Meliputi studi dari deformation history over
permukaan ke inti) time. (Bagian integral
Including disciplines as diverse as tektonik, terutama
paleontology and geophysics berkenaan dengan sejarah
(Termasuk disiplin ilmu yang deformasi dari waktu ke
beragam seperti paleontologi waktu)
dan geofisika)
Components of classwork
40% UAS
30% UTS
20% Field trip and experiment
10% Tugas dan Kehadiran
Motivation: concepts of a
professional practice

Menulis laporan
Presentasi lisan
Identifikasi masalah / pemecahan
masalah
Berpikir di bawah tekanan
Etika / tanggung jawab profesional
Class Mantra

Observations separate from


interpretations
Challenges
Geology is a forensic science. We must look at deformation from an
historical viewpoint. (Geologi adalah ilmu forensik. Kita
harus melihat deformasi dari sudut pandang historis).
We have to consider a wide range of spatial scales (Kita harus
mempertimbangkan berbagai skala spasial.
We work on a variety of time-scales, from those required for an
earthquake to those that form mountain belts. (Kami
mengerjakan berbagai skala waktu, dari yang
dibutuhkan untuk gempa bumi hingga yang
membentuk sabuk pegunungan.
3D visualization is critical (Visualisasi 3D sangat
penting)
The Earth as a cooling
body

Formed by accretion 4.55 Ga


Cooling by conduction, radiation,
advection
Advective cooling drives plate tectonics
The distribution of rocks, of temperature,
and of deformation on the planet all
determined by plate tectonics.
Tectonic Forces at Work
structural geology: cabang geologi yang terkait
dengan bentuk, susunan, dan keterkaitan
satuan batuan dasar dan kekuatan yang
menyebabkannya
stress: Tegangan: gaya per satuan luas
strain: regangan: perubahan ukuran (volume)
atau bentuk, atau keduanya, sementara benda
sedang mengalami stres
Stress and Strain in the
Earths Crust
compressive stress: a stress due to a force
pushing together on a body (sebuah tekanan
karena sebuah gaya dorong bersama pada
sebuah benda)
Stress and Strain in the
Earths Crust
tensional stress: caused by forces pulling
away from one another in opposite directions
( disebabkan oleh kekuatan yang saling
menjauh satu sama lain dalam arah yang
berlawanan)
Stress and Strain in the
Earths Crust
shear stress: due to movement prallel to but in opposite
directions along a fulat or other boundary (tegangan
geser: Disebabkan gerakan sejajar dengan
arah berlawanan sepanjang fulat atau batas
lainnya)
Behavior of Rocks to
Stress and Strain
elastic strain: strain in which a deformed body recovers its original
shape after the stress is released (ex: rubber band). (regangan elastik:
regangan di mana tubuh yang mengalami deformasi pulih bentuk
aslinya setelah tekanan dilepaskan (misalnya karet gelang)
elastic limit: the maximum amount of stress that can be applied to a
body before it deforms in a permanent way by bending or breaking.
(Batas elastis: jumlah maksimum tegangan yang bisa
diaplikasikan pada tubuh sebelum berubah bentuk secara
permanen dengan cara membungkuk atau pecah.
ductile: capable of being molded and bent under stress. (Ulet: mampu
dibentuk dan ditekuk di bawah tekanan
brittle strain: cracking or rupturing of a body under stress (Tegangan
getas: retak atau pecahnya tubuh di bawah tekanan Tegangan
getas: retak atau pecahnya tubuh di bawah tekanan)
Present Deformation of the
Crust

