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THE EVOLUTION OF LOGISTICS

SCOPE & INFLUENCE

GLOBAL
LOGISTICS
SUPPLY
CHAIN
LOGISTICS
CORPORATE
LOGISTICS
FACILITY
LOGISTICS
WORKPLACE
LOGISTICS

1950 s 1960 s 1970 s 1980 s 1990 s


Workplace Logistics
“Aliran material pada sebuah stasiun kerja
tunggal“
Tujuan : meminimasi perpindahan seorang
pekerja individual pada sebuah mesin atau
sepanjang lini perakitan.
Facility Logistics
”Aliran material antara stasiun kerja di
dalam fasiltas (yaitu, inter-stasiun kerja
dan intra-fasilitas). Fasilitas dapat berupa
pabrik, stasiun, gudang, atau pusat
distribusi.”
Tujuan : penanganan material (material
handling).
Corporate Logistik
”Aliran material dan informasi antar
fasilitas dan proses-proses pada sebuah
perusahaan (inter-stasiun kerja, inter-
fasilitas, dan intra-perusahaan)”
Tujuan : mencapai dan mempertahankan
kebijakan pelayanan konsumen yang
menguntungkan dan mengurangi biaya total
logistik.
Supply Chain Logistics
“Aliran material, informasi, dan uang
antar perusahaan antar-stasiun kerja,
antar fasilitas, antar perusahaan, dan
antar chain)”
Logisitik adalah kejadian dalam supply chain.
Logistik Global
„Aliran material, informasi, dan keuangan
antar negara“
Logistik global menghubungkan supliernya
suplier kita dengan konsumen akhir di seluruh
dunia.
Logistik Generasi Mendatang
Kolaborasi logistik : optimasi real-time serta
komunikasi antara semua rekanan pada
seluruh mata rantai supply.
Logistik virtual (fourth-party logistics) :
seluruh aktivitas logistik dan manajemen akan
di outsourced ke provider-provider third-party
logistics.
Merupakan bagian dari proses Rantai Pasok yang direncanakan, dilaksanakan, dan
dikendalikan dengan efisien, mengefektifkan aliran dan penyimpanan barang, pelayanan,
dan informasi terkait dari titik-titik pengumpulan/asal (point of origin) ke titik-titik
konsumsi/tujuan (point of consumption) untuk memenuhi kebutuhan konsumen.

Missi Logistik menurut Ballou (1999) :


Menyampaikan barang atau jasa yang
tepat, pada tempat yang tepat, pada waktu
yang tepat, dan pada kualitas yang
diinginkan, sehingga memberikan
kontribusi terbesar bagi perusahaan.
Tujuan Logistik menurut Ballou (1999) :
Menyampaikan barang jadi dan bermacam-
macam material dalam jumlah yang tepat,
pada waktu yang dibutuhkan, dalam keadaan
yang dapat dipakai, ke lokasi dimana ia
dibutuhkan dan dengan total biaya terendah.
Sasaran Logistik menurut Ballou (1999) :
Mencapai level sokongan manufacturing-
pemasaran yang telah ditentukan
sebelumnya dengan total biaya yang
serendah mungkin.
Business logistics

Physical supply Physical distribution


(Materials management / (outbound logistics)
Inbound Logistics)
Sources of Plants/
supply operations Customers

• Transportation • Transportation
• Inventory maintenance • Inventory maintenance
• Order processing • Order processing
• Acquisition/purchasing/procurement • Product scheduling
• Protective packaging • Protective packaging
• Warehousing • Warehousing
• Materials handling • Materials handling
• Information maintenance • Information maintenance

Focus firm’s internal supply chain


Fragmentation Evolving Total
1960 integration integration
1980 2000

Demand forecasting
Purchasing
Requirements planning
Production planning
Materials Management
Manufacturing inventory
Warehousing Logistics supply
chain
Materials handling
Industrial package
Finished goods inventory
Distribution planning Distribution Management

Order processing
Transportation
Customer service
Stage 1: baseline

Material
Purchasing Production Sales Distribution
Control

Stage 2: functional integration

Materials Manufacturing
Distribution
Management Management

Stage 3: internal integration (logistics)


Materials Manufacturing
Distribution
Management Management

Stage 4: external integration(supply chain)


