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Penyakit :
Perubahan dalam individu yang
menyebabkan parameter kesehatan mereka
berubah diluar batas-batas normal.

Etiologi :
Penetapan suatu sebab atau alasan dari
suatu fenomena.

Patogenesis :
Perkembangan atau suatu evolusi penyakit.

Gejala :
Bersifat subyektif dan hanya dapat dilaporkan
penderita pada pengamat.

Tanda-tanda :
Manifestasi penyakit secara obyektif
menyangkut penyimpangan yang dapat
diidentifikasi oleh pengamat.

Lesi :
perubahan struktur yang dapat ditunjukkan /
ditimbulkan dalam perkembangan penyakit.
Sifat makroskopis / mikroskopis.

Sequele :
merupakan akibat dari suatu penyakit.

Komplikasi :
Proses baru atau proses terpisah yang dapat timbul
sekunder karena beberapa perubahan yang
dihasilkan oleh keadaan aslinya.

Resolusi :
Kembali pada keadaan normal sama sekali,
tanpa sequele atau komplikasi.
Bisa spontan atau karena pengobatan.

Faktor ekstrinsik
Penyebab penting penyakit manusia
Agen infeksi , trauma mekanis , bahan
kimia beracun, radiasi , suhu, gizi, stres

Faktor intrinsik
Merupakan sifat indivdu yang berdampak
penting pada berbagai perubahan
keadaan individu.
Umur, jenis kelamin , kelainan pada
perjalanan penyakit sebelumnya.

Struktur sel

Cell membrane

The cell is highly organized with many functional

units or organelles.
Most of these units are limited by one or more
To perform the function of the organelle, the
membrane is specialized in that it contains specific
proteins and lipid components that enable it to
perform its unique roles for that cell or organelle.
In essence membranes are essential for the integrity
and function of the cell.

Membrane components may:

Be protective.

Regulate transport in and out of cell or subcellular

domain allow selective receptivity and signal
transduction by providing transmembrane receptors
that bind signaling molecules.

Allow cell recognition provide anchoring sites for

cytoskeletal filaments or components of the
extracellular matrix.

This allows the cell to maintain its shape and perhaps

move to distant sites.

Help compartmentalize subcellular domains or

microdomains provide a stable site for the binding
and catalysis of enzymes.
Regulate the fusion of the membrane with other
membranes in the cell via specialized junctions .
Provide a passageway across the membrane for
certain molecules, such as in gap junctions.
Allow directed cell or organelle motility.


Microtubules are conveyer belts inside the cells.

They move vesicles, granules, organelles like
mitochondria, and chromosomes via special
attachment proteins.
They also serve a cytoskeletal role.
Structurally, they are linear polymers of tubulin which
is a globular protein.

These linear polymers are called protofilaments.

The figure to the left shows a three dimensional view
of a microtubule. The tubulin molecules are the bead
like structures.
A protofilament is a linear row of tubulin beads.
Microtubules may work alone, or join with other
proteins to form more complex structures called
cilia, flagella or centrioles .
In this unit we will cover all of these structures.

Cilia and flagella are projections from the cell.

They are made up of microtubules , as shown in this
They are motile and designed either to move the cell
itself or to move substances over or around the cell.
The primary purpose of cilia in mammalian cells is to
move fluid, mucous, or cells over their surface. Cilia
and flagella have the same internal structure. The
major difference is in their length.

Nucleus Cell

The cell nucleus is a remarkable organelle because it forms the

package for our genes and their controlling factors.

It functions to:
Store genes on chromosomes .
Organize genes into chromosomes to allow cell division.
Transport regulatory factors & gene products via nuclear pores .
Produce messages ( messenger Ribonucleic acid or mRNA) that code for
Produce ribosomes in the nucleolus .
Organize the uncoiling of DNA to replicate key genes.

Usually in the form of chromatin

- Contains genetic information
- Composed of DNA
- Thicken for cellular division
- Set number per species (i.e. 23 pairs for human)

Surrounds nucleus
Composed of two
Numerous openings
for nuclear traffic.

Spherical shape
Visible when cell is
not dividing
Contains RNA for
protein manufacture

Paired cylindrical
organelles near nucleus
Composed of nine tubes,
each with three tubules.
Involved in cellular
Lie at right angles to
each other

A plastid usually
found in plant cells.
Contain green
chlorophyll where
photosynthesis takes

Composed of
Supports cell and
provides shape.
Aids movement of
materials in and out of

Endoplasmic reticulum
Tubular network fused
to nuclear membrane
Goes through cytoplasm
onto cell membrane.
Stores, separates, and
serves as cell's transport
Smooth type: lacks
Rough type (pictured):
ribosomes embedded in

Golgi apparatus
Protein 'packaging
A membrane
structure found near
Composed of
numerous layers
forming a sac .

Digestive 'plant' for
proteins, lipids, and
Transports undigested
material tocell membrane
for removal
Vary in shape depending
on process being carried

Cell breaks down if

lysosome explodes


Second largest organelle

with unique genetic structure
Double-layered outer
membrane with inner folds
called cristae
Energy-producing chemical
reactions take place on

Controls level of water and

other materials in cell.

Recycles and decomposes

proteins, fats, and
carbohydrates, and forms

Mitochondria are the cells'

power sources.
They are distinct organelles
with two membranes.
Usually they are rodshaped, however they can
be round.
The outer membrane limits
the organelle.
The inner membrane is
thrown into folds or shelves
that project inward.
These are called "cristae

Each cell contains
Miniature 'protein factories'
Composes 25% of cell's

Stationary type: embedded

in rough endoplasmic

Mobile type: injects

proteins directly into