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SULIT

PENTAKSIRAN DIAGNOSTIK AKADEMIK


SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH 2017

PEPERIKSAAN PERCUBAAN SIJIL PELAJARAN MALAYSIA


BIOLOGY
Peraturan Pemarkahan
4551/PP
Kertas 1, Kertas 2 dan Kertas 3
Ogos 2017

1. Peraturan pemarkahan ini adalah dalam bahasa Inggeris sahaja.


2. Terima jawapan-jawapan calon sama ada dalam bahasa Inggeris sepenuhnya, bahasa
Melayu sepenuhnya, ataupun sebahagian dalam bahasa Inggeris dan sebahagian dalam
bahasa Melayu.
3. Sampel-sampel jawapan dalam peraturan pemarkahan ini adalah cadangan sahaja.
Jawapan-jawapan lain yang relevan dan menepati kehendak soalan perlu
dipertimbangkan untuk diberikan skor yang sewajarnya.
4. Teknik pemeriksaan kertas jawapan calon adalah mengikut format yang digunakan
dalam peperiksaan SPM yang terkini.

___________________________________________________________________________
Peraturan pemarkahan ini mengandungi 22 halaman bercetak.

4551/PP 2017 Hak Cipta BPSBPSK [Lihat Halaman Sebelah


SULIT
SULIT 2 4551/PP

PAPER 1

No Answer No Answer No Answer No Answer No Answer


1 B 11 D 21 D 31 B 41 A
2 A 12 B 22 A 32 B 42 D
3 D 13 B 23 B 33 D 43 B
4 C 14 C 24 A 34 B 44 A
5 C 15 C 25 C 35 B 45 D
6 D 16 C 26 D 36 C 46 A
7 D 17 B 27 C 37 A 47 B
8 D 18 D 28 A 38 B 48 C
9 B 19 D 29 C 39 A 49 B
10 B 20 D 30 C 40 B 50 B

PAPER 2

Question 1
No Criteria Marks
(a) Able to state the name of the organism. 1
Answer:
Amoeba sp. / amoeba / ameba 1
(b) (i) Able to name X and Y. 2
Answers:
X - Contractile vacuole 1
Y - Plasma membrane 1
(b) (ii) Able to explain the special features of Y. 2
Sample answers:
P1 - Semi-permeable // Selectively permeable 1
P2 - Only allow certain substances / small molecule to pass through 1
(b) (iii) Able to explain what happen to the organism if X is absent. 2
Sample answers:
P1 - (Amoeba sp.) will burst / disintegrate (Reject: explode) 1
P2 - Excess water cannot be excreted/removed out of cell 1
(c) (i) Able to state the condition of the red blood cell after 30 minutes. 1
Answer:
Crenate / shrink 1
(c) (ii) Able to explain the change in the structure of the red blood cell. 2
Sample answers:
P1 - Solution Z is hypertonic to cells 1
P2 - Water molecules diffuse out of the cell 1
P3 - by osmosis 1
(Any 2)
(d) Able to explain why saline water are used for treatment of patient. 2
Sample answers:
P1 - Saline water contains 0.9% of sodium chloride/salt 1
P2 - The concentration of saline water is isotonic to the cells 1
P3 - Water molecules move in and out (of cells) at same rate 1
(Any 2)
TOTAL 12

4551/PP 2017 Hak Cipta BPSBPSK SULIT


SULIT 3 4551/PP

Question 2
No Criteria Marks
(a) Able to name the molecule P and process Q. 2
Answers:
P - Glycerol 1
Q - Condensation 1
(b) Able to explain process Q 2
Sample answers:
P1 - 1 glycerol / P combined with 3 fatty acids 1
P2 - to form one glyceride / triglyseride 1
P3 - Involved removal of water molecule 1
(Any 2)
(c) (i) Able to describe the molecular structure of fat that contains fatty acids R. 2
Sample answers:
P1 - Unsaturated fat 1
P2 - because it contains double bond (between the carbon atoms) 1
P3 - Number of hydrogen atoms is not maximum 1
(Any 2)
(c) (ii) Able to explain why fat with fatty acids S are usually in solid form at room 3
temperature.
Sample answers:
P1 - Saturated fat. 1
P2 - because has no double bond // has single bonds only 1
P3 - it has high melting point // melts at temperature higher than room 1
temperature
(d) Able to explain why Inuit people in Alaska are rarely found to be obese. 3
Sample answers :
P1 - Fats are used up for cellular respiration 1
P2 - to produce (heat) energy 1
P3 - To keep the body warm in cold climate 1
P4 - To remain active for daily activities 1
(Any 3)
TOTAL 12

Question 3
No Criteria Marks
(a) Able to state the trophic levels of plant and bird. 2
Answers:
Plant - Trophic level 1 // Producer 1
Bird - Trophic level 2 // Secondary consumer 1
(b) (i) Able to explain one role of bird in the ecosystem. 2
Sample answers:
Bird
P1 - As secondary consumer / carnivor 1
P2 - Bird eats/ kills the caterpillar (that cause destruction to plant) 1
OR
P3 - Bird helps in seed dispersal 1
P4 - The young plant grows farther from each other and minimize the 1
intraspecific competition
(Any pair)