Internal supply
Suppliers Customers
chain
What Is the Supply Chain?
• Juga disebut sebagai jaringan logistik
• Suppliers, manufacturers, warehouses, distribution centers and
retail outlets – “facilities”
dan
• Raw materials , Work-in-process (WIP) inventory, Finished
products, yang mengalir antara fasilitas

 Semua fasilitas, fungsi, kegiatan, terkait dengan aliran dan


transformasi barang dan jasa dari bahan baku kepada pelanggan,
serta arus informasi yang terkait
 Sebuah kelompok yang terintegrasi untuk memproses : "sumber
(source)," "membuat (make)," dan “mengirim (deliver)" produk
The Supply Chain
Suppliers Manufacturers Warehouses & Customers
Distribution Centers

Transportation Transportation
Costs Costs
Material Costs Transportation
Manufacturing Costs Inventory Costs Costs
VISA
®

Material Flow Credit Flow

Supplier Manufacturing Retailer Consumer

Supplier Wholesaler Retailer


Order Cash
Schedules
Flow Flow
Supply
Chain
for
Denim
Jeans
Supply
Chain
for
Denim
Jeans
(cont.)
Supply Chain Processes
Supply Chain for Service
Providers

• Lebih sulit dari manufacturing


• Fokusnya bukan pada aliran physical goods
• Fokusnya pada human resources & support services
The Supply Chain – Another View

Plan Source Make Deliver Buy

Suppliers Manufacturers Warehouses & Customers


Distribution Centers

Transportation Transportation
Material Costs Costs Costs Transportation
Manufacturing Costs Inventory Costs Costs
What Is Supply Chain Management (SCM)?
• Satu set pendekatan yang digunakan untuk efisiensi
pengintegrasian :
– Suppliers
– Manufacturers
– Warehouses
– Distribution centers
• Sehingga produk ini diproduksi dan didistribusikan
– In the right quantities
– To the right locations
– at the right time
– at the low cost
• Memenuhi service level yang ditentukan
• Keys to effective SCM :
– information
– communication
– cooperation
– trust
Pengarang Definisi M anajemen Suppl y Chain
Oliver and Aliran barang-barang mulai dari pemasok melalui
Webber (1982) pabrikan dan saluran distribusi ke pemakai akhir.
Christopher Manajemen jejaring organisasi yang menghubungkan
(1992) upstream dan downstream, dalam proses & aktivitas yang
berbeda untuk memproduksi nilai suatu produk/jasa ke
konsumen akhir
David Simchi- Sekumpulan pendekatan yang digunakan untuk
Levi et al. mengefisienkan integrasi pemasok-pabrikan-gudang-
(2000) distributor-pengecer dalam memproduksi dan distribusi
pada kuantitas yang tepat, lokasi yang tepat, dan waktu
yang tepat, untuk meminimasi seluruh ongkos dan
memenuhi kebutuhan tingkat pelayanan
Ayers (2001) Perancangan, pemeliharaan dan operasi proses supply
chain untuk memuaskan pengguna akhir
History of Supply Chain Management

• 1960’s - Inventory Management Focus, Cost Control


• 1970’s - MRP & BOM - Operations Planning
• 1980’s - MRPII, JIT - Materials Management, Logistics
• 1990’s - SCM - ERP - “Integrated” Purchasing,
Financials, Manufacturing, Order Entry
• 2000’s - Optimized “Value Network” with Real-Time
Decision Support; Synchronized & Collaborative
Extended Network

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Business logistics

Physical supply Physical distribution


(Materials management / (outbound logistics)
Inbound Logistics)
Sources of Plants/
supply operations Customers

• Transportation • Transportation
• Inventory maintenance • Inventory maintenance
• Order processing • Order processing
• Acquisition/purchasing/procurement • Product scheduling
• Protective packaging • Protective packaging
• Warehousing • Warehousing
• Materials handling • Materials handling
• Information maintenance • Information maintenance

Focus firm’s internal supply chain


Stage 1: baseline

Material
Purchasing Production Sales Distribution
Control

Stage 2: functional integration

Materials Manufacturing
Distribution
Management Management

Stage 3: internal integration (logistics)


Materials Manufacturing
Distribution
Management Management

Stage 4: external integration(supply chain)


Internal supply
Suppliers Customers
chain
Fragmentation Evolving Total
1960 integration integration
1980 2000

Demand forecasting
Purchasing
Requirements planning
Production planning
Materials Management
Manufacturing inventory
Warehousing Logistics supply
chain
Materials handling
Industrial package
Finished goods inventory
Distribution planning Distribution Management

