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OTOIMUNITAS

DAN
PENYAKIT OTOIMUN

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Istilah-Istilah yang Digunakan
 otoimunitas : the process of mounting
an immune response against a normal
body component ; immunity (humoral
or cell mediated) to antigens of the
body’s own tissues. Can cause tissue
damage and disease, but also occurs
as a harmless consequence of tissue
damage

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Istilah-Istilah yang Digunakan

 penyakit otoimun : damage to one’s


own organs due to action of the
immune system, disease caused
by an immune attack against an
individual’s own tissues

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Istilah-Istilah yang Digunakan
self-tolerance : the ability of an

organism to recognize and not make
antibodies against self
 otoantibodi (self-antibody): an antibody
directed against an epitope on normal
body tissues

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Istilah-Istilah yang Digunakan
 epitop (determinan antigenis) : an area
on the surface of an antigen that
stimulates a specific immune response
and against which that response is
directed
 otoantigen (self-antigen) : a normal
body component that acts as an
antigen

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Istilah-Istilah yang Digunakan

 kompleks imun : a circulating


antigen-antibody aggregate
capable of fixing complement,
another term for antigen-antibody
complexes, a complex of antigen
with its specific antibody

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Beberapa Prinsip Dasar

 Tidaksemua respon otoimun


menimbulkan penyakit. Ada juga
yang bersifat fisiologis misalnya
penghancuran sel-sel tua (aged
cells) secara alamiah oleh
otoantibodi.

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Beberapa Prinsip Dasar

 Penyakit otoimun ada yang menyerang


satu organ (organ-specific) misalnya
tiroiditis Hashimoto dan ada pula yang
menyerang banyak organ (nonorgan-
specific) misalnya systemic lupus
erythematosus.

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Klasifikasi Penyakit Otoimun

tipe
I : hepatitis otoimun,
alergi susu pada sapi
tipe II (sitotoksis) : Penyakit
Graves, miastenia gravis

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Klasifikasi Penyakit Otoimun

 tipeIII (kompleks imun) : systemic


lupus erythematosus, artritis
rematoid
 tipe IV (dimediasi sel/cell mediated) :
tiroiditis Hashimoto, insulin-
dependent diabetes mellitus

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Prinsip Berbagai Tipe
Penyakit Otoimun
 tipeI : antibodi menyerang sel-
sel sendiri
 tipe II : reaksi antibodi terhadap
antigen permukaan-sel dan tidak
ada perusakan terhadap sel

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Prinsip Berbagai Tipe
Penyakit Otoimun

tipe III : ada reaksi


kompleks imun
tipe IV : terutama
melibatkan sel T
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Artritis Rematoid

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