4551/PP 2017 Hak Cipta BPSBPSK SULIT


SULIT 4 4551/PP

(b) (ii) Able to explain the flow of energy from producer to primary consumer in the 2
food chain
Sample answers:
P1 - The plant converts light energy into chemical energy 1
P2 - 10% of energy from plant is transfered to caterpillar 1
P3 - When caterpillar eat the leaves 1
P4 - Some / (90%) energy lost to surrounding (in form of heat) /falling down 1
leave/dead leave/ through respiration
(Any 2)
(c) Able to explain the change in the population of plants in the ecosystem when 2
another type of catepillars are introduced into the ecosystem.
Sample answers:
P1 - Population / number of plant decreases 1
P2 - (More) caterpillars destroy/eat the plants/leaves 1
P3 - Birds do not eat the (poison) caterpillars // Birds migrate 1
(Any 2)
(d) Able to explain why using pesticide is not advisable. 2
Sample answers:
P1 - Pesticide used kill insects involved in pollination 1
P2 - Crop reproduction/production/yield decreases 1
P3 - Chemical substance in pesticide pollute the water/ soil water 1
P4 - Harmful insect mutate/ genetic materials change 1
P5 - Difficult/hard to be destroyed 1
(Any 2)
(e) Able to suggest the best method to destroy pests and increase crop yield. 2
Sample answers:
P1 - Biological-control (method) 1
P2 - Using prey-predator relationship // Parasitism // Any suitable example 1
P3 - Does not harm the environment / crop 1
(Any 2)
TOTAL 12

Question 4
No Criteria Marks
(a) Able to state the name for artery X and state the function. 2
Sample aswers:
Artery X - Coronary artery 1
Function - To transport oxygen/nutrient to the muscle of the heart 1
(b) Able to explain why some of the patients cardiac muscle have damaged. 3
Sample answers:
P1 - coronary artery/ X blocked by cholesterol/ fat/ blood clot/thrombus 1
P2 - due to atherosclerosis/ arteriosclerosis/ thrombosis 1
P3 - insufficient oxygen/nutrients received by the cardiac muscles/cells 1
P4 - cardiac muscles/cells may die 1
(Any 3)
(c) (i) Able to describe angioplasty procedure. 3
Sample answers:
P1 - A catheter is used to insert the balloon in the blocked artery 1
P2 - The balloon is inflated to push the plaque 1
P3 - stretched the artery to open wider /increased the lumen of artery 1
P4 - Stent remains in the atery /support the artery wall 1
(Any 3)

4551/PP 2017 Hak Cipta BPSBPSK SULIT


SULIT 5 4551/PP

(c) (ii) Able to explain the differences in the pressure of blood before and after the 2
stent is inserted in artery.
Sample answers:
P1 - Before stent is inserted the pressure of blood is very high but after stent 1
is inserted the pressure of the blood is normal/lower (Reject: low)
P2 - due to the blockage of the artery // The flow of the blood come back to 1
normal pressure // Boost the flow of the blood back to normal.
(c) (iii) Able to suggest two steps that should be taken by the patient after angiogram 2
procedure in order to have a good health.
Sample answers:
P1 - reduce intake of fatty food // oily food // any examples 1
P2 - stop smoking 1
P3 - manage stress 1
P4 - exercise regularly 1
(Any 2)
TOTAL 12

Question 5
No Criteria Marks
(a) Able to state the diploid number of chromosomes in organism P. 1
Answer:
47 1
(b) Able to identify chromosome Y. 1
Answer:

(c) Able to explain the genetic disease faced by individual P. 3


Sample answers:
P1 - Klinefelter Syndrome 1
P2 - Have one extra sex / X chromosome 1
P3 - (caused by) Non-disjunction 1
P4 - Chromosome pair-23 // Sex chromosomes 1
P5 - During meiosis 1
P6 - (Individual P) is a hermaphrodite (khunsa) 1
// Have both male and female reproductive organs 1
(Any 3)
(d) (i) Able to explain why the inheritance of albinism is not sex-linked. 2
Sample answers:
P1 - Gene for melanin production is carried by an autosome / not carried by 1
sex chromosome / X chromosome.
P2 - The probability/ chances for female and male become albino is the same 1
P3 - If sex-linked, all male offsprings are albinos 1
P4 - because mother is a homozygous recessive /aa. 1
(In sex-linked) male offsprings inherit/receive X chromosomes from
mother.
(Any 2)

4551/PP 2017 Hak Cipta BPSBPSK SULIT


SULIT 6 4551/PP

(d) (ii) Able to state the genotype of the parents. 2


Sample answers:
Genotype of father - Heterozygous / Aa 1
Genotype of mother - Homozygous recessive / aa 1
(d) (iii) Able to complete the genetic diagram. 3
Sample answers:
Parent : En. Que Wife
Phenotype parent : Albino Normal
Genotype parent : aa AA
Gametes : a A
Genotype offspring : Aa
Phenotype offspring : All normal
Scoring rubric :
Correct 5 - 3 marks
Correct 3-4 - 2 marks
Correct 1-2 - 1 mark
TOTAL 12

Question 6
No Criteria Marks
(a) Able to explain the special adaptations of the respiratory structures. 6
Sample answers:
P1 - Lungs contain numerous of air sacs / alveoli 1
P2 - Provide large surface area 1
P3 - for rapid diffusion of gases / O2 / CO2 1
P4 - The inner surface of each alveolus is moist 1
P5 - Enable oxygen / carbon dioxide to dissolve in it 1
P6 - covered by dense network of blood capillaries 1
P7 - to transport of respiratory gases 1
P8 - The wall of alveolus is very thin / only one cell thick 1
P9 - allows diffusion of gases across membranes to takes place easily 1
(Any 6)

