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satunya telah saya jelaskan sumbernya.

Tandatangan Nama Penulis Tarikh

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PENGHARGAAN

Assalamualaikumwarahmatullahiwabarakatuh... Alhamdulillah, dengan rasa sukacitanya saya ingin mengucapkan syukur ke hadrat Illahi kerana dengan limpah dan kurnia-Nya, maka Projek Sarjana Muda ini dapat disiapkan dengan sempurna. Di kesempatan ini saya ingin merakamkan setinggi-tinggi penghargaan kepada penyelia saya, iaitu Prof. Dr. Noraeini Hj. Mokhtar yang telah banyak membantu dan memberi tunjuk ajar kepada saya menyiapkan laporan projek pada semester 2002/2003 ini. Ribuan terima kasih juga kepada rakan-rakan seperjuangan terutamanya saudara Syaiful Marzuki, Suhairi dan Irwan Petra, yang sering membantu dalam memberi pendapat, cadangan dan komen di samping dorongan yang mereka berikan. Jutaan terima kasih ingin saya ucapkan kepada mereka yang banyak memberi dorongan dan galakan kepada saya selama ini terutamanya emak, ayah serta ahli keluarga saya. Tidak ketinggalan juga kepada semua yang terlibat dalam penyiapan laporan projek ini. Jika bukan kerana bantuan dan sokongan anda semua, maka syarat-syarat kelayakan untuk menyiapkan Projek Sarjana Muda ini mustahil untuk dicapai. Syaherman bin Johar, Mac 2003.

Buat insan yang tersayang ~ Emak dan Ayah yang dikasihi, kasih sayang, bimbingan, pengorbanan dan jasamu abadi selamanya.. Untuk yang teristimewa ~ Norul Aizan Mohd Hanafi, jutaan terima kasih yang tidak terhingga atas segala galakan dan dorongan serta doa yang tidak putus-putus sehingga berjaya sampai ke peringkat ini... Tidak lupa juga buat teman-teman serumah dan rakan-rakan seperjuangan..

ABSTRAK

Hakisan tebing sungai boleh memberikan masalah yang serius kepada banyak pihak dan mendatangkan bahaya kepada struktur tebing, dataran banjir dan pertambahan sedimen sungai. Pengurusan yang khusus dalam pembinaan adalah amat penting bagi mengawal hakisan dan sedimentasi. Kini, pelbagai teknologi terkini telah dicipta bagi mengatasi permasalahan ini. Masalah yang sering dihadapi ialah menggunakan teknologi dengan betul dan langkah penyelesaian bagi mengatasi permasalahan di kawasan yang terlibat. Kesilapan rekabentuk dan pemasangan sering menjadi punca kepada masalah setiap kali pembinaan sedang dijalankan dan masalah inilah yang harus dielakkan dan dikenalpasti sebelum memulakan kerja-kerja pembinaan. Terdapat pelbagai kaedah dan teknik pembinaan yang dapat mencegah hakisan, dan adalah perlu untuk memilih kaedah yang paling bersesuaian dan berkesan bagi mengatasi hakisan sekali gus dapat menstabilkan tebing sungai. Tambahan, ianya tidak mengganggu dan meninggalkan sebarang kesan yang buruk kepada ekonomi dan alam sekeliling ciptaan Tuhan. Dalam kajian ini, beberapa kaedah-kaedah yang terpilih dan terkini telah dikenalpasti dalam menangani permasalahan hakisan di tebing sungai. Di samping itu, pengurusan yang sesuai juga digunakan bagi mendapatkan perjalanan kerja yang lancar dan teratur.

ABSTRACT

River bank erosion can present serious problems to river engineers, environmental managers and farmers through loss of agricultural land, danger to riparian and floodplain structures, increase downstream sedimentation, and occasional riverine boundary disputes. Construction and management details are important to successful control of erosion and sediment. Nowadays, the technology for erosion and sediment control is well developed. The problem is to apply the technology correctly and thereby control the problem at its source. Improper design and installation often results in problems more severe than those that were to be avoided. Since there are many kind of methods that can prevents erosion, it is desirable to select the most effectively control measure to get a best results of solution for rectification and stabilization of river banks. Besides, when the measures were been choose, erosion will successful controlled without caused to both environmental and economic impacts. In this research, there is a solution for rectification of river banks by using a selected and modern techniques. Besides, a suitable management also needed to result a proper installation while doing a construction activities.

CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES AND MANAGEMENT OF ECOENGINEERING SOLUTION FOR RECTIFICATION OF RIVER BANKS.
Noraieni Hj. Mokhtar, PhD1 , Syaherman Johar ,Bsc2 1 Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia 2 Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Abstract: River banks erosion can present serious problems to river engineers, environmental managers and farmers through loss of agricultural land, danger to riparian and floodplain structures, increase downstream sedimentation, and occasional riverine boundary disputes. Design and construction details are vitally important to successful control of erosion and sediment. Nowadays, the technology for erosion and sediment control is well developed. The problem is to apply the technology correctly and thereby control the problem at its source. Improper design and installed often results in problems more severe than those that were to be avoided. Keywords: design and construction, river bank, erosion. 1. INTRODUCTION Vegetation is one of methods used to control erosion for rectification and stabilization of river bank. Experience the numerous rivers indicates that vegetation is ineffective in protecting river banks from erosion except at the water surface-bank interface. Grasses and shrubs help protect banks against erosion from wave action, surface velocities, and small variations in flow elevation in the vicinity of the water surface. Vegetation is the most cost-effective form of erosion control. It is also self-healing and attractive. Since vegetation prevents erosion, it is a more desirable control measure than straw bale dikes, silt fences, and sediment traps and basins. Vegetation reduces erosion by absorbing the impact of rain drops, reducing the velocity of runoff, reducing runoff volumes by increasing water percolation into the soil, binding soil with roots and protecting soil from the wind. 2. SITE PREPARATION Construction practices, such as extensive clearing and earth moving, procedure large areas of exposed soil with a high potential for erosion. Grading creates cut and fill areas that have soil conditions substantially different from the original ones. Cut slopes are typically stripped down to the subsoil or parent material (rock). The exposed slope is often hard, rocky, and low in fertility. Initial plant regrowth on such slopes will probably be scraggly and thin. Fill areas generally contain a mixture of topsoil, subsoil, rock and anything else that had to be disposed of. A common fill material may be the grading spoils from the other construction projects. Thus, a fill area may contain the right types of

soil for plant growth, but they are often mixed up or inverted or may not have originated at the site. The unpredictable soil composition and potential for differential compaction and settling make fill areas particularly susceptible to erosion. Before a disturbed site is revegetated, the earth should be shaped and roughened to create a favorable environment for plants to grow in. it is a common practice to grade slopes until they have a hard, smooth surface. Such slopes give false give a false impression of finished grading and a job well done. Seedling roots have a difficult time penetrating these surfaces. A light rain or wind can easily carry away the seeds. 3. FIELD WORK 3.1 SEEDING The key factor of seeding is to get the seeds evenly distributed and in contact with the soil. Best results are obtained when seeds are covered with shallow layer of soil to a depth of to inch (0.6 to 1.3 cm). It should not have a soil cover greater than 1 inch (2.5 cm). Seeding can be done by hand, by machine (seed drill), by hydraulic jet, or by aircraft. The steepness of slope and size of area determine the proper equipment to use. Hand broadcast seeding is effectively seeded at small, gently sloping or flat areas. Breast seeders (belly-grinders) are inexpensive. Seed can be covered by lightly raking the soil or by dragging a chain over the surface. The seed may become covered naturally on a rough, loose seedbed. Hydraulic seeding and mulching (hydroseeding) is the most efficient means for seeding steep slopes. It is a one-step process for spraying a slurry of seed, fertilizer, wood fiber mulch, and water. The critical factor in hydroseeding is the ability of the fiber to adhere to the soil and hold the seed in place during rainfall and wind. Seed drills are commonly used in agriculture. They can be used only on flat or gently sloping sites. Because seed drills plat seeds at the proper depth, they provide the best stands of grass. In addition, when seed is drilled, seed and fertilizer rates may be cut in half. 3.2 FERTILIZER Fertilizer is essential to the establishment of vegetation, particularly on cut slopes. The amount and composition of fertilizer to use depends on local soil conditions. As was stated earlier, it is preferable to use plants that can survive without repeated fertilization. Fertilizing is costly, and on most sites you cannot count on having someone there to do it year after year. Excessive fertilizer can cause water pollution. However, on sites with sandy or coarse-grained soils, such as decomposed granite, reapplication of fertilizer may be necessary for continued plant cover.