Order processing
Transportation
Customer service
SCM System Among Others
Information Technology for Supply Chain
Management
• Software Systems
– Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)
– Material Requirements Planning (MRP)
– Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP II)
– Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)
– Supply Chain Management Systems (SCM)
– Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
– Internet-based Software
• Network Infrastructure
– Wide Area Network
– Internet (for E-commerce: B2B, B2C) 27
Why Is SCM Difficult?
Plan Source Make Deliver Buy

• Ketidakpastian yang melekat di setiap supply


– Travel times
– Breakdowns of machines and vehicles
– Cuaca, bencana alam, perang
– Local politics, labor conditions, border issues

• Kompleksitas masalah dalam mengoptimalkan supply


chain :
– Minimize internal costs
– Minimize uncertainty

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The Importance of Supply Chain Management

• Berurusan dengan lingkungan yang tidak menentu -


matching supply and demand
• Singkatnya siklus hidup produk berteknologi tinggi
- Kurang kesempatan untuk mengumpulkan data historis
pada permintaan pelanggan
- Luasnya pilihan produk dalam bersaing membuatnya
sulit untuk memprediksi permintaan
• Perkembangan teknologi seperti Internet memungkinkan
kolaborasi lebih besar antara mitra dagang supply chain
• Ketersediaan teknologi SCM di pasar
– Perusahaan dapat mengakses berbagai tipe produk
(e.g., SAP, Baan, Oracle, JD Edwards) yang
mengintegrasi proses internal

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Product Life Cycle, Sales, Cost, and Profit
Cost of
Development
Sales, Cost & Profit .

& Manufacture
Sales Revenue

Profit

Loss Cash flow

Time

Introduction Growth Maturity Decline


Supply Chain Uncertainty

• One goal in SCM: • Factors that contribute to


– respond to uncertainty in uncertainty
customer demand without – inaccurate demand forecasting
creating costly excess – long variable lead times
inventory – late deliveries
• Negative effects of – incomplete shipments
uncertainty – product changes batch ordering
– lateness – price fluctuations and discounts
– incomplete orders – inflated orders
• Inventory
– insurance against supply
chain uncertainty
Supply Chain Management and Uncertainty

• Inventory dan tingkat back-order berfluktuasi di seluruh supply


chain bahkan ketika permintaan konsumen tidak bervariasi
• Variabilitas memburuk (meningkat)
• Forecasting doesn’t help!

Multi-tier Wholesale
Suppliers Manufacturer Distributors Retailers Consumers

Sales

Sales
Sales

Sales

Time Time Time


Time

Bullwhip Effect
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Bullwhip Effect
Pembesaran variabilitas dalam pesanan di supply-chain. Fluktuasi pesanan meningkat ke
arah hulu supply chain dari retailers (pengecer) ke grosir ke produsen dan ke pemasok

Retailer’s Orders Wholesaler’s Orders Manufacturer’s Orders

Time Time Time

Banyak pengecer …dapat menyebabkan …dapat


dengan masing- variabilitas yang lebih menyebabkan
masing sedikit besar untuk beberapa variabilitas yang
variabilitas pedagang besar lebih besar lagi bagi
pesanan mereka (wholesalers), dan … produsen tunggal.
….
Bullwhip Effect
Today’s Marketplace Requires:
• Personalized : konten dan pelayanan bagi pelanggan
mereka
• Collaborative : perencanaan dengan design
partners, distributors, and suppliers
• Real-time : commitments for design, production,
inventory, and transportation capacity
• Flexible : pilihan logistik untuk memastikan
pemenuhan tepat waktu
• Order tracking & pelaporan melalaui multiple
vendors and carriers
Shared visibility for
trading partners
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Supply Chain Management – Key Issues

• Forecasts are never right


– Sangat tidak mungkin bahwa permintaan aktual akan sama dengan
peramalan
• The longer the forecast horizon, the worse the forecast
– Ramalan selama satu tahun dari sekarang tidak akan pernah
seakurat ramalan selama 3 bulan dari sekarang
• Aggregate forecasts are more accurate

Namun demikian, metode peramalan adalah alat


manajemen yang penting untuk mengurangi
ketidakpastian permintaan

36
Supply Chain Management – Key Issues

• Mengatasi fungsi-fungsi dalam organisasi yang tujuan-


tujuannya saling bertentangan
Customer Service/
Purchasing Manufacturing Distribution
Sales

High
Low pur- Few change- inventories
chase price overs
Low High service
Multiple Stable invent- levels
schedules ories
vendors
Regional
Long run stocks
lengths Low trans-
portation

SOURCE MAKE DELIVER SELL

37
Supply Chain Management – Key Issues
ISSUE CONSIDERATIONS
Network Planning • Warehouse locations and capacities
• Plant locations and production levels
• Transportation flows between facilities to minimize cost and time
Inventory Control • How should inventory be managed?
• Why does inventory fluctuate and what strategies minimize this?