4551/PP 2017 Hak Cipta BPSBPSK SULIT


SULIT 7 4551/PP

(b) Able to state the cause of the lungs of a heavy smoker to be different to the 6
lungs of a non-smoker.
Able to explain the problems faced by the heavy smoker.
Sample answers:
P1 - Tar (in tobacco smoke) 1
P2 - deposited on the wall of alveoli/bronchioles (of heavy smoker lung) 1
P3 - The heat / high temperature 1
P4 - cause dryness / dries up the moist (in alveoli) 1
P5 - irritates the lungs / lead to laryngitis 1
P6 - (Tar) causes lung cancer 1
P7 - Contains nicotine 1
P8 - Constrict the blood vessel 1
P9 - makes the heart has to pump harder 1
P10 - lead to blood pressure increase / stroke 1
P11 - cause addiction 1
P12 - contain carbon monoxide 1
P13 - compete with oxygen to bind with haemoglobin / forms 1
carboxyhaemoglobin
P14 - reduces the supply of oxygen to the cells 1
(Any 6)
(c) Able to explain the regulatory mechanism of oxygen when climbing a 8
mountain.
Sample answers:
P1 - At high altitudes, the atmospheric pressure is low 1
// Thin air in the atmosphere
P2 - the partial pressure of oxygen (in the atmosphere) is low 1
// Low oxygen concentration in the air
P3 - may lead to difficulty in breathing / cause gasping 1
P4 - (The decreased partial pressure of oxygen) caused a drop in the oxygen 1
level of blood // Increase in CO2 in the blood
P5 - Blood pH decreases // More H+ (ions) in the blood 1
P6 - that will be detected by peripheral chemoreceptor / aortic bodies / 1
carotid bodies
P7 - nerve impulses send to the respiratory center 1
P8 - (respiratory center) will send nerve impulses to the diaphragm / the 1
intercostal muscle / cardiac/heart muscles
P9 - Diaphragm / intercostal muscle will contract and relax rapidly 1
P10 - Breathing rate / ventilation rate increase 1
P11 - Heartbeat increases 1
P12 - More oxygen will be inhaled // More gaseous exchange 1
P13 - Oxygen level will return to the normal level 1
(Any 8)
TOTAL 20

4551/PP 2017 Hak Cipta BPSBPSK SULIT


SULIT 8 4551/PP

Question 7
No Criteria Marks
(a) Able explain the adaptations of aquatic plants which enable them stand 6
upright to maximise the rate of photosynthesis.
Sample answers:
P1 - Floating plant and submerged plant 1
P2 - the plant/leaves/roots/petioles/stems has aerenchyma cells/ air sacs 1
P3 - the plant lighter / less density 1
P4 - root are fibrous 1
P5 - to trap air bubble 1
P6 - Water provides buoyancy 1
P7 - for support 1
P8 - leaves/stems (of submerged plants) are thin /small 1
P9 - to allow water to flow through / less water resistance / prevent collapse 1
P10 - the stem contain schleried / schlerenchyma tissues 1
(Any 6)
(b) Able to explain osteoporosis, muscular dystrophy and arthritis based on 8
causes, symptoms and ways to avoid them.
Sample answers:
Osteoporosis
Cause Symptom Ways to avoid
C1- caused by ageing/ S1- bone less density/ W1- increase intake of
in older women becoming porous food rich in
(after menopause) S2- bone become calcium
C2 - lack /no more lighter / easily /example of food
oestrogen fractred such as milk,
hormone anchovies
C3- rate of calcium W2- do exercise (to
loss is higher than increase the
rate of calcium density and
absorption /less strength of bone)
deposition of
calcium
1C +1S+1W = 3 marks 3
Muscular dystrophy
Cause Symptom Ways to avoid
C4- (genetic disease S3- reduce in the W3- no treatment/only
caused by) muscle mass can slow down
mutated/recessive /muscle shrinks / the muscle
gene at X weaken degeneration by
chromosome S4- the body is unable steroids injection
(higher to build proteins
possibilities in for muscle growth
male) (due to genetic
mutation)
1C +1S+1W = 3 marks 3

4551/PP 2017 Hak Cipta BPSBPSK SULIT


SULIT 9 4551/PP

Arthritis
Cause Symptom Ways to avoid
C5- cartilage at the S5- joint swollen/ W4- surgery
joints is thinning / hardened/ inflame W5- treatment
degenerate S6- pain during (Glucosamine ,
C6- ageing / over movement chondroitin) to
weight build cartilage
W6- avoid vigorous
activity such as
hiking / jogging
1C +1S+1W = 3 marks 3
Maximum 8 marks
(c) Able to suggest what to be practiced to build and maintain a healthy skeletal 6
system.
Sample answers:
Building
P1 - Balanced diet// nutrition has to be in correct proportion (which include 1
carbohydrate, proteins, vitamins and minerals)
P2 - help to build and repair skeletal system 1
Maintain
P3 - having good / correct posture during standing/ sitting/ lifting /pushing 1
P4 - to avoid damage of important organ 1
P5 - using proper attire for daily activities 1
P6 - avoid tight clothes / high heels 1
P7 - warming up /cooling down during physical activity 1
P8 - to prevent injury 1
P9 - do exercise regularly 1
(Any 6)
TOTAL 20