3.3 MULCHING Application of mulch protects a disturbed site from erosive forces until plants are large enough to do the job. Mulch materials include straw, wood fiber, wood chips, bark, fabric or plastic mats, soil and gravel. 3.3.1 Straw Mulch Straw mulch is highly effective at absorbing raindrop impact and moderating the climate on the soil surface. Straw mulch should not be applied too heavily. Soil should be visible through the straw mat. Straw can be applied either by hand or by blower. It is difficult to apply straw uphill or under windy conditions. Straw must be anchored to keep it from blowing away. Common methods of holding straw in place includes crimping, disking, rolling or punching it into the soil, covering it with netting and spraying with a chemical or fiber binder. Those methods are commonly accomplished with commercial machine called sheepsfoot roller. 3.3.2 Wood Fiber Mulch

Wood fiber mulch consists of fine wood fibers to which a green dye added to make the mulch visible on the ground when it is being applied. It is easy to apply with a hydroseeder. Instead, wood fiber mulch does not by itself provide much erosion protection. This is because it does no have enough mass to absorb the energy of raindrops and flowing water. Typically, wood fiber is applied hydraulically which is wood fiber, seed, fertilizer, and water are combined in a tank and applied together as a slurry. 3.3.3 Nettings

Heavy-weight netting materials such as jute (woven fibers) and excelsior can be effective mulches. Not only do these dense nettings hold soil in place but also absorb water and hold moisture near the soil surface. It must be so applied that is in complete contact with soil so it can be protected from erosion. Netting should be anchored to the soil with No. 11 gauge wire staples at least 6 inch long. On very hard rocky soils, the netting can be anchored by using large nails and washers. However, the materials may need a high cost. 4. TEST AND RESULT 4.1 Test Procedures

Mulches were tested on 0.6- by 1.2 meter boxes of soil inclined at 5:1 and 2:1 slopes (horizontal to vertical ratio). Rainfall was simulated by using 3-mm-diameter drops falling 4.5 meter at the range of 152 mm/hour for periods of 2 to 6 hour. The soil boxes were designed to allow rapid drainage if water moved through the top 15 cm of soil. Soil

washed from each box was collected, dried and weighed. Eight soils were used in the tests which is taken from construction sites (Table 1.0) 4.2 Test Results

Figure 1.0 shows the rate of erosion from each of the soil types when no protection was used. Soil loss was greater from all soil types when inclined at 2:1 than at 5:1. the most erodible soils were those with high percentages of fine sand and silt including the three loam soils. The uncemented fine sand did not erode initially, but it would liquefy when saturated and down downslope. On, the 2:1 slope, this liquefied sand flowed rapidly and thus produced very high erosion rate. The least erodible soils were the coarse, gravelly, decomposed granite and the soil with the highest clay content. Table 1.0 : Textures and particle size percentages of soils used in mulch
Texture uncemented fine sand very gravelly coarse sand gravelly sandy loam sandy clay loam loam loam loam clay loam Name Arnold Decomposed granite Cieneba Dibble Los Osos Yolo Auburn-Sobrante Altamont Clay 2 3 9 21 17 22 21 29 Silt 3 4 9 18 48 45 43 45 Sand 95 41 49 61 35 33 36 26 Gravel 0 52 33 0 0 0 0 0

Figure 1.0 : Erosion rater from unprotected soil surfaces inclined at 5:1 and 2:1 slopes.

4. CONCLUSIONS The conclusions that can be drawn from this study are as follows: 1. Vegetation using straw mulch provided much greater protection on all soils, but particularly on the uncemented fine sand, the decomposed granite, and the clay loam. 2. The wood fiber mulch, though less effective than straw, did offer some protection. 3. When an erosion control treatment is to be selected, it is necessary to consider both short and long-term effectiveness. 4. Hydraulic seeding and mulching with wood fiber does provide adequate erosion protection if plants are established, but its pregermanation effectiveness is low to moderate. 5. Jute netting and jute over straw are highly effective but very costly treatments and they are best for small sites and critical areas.

5. REFERENCES 1. Association of Bay Area Governments, Manual of Standards for Erosion and Sedimentation Control Measures, ABAG, Oakland, Calif., 1981. 2. R. P. Beasley, Erosion and Sedimentation Pollution Control, The Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, 1972. 3. F. W. Bennett and R. L. Donahue, Methods of Quickly Vegetating Soils of Low Productivity, Construction Activities, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D. C., 1975. 4. Dr. Farber, Recommended Planting Time For Vegetative Stabilization of Construction Sites, Technical Memorandum No. 51, in San Francisco Bay Area Environmental Management Plan, Appendix J, Association of Bay Area Government, Oakland, Calif., 1981.