Supply Contracts • Impact of volume discount and revenue sharing


• Pricing strategies to reduce order-shipment variability

Distribution Strategies • Selection of distribution strategies (e.g., direct ship vs. cross-docking)
• How many cross-dock points are needed?
• Cost/Benefits of different strategies
Integration and Strategic • How can integration with partners be achieved?
Partnering • What level of integration is best?
• What information and processes can be shared?
• What partnerships should be implemented and in which situations?
Outsourcing & Procurement • What are our core supply chain capabilities and which are not?
Strategies • Does our product design mandate different outsourcing approaches?
• Risk management
Product Design • How are inventory holding and transportation costs affected by product
design?
• How does product design enable mass customization?
Supply Chain Management Operations Strategies

STRATEGY WHEN TO CHOOSE BENEFITS


Make to Stock standardized products, Low manufacturing costs;
relatively predictable meet customer demands
demand quickly

Make to Order customized products, Customization; reduced


many variations inventory; improved
service levels
Configure to Order many variations on Low inventory levels; wide
finished product; range of product
infrequent demand offerings; simplified
planning

Engineer to Order complex products, unique Enables response to


customer specifications specific customer
requirements

Source: Simchi-Levi
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Supply Chain Management – Benefits

• Tahun 2009, PRTM Integrated Supply Chain Benchmarking


Survey of 331 firms found significant benefits to integrating the
supply chain

Delivery Performance 16%-28% Improvement


Inventory Reduction 25%-60% Improvement
Fulfillment Cycle Time 30%-50% Improvement
Forecast Accuracy 25%-80% Improvement
Overall Productivity 10%-16% Improvement
Lower Supply-Chain Costs 25%-50% Improvement
Fill Rates 20%-30% Improvement
Improved Capacity Realization 10%-20% Improvement

Source: Cohen & Roussel


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Supply Chain Imperatives for Success
• Melihat supply chain sebagai aset strategis dan pembeda
(diferensiasi)
– Wal-Mart’s partnership with Proctor & Gamble to automatically
replenish inventory
– Dell’s innovative direct-to-consumer sales and build-to-order
manufacturing
• Ciptakan konfigurasi supply chain yang unik yang sesuai
dengan tujuan strategis perusahaan
– Operations strategy
– Outsourcing strategy
– Channel strategy Supply chain configuration components
– Customer service strategy
– Asset network
• Reduksi uncertainty (ketidakpastian), dengan :
– Forecasting
– Collaboration
– Integration
Value of Information and SCM
Information In The Supply Chain
Plan
Warehouses & Retailer
Suppliers Manufacturers
Distribution Centers

Source Make Deliver Sell

Order Lead Time • Setiap fasilitas yang makin jauh dari


permintaan pelanggan aktual harus Diperkirakan supply
Delivery Lead Time membuat forecasts of demand chain perusahaan
• Kurangnya data aktual pembelian farmasi menyiapkan
pelanggan, setiap fasilitas hanya persediaan untuk
Production Lead Time 100 hari guna
berdasarkan ramalan pada order
„downstream‟, yang lebih bervariasi mengakomodasi
dari pada permintaan aktual ketidakpastian
• Untuk mengakomodasi variabilitas,
tingkat persediaan overstocked
sehingga meningkatkan biaya
persediaan.
Taming (menjinakkan) the Bullwhip
Methods for Improving Forecasts
Judgment Methods
Market Research Analysis

Panels of Experts

• Internal experts
• External experts
• Market testing
• Domain experts
• Market surveys
• Delphi technique
• Focus groups
Time-Series Methods Accurate
Forecasts
Causal Analysis

• Moving average
• Exponential smoothing
• Relies on data other than
• Trend analysis
that being predicted
• Seasonality analysis
• Economic data, commodity
data, etc. 45