Question 8
No Criteria Marks
(a) Able to state the health problem faced by the patient. 10
Able to explain how the doctor can help the patient to regain his good health.
Sample answers:
P1 - Kidney stone 1
P2 - drink plenty of water a day // 2-3liter 1
P3 - urine becomes dilute / less concentrated 1
P4 - difficult to form crystals // can get rid of small kidney stones 1
P5 - avoiding / reducing foods high in protein (purine) 1
P6 - example: beef/ poultry/fish/ pork/ liver / spleen / heart / red meat / 1
shellfish
P7 - to reduce formation of uric acid 1
P8 - (Red meat) contain high phosphorus causes more calcium excreted in 1
the urine
P9 - doing exercise 1
P10 - (Exercise) will resolve high blood pressure 1
P11 - Reducing calcium (from bones) released into the blood stream 1
P12 - prevents the formation of kidney stones 1
P13 - Reducing sugar / fructose 1
P14 - Sugar can also increase kidney size and produce pathological changes 1
in kidney, such as the formation of kidney stones.

4551/PP 2017 Hak Cipta BPSBPSK SULIT


SULIT 10 4551/PP

No Criteria Marks
P15 - increase sugar in blood will increase insulin production 1
P16 - cause more production of calcium through the kidneys 1
P17 - Avoid Non-Fermented Soy 1
P18 - Soybeans and soy-based contain high levels of oxalates, which can 1
bind with calcium in kidney to form kidney stones.
P19 - consume adequate magnesium 1
P20 - example: pumpkin seeds/ spinach/ swiss chard/ nuts/ almonds/ 1
cashews.
P21 - magnesium can lower the risk of stone formation. 1
(Any 10)
(b) Able to discuss the effects of taking excessive amount of food to his health 10
shown in Diagram 8.2 for a long time.
Sample answers:
P1 - Fried rice / burger contains high carbohydrate / fats / cholesterol 1
P2 - provides energy / building block for complex molecules / DNA / RNA / 1
glycogen
P3 - excess carbohydrate cause obesity / diabetic mellitus 1
P4 - cheese in burger contains cholesterol / fats / mineral, Eg.Ca/Fe/vitamin 1
P5 - chicken / egg / beef in fried rice/ burger contains protein / fat / mineral / 1
vitamin
P6 - protein is needed to build new cells / for growth / cell division / repair 1
cells
P7 - excess of protein causes gout / kidney failure / liver failure / increase 1
acid uric level in blood
P8 - vitamin is needed for good health // Any example of vitamin and 1
function
P9 - excess of lipid soluble vitamin cause liver poisoning / bone damage / 1
hair loss / kidney damage
P10 - fats provide energy / insulation / protect internal organ / for water 1
proofing / built plasma membrane
P11 - excess fats cause obesity / cardiovascular disease 1
P12 - cucumber / salad contains dietary fibre / water / vitamin / mineral 1
P13 - fibre / water help in peristalsis movement 1
P14 - prevents constipation / reduces the risk of gut cancer / prevent 1
coronary heart disease
P15 - waters as a medium for biochemical reaction / solvent / as blood 1
plasma any suitable function / examples osmotic balance
P16 - mineral needs for good health // Any suitable examples 1
P17 - carbonated drinks contains excess sugar 1
P18 - excess sugar lead to diabetes mellitus (if not mentioned above) 1
(Any 10)
TOTAL 20

4551/PP 2017 Hak Cipta BPSBPSK SULIT


SULIT 11 4551/PP

Question 9
No Criteria Marks
(a) Able to describe the sequence of processes illustrated until the formation of a 10
diploid zygote.
Sample answers:
P1 - Anther produces pollen grains / male gamete 1
P2 - Pollen mother cell (in the anther) undergoes meiosis to produce (four) 1
megaspores (n) / haploid cells / tetrad
P3 - Megaspores (n) / haploid cells / tetrad develop into pollen grains 1
P4 - The nucleus of each megaspore (n) / haploid cell / divides by mitosis 1
P5 - to form one tube nucleus and one generative nucleus 1
P6 - (When a pollen grain falls on the stigma,) the secretion of sucrose 1
solution on the stigma
P7 - stimulates (the pollen grain to germinate to) form pollen tube 1
P8 - (During the growth of pollen tube) the generative nucleus divides 1
mitotically
P9 - to produce two male gametes. 1
P10 - the two male gametes move/follow behind the tube nucleus (down the 1
pollen tube until they) reach the micropyle and enter ovule (for double
fertilization)
P11 - double fertilization occur 1
P12 - the tube nucleus disintegrates and the two male gametes enter the 1
embryo sac/ovule
P13 - (During double fertilisation) one male gamete fuses with the egg 1
cell/ovum to form a diploid zygote
P14 - the other male gamete fuses with the two polar nuclei to form a triploid 1
nucleus (so double fertilization occurs)
(Any 10)
(b) Able to discuss three method of family planning and suggest the most 10
effective method compare to others method.
Sample answers:
Condom
P1 - made of plastic/latex 1
P2 - worn on penis 1
P3 - to prevent sperm from entering the vagina 1
P4 - no fertilization 1
IUD
P5 - (Intrauterine) device is inserted into the uterus (by doctors). 1
P6 - left in the uterus (for approximately two, three and five years) 1
P7 - irritates the endometrium / prevents the thickening of the uterine wall 1
P8 - prevent implantation of embryo 1
P9 - no development of zygote //no pregnancy 1
Spermicide
P10 - usually comes in the form of cream/gel/foam/film 1
P11 - prevent pregnancy by killing the sperm 1
P12 - sperm cannot reach an egg 1
Calendar method
P13 - the woman should keep track of the days of the menstrual cycle 1
P14 - avoid vaginal sex /use condom/diaphragm during fertile time 1
Diaphragm
P15 - a piece of dome shaped silicon 1
P16 - is inserted into vagina to cover the cervix 1
P17 - prevent sperms enter the uterus 1