Geologists often say the crust of the earth is mobile


or restless because bedrock is moving and being
deformed in many parts of the world (Ahli geologi
sering mengatakan bahwa kerak bumi adalah
"mobile karena batuan dasar bergerak dan
mengalami perubahan bentuk terjadi di banyak
tempat di dunia
fault: a fracture in bedrock along which movement has
taken place (Patahan: patah di batuan dasar yang
disebabkan terjadinya pergerakan)
Geologic Maps and Field
Methods

geologic map: a map which uses


standardized symbols and patterns to
represent rock types and geologic
structures that is typically produced from
the field map for a given area
geologic cross section: represents a
vertical slice through a portion of the
earth
Strike and Dip

strike: the compass direction of a line formed by the intersection of an


inclined plane with a horizontal plane. (strike: arah kompas dari garis
yang dibentuk oleh persimpangan bidang miring dengan bidang
horizontal

angle of dip: a measurement downward


from the horizontal plane to the bedding
plane angle of dip: pengukuran ke bawah
dari bidang horizontal ke bidang alas
tidur
direction of dip: the compass direction in
which the angle of dip is measured (arah
kemiringan: arah kompas dimana sudut
kemiringan diukur)
Folds ( Lipatan)
Fold: bends or wave-like features in
layered rock. lipatan: lengkungan atau
bentuk seperti gelombang di batu
berlapis
anticline: lipatan melengkung ke atas
hinge line: sumbu lipatan
syncline: sebuah persatuan yang
melengkung ke bawah dari anticline
axial plane: : Bidang yang berisi semua
garis engsel dari lipatan.
Plunging Folds
Plunging folds: folds in which the hinge lines are not
horizontal. (lipatan terjun: lipatan di mana garis engsel
tidak horisontal)
Plunging folds: anticline on left
and right, syncline in center. he
hinge lines are at an angle to the
block diagram, penetrating the
surface and emerging from the
front cross section. Plunging folds
: anticline di kiri dan kanan,
syncline di tengah. Itu hinge
lines berada pada sudut ke
diagram blok, menembus
permukaan dan muncul dari
penampang depan
Structural Domes and
Structural Basins
structural dome: a structure in which the beds dip away from a
central point. ( kubah struktural: struktur tempat tempat tidur
terlepas dari titik pusat)
structural basin: a structure in which the beds dip toward a
central point (Cekungan struktural: struktur tempat tempat
tidur mencelupkan ke titik pusat)

Structural basin
Structural dome
Interpreting folds
open folds: a fold with gently dipping limbs
isoclinal fold: a fold in which the limbs are
parallel to one another
overturned fold: a fold in which both limbs dip
in the same direction
recumbent fold: a fold overturned to such an
extent that the limbs are essentially horizontal
Interpreting folds &
Unconformities
Fractures in Rock
joint: a fracture or crack in bedrock where essentially no
displacement occurs. (Sendi: fraktur atau retak pada batuan
dasar dimana pada dasarnya tidak terjadi perpindahan
joint set: where joints are oriented approximately parallel to
one another. (Set gabungan: dimana sendi berorientasi kira-
kira sejajar satu sama lain)
Faults
dip-slip fault: movement is parallel to the dip of the fault surface
strike-slip fault: horizontal motion parallel to the strike of the fault
surface
oblique-slip fault: both strike-slip and dip-slip components
Dip-Slip Faults

footwall: the underlying surface of an


inclined fault plane
hanging wall: the overlying surface of an
inclined fault plane
Dip-Slip Faults (cont.)
normal fault: a fault where the hanging-wall block has
moved downward relative to the footwall block
graben: when a block bounded by normal faults drops
down
horst: when a block bounded by normal faults is uplifted
Dip-Slip Faults (cont.)
reverse fault: when the hanging-wall
block has moved upward relative to the
footwall block
thrust fault: a reverse fault in which the
dip of the fault plane is at a low angle to
horizontal

A reverse fault. The fault is unaffected by erosion. Diagram shows area after erosion; dashed lines Thrust fault due to horizontal compression.
Arrows indicate compressive stress. indicate portion eroded away
Strike-slip Faults
strike-slip fault: a fault where the movement is
predominantly horizontal and parallel to the strike of the
fault
right-lateral fault: a strike-slip fault in which the block
seen across the fault appears displaced to the right
left-lateral fault: a strike-slip fault in which the block
seen across the fault appears displaced to the left
Pictures

All pictures used in this power point presentation were


taken from the following:
Carlson, Diane H., David McGeary and Charles C.
Plummer. Physical Geology: Updated Eighth Edition.
New York City, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2001.