4551/PP 2017 Hak Cipta BPSBPSK SULIT


SULIT 12 4551/PP

P18 - The most effective method : State the best method from the three 1
methods discussed.
Note :
Any 3 method = maximum 9 marks
Suggest the most effective method = 1mark
TOTAL 20

PAPER 3

Question 1
1 (a) [KB0603 - Measuring Using Number]
Score Criteria
3 Able to record all (5) volume of urine collected.
Sample answers:
Time (minute) Volume of urine collected (ml)
0 53
30 81 Reject:
60 247 if include wrong unit
90 182
120 56

2 Able to state any 3-4 correctly


1 Able to state any 1-2 correctly

1 (b) (i) [KB0601 - Observation]


Score Criteria
3 Able to state any two observations correctly according to the criteria:
C1 - Time (after drinking distilled water)
C2 - Volume of urine collected
Sample answers:
Horizontal
1. At time 0 minute, the volume of urine collected is 53 ml.
2. At time 30 minutes, the volume of urine collected is 81 ml.
3. At time 60 minutes, the volume of urine collected is 247 ml.
4. At time 90 minutes, the volume of urine collected is 182 ml.
5. At time 120 minutes, the volume of urine collected is 56 ml.
Vertical
6. At time 30 minutes, the volume of urine collected is more than at time 0 minute.
7. At time 60 minutes, the volume of urine collected is more than at time 30 minutes.
8. At time 90 minutes, the volume of urine collected is less than at time 60 minutes.
9. At time 120 minutes, the volume of urine collected is less than at time 90 minutes.
10. At time 0 minutes, the volume of urine collected is the least.
11. At time 60 minutes, the volume of urine collected is the most.
12. The volumes of urine collected at time 0 and 120 minutes are almost the same.

4551/PP 2017 Hak Cipta BPSBPSK SULIT


SULIT 13 4551/PP

2 Able to state one observation correctly and one incomplete observation.


or
Able to state any two incomplete observations (Any 2 criteria).
Sample answers for incomplete observations:
Horizontal
1. The volume of urine collected is 53 ml.
2. At time 30 minutes, urine is collected.
3. The time to collect urine are 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes.
4. The volumes of urine collected are different.
Vertical
5. At time 30 minutes, the volume of urine collected is more.
6. At time 120 minutes, the volume of urine collected is less.
1 Able to state any one idea of observation (Any 1 criterion)
Sample answers:
1. The volume of urine is measured.
2. The volume of urine increases/decreases.
3. Measuring cylinder is used to measure the volume of urine.
4. The volume of urine is in unit ml.

1 (b) (ii) [KB0604 - Making inferences]


Score Criteria
3 Able to make one logical inference for each observation based on the criteria:
C1 - Osmoregulation // Blood osmotic pressure // Reabsorption of water
// Time taken for pituitary/adrenal gland / kidney to function
C2 - Amount/volume of urine // Water/urine excreted (more/less/some/normal)
Sample answers:
Horizontal
1. (0 minute) no osmoregulation takes place, amount/volume of urine is normal.
2. (0 minute) blood osmotic pressure normal, urine excreted is normal.
3. (0 minute) pituitary has not detect the increase in (blood) water, urine excreted is normal.
4. (30 minute) osmoregulation takes place, more water/urine is excreted.
5. (60 minute) less water reabsorbed, and more water/urine is excreted.
6. (90 minute) some water reabsorbed, and some water/urine is excreted.
7. (120 minute) blood osmotic pressure (back to) normal, urine excreted.is normal.
Vertical
8. (30 minute vs 0 minute) less water reabsorbed, and more water / urine is excreted.
9. (60 minute vs 30 minute) less water reabsorbed, and more water / urine is excreted.
10. (120 minute vs 90 minute) osmoregulation complete, urine excreted is normal.
2 Able to make one logical inference for any one observation.
or
Able to make one logical and incomplete inference base on 2 criteria for each observation.
Sample answers for incomplete inference:
Horizontal
1. (0 minute) no osmoregulation takes place / blood osmotic pressure normal.
2. (0 minute) amount/volume of urine is normal / urine excreted is normal.
3. (0 minute) pituitary has not detect the increase in (blood) water.
4. (30 minute) osmoregulation takes place / less/some water reabsorbed
5. (30 minute) more water / urine is excreted.
6. (60 minute) least/less/some water reabsorbed (in kidney)

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SULIT 14 4551/PP

7. (60 minute) most water is excreted.


8. (90 minute) reabsorption of water occurs.
9. (120 minute) blood osmotic pressure (back to) normal.
10. (120 minute) urine excreted is normal.
Vertical
11. (30 minute vs 0 minute) less water reabsorbed.
12. (30 minute vs 0 minute) more water / urine is excreted.
13. (60 minute vs 30 minute) less water reabsorbed.
14. (60 minute vs 30 minute) more water / urine is excreted.
15. (120 minute vs 90 minute) osmoregulation complete.
16. (120 minute vs 90 minute) urine excreted.is normal.

1 Able to make an idea of inference with one criterion.


Sample answers:
1. Blood osmotic pressure change.
2. Urine is excreted.

For 1(b)(i) Observation and (ii) Inference:

Score Accurate Inaccurate Idea Wrong


3 2
1 1
2
2
1 1
1 1
1
1 1
2
1 1
0 1 1
2

4551/PP 2017 Hak Cipta BPSBPSK SULIT


SULIT 15 4551/PP

1 (c) [KB061001 - Controling Variables]


Score Criteria
3 Able to state all (6) the variables and the method to handle the variables correctly.
Sample answers:
Variables Method to handle the variables
Manipulated variable:
Time (after drinking distilled water) The time/intervals (to collect urine / for the
// Time (taken for pituitary/adrenal pituitary/kidney to function / osmoregulation /
gland / kidney to function) reabsorption of water) are 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120
// Time (taken for osmoregulation / minutes / every 30 minutes.
reabsorption of water to occur)

Responding variable:
Amount/volume of urine (Measure and) record the volume (of urine) by
collected/excreted using a measuring cylinder.
// Volume of water remained in the // Calculate (using formula):
body or reabsorbed in kidneys Volume of water intake/drank Volume of
urine collected

Controlled variable:
Volume of water Drink 1000 ml (of distilled water)
// Type of water // Drink distilled water
// Sample (of study) // Use same/one student
// Organism // Use student/human
(Reject: Type of measuring cylinder)

2 Able to state 4 - 5 of the variables and the method to handle the variables correctly.
1 Able to state 1 - 3 of the variables and the method to handle the variables correctly.

1 (d) [KB0611 - Making Hypothesis]


Score Criteria
3 Able to state a hypothesis to show a relationship between the manipulated variable and
responding variable and the hypothesis can be validated, base on 3 criteria:
C1 - MV, Manipulated variable
(Time after drinking distilled water // Time taken for osmoregulation process)
C2 RV, Responding variable
(Amount/volume of urine (produced) / water (remained) in the body / water reabsorbed)
C3 R, Relationship (more/high/higher // little/less/lesser // normal)
(Accept if wrong theory)
Sample answers:
1. When the time (after drinking distilled water) increases, the amount of urine is more.
2. When the time (for osmoregulation process) increases, the urine produced is less.

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SULIT 16 4551/PP

2 Able to state less accurate hypothesis to show a relationship between manipulated variable
and responding variable base on 2 criteria.
Sample answers:
1. When the time increases, the amount of urine changed.
2. The time affects the urine produced.
3. The amount of urine changed in time.
4. The time affects the osmoregulation process.
5. The osmoregulation (process after drinking distilled) affects the urine produced.
1 Able to state idea of hypothesis to show a relationship between manipulated variable and
responding variable base on 1 criterion.
Sample answers:
1. The time to collect urine is every 30 minutes.
2. The amount of urine produced is measured.

1 (e) (i) [KB0606 - Communicating]


Score Criteria
3 Able to tabulate a table and fill in data accurately base on three criteria:
C1 - T, Title with units
C2 - D, Recording data (Time and Volume of urine collected)
C3 - C, Calculation (Volume of water remained in the body or reabsorbed in kidneys)
Sample answer:
Time Volume of urine collected Volume of water remained in the body
(minute) (ml) or reabsorbed in kidneys (ml)
0 53 947
30 81 919
60 247 753
90 182 818
120 56 944

2 Able to tabulate a table base on two criteria.


1 Able to tabulate a table base on one criterion.

1 (e) (ii) [KB0608 - Space and Time Relationship]


Score Criteria
3 Able to draw a graph based on the criteria below:
C1 - P, Constants scale (both axes)
C2 - T, All point transferred correctly
C3 - B, A line touching all points (correct shape)
(Extrapolation, cannot more than 3 small squares)
2 Any two criteria
1 Any one criteria
0 No table in 1(e)(i)

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SULIT 17 4551/PP

1 (e) (iii) [KB0607 - Interpreting Data]


Score Criteria
3 Able to state the relationship between the volume of urine collected and time, based on three
criteria.
C1 - R, Relationship: Time (increases) and Volume of urine (increases)
C2 - E1, Explanation 1: Osmotic pressure (of the blood/body fluids is low/lower/decreases)
// Osmotic concentration (of blood/body fluids is low/lower)
// Water content (in the blood is high/higher/increases)
C3 - E2, Explanation 2: Water reabsorbed (less) // Water needed by the body/blood (less)
// Water released (in the urine more)
Sample answer:
1. When the time increases, the volume of urine increases. The osmotic pressure decreases,
so less water is reabsorbed.
2. When the time change from 0 to 30/60 minutes, more urine is produced. More water in
the blood, so less water reabsorbed.
3. The volume of urine increases with time. The osmotic concentration of body fluids is low,
so more water is released.
4. The increases in volume of urine and time is positive. The hydrostatic pressure of blood is
high, so less water needed by the body.

2 Able to state clearly but less accurate the relationship base on 2 criteria.
R + E1/E2
R reverse/inaccurate/idea + E1 + E2
1 Able to state the idea of the relationship base on 1 criterion.
R only
R reverse/inaccurate/idea + E1/E2
0 No graph in 1(e)(ii) // Graph/curve wrong
Without reading
No R // E1/E2 only

1 (f) [KB0609 - Define Operationally]


Score Criteria
3 Able to define operationally osmotic concentration, based on the experiment.
Criteria:
C1 - Concentration of body fluids / blood // Amount of water in the body (fluids)
C2 - After drinking distilled water, urine is collected/measured (every 30 minutes).
C3 - The volume of urine depends on the time (of osmoregulation).
Sample answer:
1. (The osmotic concentration) is the concentration of body fluids. Urine is collected after
drinking distilled water. The volume of urine change in time.
2. (The osmotic concentration) is the water content in the body fluids. Urine is measured
after drinking distilled water. The volume of urine increased and decreased in time.
2 Able to state any two criteria
1 Able to state at idea level only.

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SULIT 18 4551/PP

1 (g) [KB0605 - Predicting]


Score Criteria
3 Able to predict the chloride concentration in the urine collected at time 120 minute, and
explain the prediction based on three criteria.
C1 - P, Chloride concentration with unit (Any value between 0.76 to 1.30 g/cm3)
C2 - E1, Explanation 1: Osmotic concentration/pressure (of blood / body fluids) is normal.
C3 - E2, Explanation 2: The concentration of urine is (back to) normal.
Sample answers:
1. The chloride concentration is 1.23 g/cm3. The osmotic concentration of the body fluids is
(back to) normal, and normal concentration of urine is produced.
2. More than 0.76 g/cm3. The chloride concentration of the body fluids increased so more
chloride is released (in the urine).
2 Able to predict the result less accurately (2 criteria).
P + E1/E2
P inaccurate/idea + E1 + E2
1 Able to give idea of the result.
P only
P inaccurate/idea + E1/E2
0 No R // E1/E2 only

1 (h) [KB0602 - Classifying]


Score Criteria
3 Able to list all (4) the drinking water according to the volume of urine produced.
Sample answer:
Type of drinking water Volume of water reabsorbed (ml)
Jenis air minuman Isipadu air yang diserap semula (ml)
Lowest
Distilled water Terendah
0.05% salt solution
0.5% salt solution
5% salt solution Highest
Tertinggi

2 Able to classify any 3 correctly.


1 Able to classify any 2 correctly.

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SULIT 19 4551/PP

Question 2

Problem Statement
Score Criteria
3 Able to state the problem statement of the experiment correctly that include criteria:
C1 - MV, Manipulate variables
(Temperature // (Amount/degree of) heat/heating // Time/duration of heating/boiling)
C2 - RV, Responding variables
((Amount/concentration/percentage/content of) vitamin C in fruit (juice))
C3 - R, Relation in question form and question symbol [?]
Sample answers:
1. What is the effect of heat on the vitamin C (content) in fruit (juice)?
2. Does the (percentage of) vitamin C in fruit (juice) depend on heating?
3. Does temperature affect the vitamin C in fruit (juice)?
4. Does the longer the boiling, the less/more the vitamin C in fruit?
2 Able to state the problem statement of the experiment with two criteria.
Sample answers:
1. What is the effect of heat on the vitamin C in fruit (juice).
2. What is the effect of heat on vitamin C?
3. Does vitamin C depend on heating?
4. Does food processing affect the vitamin C content in fruit?
1 Able to state the of problem statement with one criteria or at idea level.
Sample answers:
1. What is the effect of heat on fruit (juice).
2. What is the effect of heat on vitamin C.
3. The higher the temperature the more the vitamin C.
4. The more the vitamin C the higher the temperature.
5. Food processing affects the vitamin C content in fruit.

Variables
Score Criteria
3 Able to state the three variables correctly
Sample answers:
Manipulated variable: Temperature // (Amount/degree of) heat/heating
// Time/duration of heating/boiling
// Heat treatment // Place in refrigerator/fridge / room / oven
Responding variable: Amount/concentration/percentage/content of vitamin C (in fruit juice)
// Volume of fruit juice to decolourise 1 ml/cm3 of DCPIP solution
Controlled variable: Type/concentration/freshness of fruit (juice) // orange (juice)
(Reject: juice only)
// Concentration/volume of DCPIP (solution)
2 Able to state the two variables correctly.
1 Able to state the one variable correctly.

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SULIT 20 4551/PP

Hypothesis
Score Criteria
3 Able to state the hypothesis correctly according to the criteria:
C1 - MV, Manipulated variable
(Temperature // Amount/more/less/degree of heat/heating // Time/duration of
heating/boiling)
C2 - RV, Responding variable
(Amount/concentration/percentage/content of vitamin C (in fruit juice))
C3 - R, Relationship (more/high/higher // little/less/lesser)
(Accept if wrong theory)
Sample answers:
1. The more the heat/heating the less/more the vitamin C (content).
(Note: less/more refers to content)
2. The higher/lower the temperature the lower/higher the percentage of vitamin C.
3. The longer the boiling, the less/more the vitamin C (in fruit).
4. The vitamin C content is more at low/lower temperature.
5. The loss of vitamin C in fruit is less at low temperature.
(Note: in fruit shows content)
6. As the time of heating increases, the loss of vitamin C in fruit increases too.
2 Able to state the hypothesis with two criteria.
Sample answers:
1. High/more/longer temperature/heat/heating destroy the vitamin C in fruit.
2. The temperature affects the percentage of vitamin C.
3. Heating/boiling will make the vitamin C (in fruit) less/more.
4. The vitamin C is more at low/lower temperature.
5. The loss of vitamin C is less at low temperature.
6. As the time of heating increases, the loss of vitamin C increases too.
1 Able to state the hypothesis with one criterion / idea level for two criteria.
Sample answers:
1. Temperature/heat/heating destroy the vitamin C.
2. The temperature affects the vitamin in fruit.
3. Heating/boiling will destroy the vitamin C.
4. The vitamin C depends on temperature.
5. The vitamin C change with temperature.
6. More vitamin C in fruit is lost.
7. As the time of heating increases, the loss increases too.

Materials and Apparatus


Score Criteria
3 Able to state all functional materials / 2*materials + 1*apparatus + 1 other material + 2 other
apparatus for the experiment.
Materials: *Fruit (juice), *(0.1% / 1%) DCPIP (solution),
and 0.1% ascorbic acid // standard ascorbic acid.
Apparatus: *Beaker / conical flask / boiling tube / test tube / specimen bottel / any suitable
clear glass container, thermometer / heater / burner / water bath, syringe (with
needle) / measuring cylinder, and stopwatch / clock / timer.
(Reject if wrong category) (Accept if not separately)
2 Able to state all functional materials / 2*materials + 1*apparatus + 1 other apparatus or
material for the experiment.

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SULIT 21 4551/PP

1 Able to state all functional materials / 2*materials + 1*apparatus for the experiment.

Procedure
Score Criteria
3 Able to state five procedures P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5 correctly.
P1 : How to Set Up The Apparatus (4P1)
P2 : How to Make Constant The Control Variable (1P2)
P3 : How to Manipulate The Manipulated Variable (1P3)
P4: How to Record The Responding Variable (2P4)
P5 : Precaution (1P5)
2 Able to state three or four of any procedures P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5 completely.

1 Able to state two of any procedures P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5 completely.

Example of Procedure:
1. Label three beakers / test tubes / syringes, as A, B and C. P1
2. Squeeze P1
fresh P2
orange / any suitable fruit into a beaker P2
using a muslin cloth / sieve. P1
3. Fill P1
1ml P2
0.1% DCPIP solution into a specimen tube / boiling tube / test tube P2
by using a syring / measuring cylinder. P1
4. Fill a syringe with (10ml of) 0.1% ascorbic acid. P1
5. Place the syringe needle in the DCPIP solution. P5
Release the ascorbic acid P1
drop by drop / slowly (into the DCPIP solution.) P5
Mix by using the needle // shake slowly. P5
6. Immediately stop releasing the ascorbic acid once the DCPIP turns colourless. P5
Record the volume of ascorbic acid in a table. P1
7. Heat the fruit juice in a water bath P1
of temperature 40, 50, and 60oC. (Any 3 suitable temperatures) P3
(Use ice cubes if below 30oC) P1
for 10 minutes. P2
OR for 10, 20 and 30 minutes P3
in water bath of temperature 60oC // Boil. P2
8. Cool down the fruit juice under running water. P5
9. Fill three different syringes with the (heat treated) fruit juices. P5
// Rinse (thoroughly) the syringe before use.
10. Repeat step 3 until step 6 by replacing the ascorbic acid with the (heat treated) fruit juices. P1
11. Record the volume of fruit juices (that decolourise 1 cm3 of DCPIP solution) in a table, P4
by using a syringe / measuring cylinder (OR syringe / measuring cylinder already
mentioned in previous steps).

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12. Calculate the concentration / percentage of vitamin C in each (heat treated) fruit juice by P4
using the formula:
The concentration of vitamin C = Volume of 0.1% ascorbic acid x 1.0 mgcm-3
Volume of fruit juice
OR
The percentage of vitamin C = Volume of 0.1% ascorbic acid x 0.1 %
Volume of fruit juice
13. Draw a graph / bar chart of the concentration / percentage of vitamin C against P4
temperature / duration of heating.
14. Tabulate the data (in a table) // Record the data in a table. P1
15. Repeat the experiment / steps 1-13 to get average readings. P5

Data
Score Criteria
2 Able to tabulate the correct table based on two criteria:
C1 - Heading with correct units
C2 - Manipulated variable (at least 3 values)
Sample answers:
1.
Vitamin C
The volume of fruit juice needed to
Temperature content/concentration/
decolourise (1 ml of) DCPIP (solution)
(oC) percentage
(ml OR cm3)
(mgcm-3 OR %)
40
50
60
2.
Vitamin C
Duration/Time The volume of fruit juice needed to
content/concentration/
of heating decolourise (1 ml of) DCPIP (solution)
percentage
(minute) (ml OR cm3)
(mgcm-3 OR %)
10
20
30
4.
Vitamin C
The volume of fruit juice needed to
Heat treatment / content/concentration/
decolourise (1 ml of) DCPIP (solution)
Condition percentage
(ml OR cm3)
(mgcm-3 OR %)
In refrigerator
In room
In heater/oven

1 Able to tabulate the table based on one criterion.

END OF MARKING SCHEME


PERATURAN PEMARKAHAN TAMAT

4551/PP 2017 Hak Cipta BPSBPSK SULIT