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COMPARISON OF RESISTANCE VALUE IN AREA RECLAMATION grounding BEACH (CITRALAND)

,, 1) Student Department of Electrical Engineering University Tadulako, 2) Lecturer Tadulako University


Department of Electrical Engineering Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Tadulako Jl.
Soekarno-Hatta KM 9, Palu, Central Sulawesi, e-mail: Mukmin_mirwan07@yahoo.com

Abstrak
sistem grounding adalah sistem yang menghubungkan sistem koneksi konduktif, peralatan dan tubuh
instalasi dengan bumi / tanah sehingga untuk mengamankan manusia dari sengatan listrik, dan
mengamankan komponen instalasi dari bahaya tegangan / arus abnormal. Oleh karena itu, sistem
pembumian menjadi bagian penting dari sistem kekuasaan. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengukur dan
membandingkan nilai resistansi grounding di atas lahan seluas pantai reklamasi dan non-reklamasi di
area perumahan Citra Land, PT. Ciputra Surya, JO. yang akan memfasilitasi rancangan masa depan sistem
pembumian. Jenis elektroda yang digunakan dalam pengukuran elektroda adalah batang tunggal dengan
diameter 0,15 m dan panjang 1,4 meter, yang ditanam pada kedalaman 0,25 / 0,5 / 0,75 / 1 meter dari
tanah, alat ukur yang digunakan adalah analog Earth resistance Tester 3235. Grounding nilai resistansi
pengukuran dilakukan sepuluh kali untuk mendapatkan nilai dapat rata-rata sehingga mendapatkan nilai
resistansi bumi diinginkan. Nilai tanah resistance grounding hasil pengukuran reklamasi sebesar 3,03 Ω,
sedangkan lahan non-direklamasi oleh 5 Ω. Untuk nilai resistivitas tanah di atas tanah reklamasi dari
0.455 Ω, tanah sedangkan untuk non-direklamasi dari 1,481 Ω.

PRELIMINARY
The relationship is earthing systems System penghantar The linking system, body Equipment
The main ground is creating a path that low - impedance (resistance lower) to the surface of the earth to
electric waves and t r a n sie n t a g e v olt. Lighting, electric current, circuit switching and ele c t r o s t a tic
dis c h a r g e is a common cause of their jolt of electricity or transient voltage.
Along the development era and the limited land that could be used for the construction of buildings,
hotels and other buildings in Indonesia, especially Palu experienced problems in strategic areas for
development, so that development tends to take advantage of strategic areas that are at the seaside for
reclamation is by creating new land in the land that was formerly made up of water. To plan the
grounding system in the reclamation area requires a measurement of earth resistance value, it will be
useful in future planning of earthing systems.
According Hutauruk, in Supardi (2003), "To know the values obstacles soil types should accurately be
measured directly at the locations used for system grounding because of the soil structure actually not as
simple as expected, for every different locations have barrier types land which is not the same '.
According Kharisma, in Wahyono (2012) Value of prisoners affected by the grounding of planting depth
and spacing of electrodes. The analysis shows that the grounding resistance value will be smaller when
the depth of planting plus, the number of electrodes planted, and planting distance plus. According to
IEEE Std 142 ™ -2007 in Yunaningrat (2000), The purpose of the grounding system are:
a. Limiting the amount of stress to the earth in order to be within the limits allowed.
b. Provides a pathway for the flow of current to provide detection of the desired relationship
between the conductor and the earth system. 1. Factors Affecting Large Resistivity Grounding
According Yunaningrat (2000), basically there are several factors that influence the amount of
earth that a detainee, as follows:
2. Electrodes Grounding
According PUIL 2000 [3:18:11 and 3.18.4.1], electrodes are planted in the earth's introduction and make
direct contact with the earth. In general, the grounding electrodes are often used there are 3 types, as
follows:
a. electrodes rods
Rod electrode is an electrode of steel pipe profiles or other metal bars anchored into the ground deeply.
Formula (1) is a grounding electrode rod prisoners unggal:
Where:
R = Prisoners grounding for the electrode rod (ohm)
ρ = Resistivity type of soil (ohm-meters)
L = length of the electrode (m)
A = Diameter electrode (meters)
b. Pita electrodes These electrodes form a ribbon or wire berpenampang round planted in the soil
planting generally is not too deep (0.5 to 1 meter. Formula (2) is a formula for the grounding electrode
ribbon prisoners are as follows:
Where:
R = Resistivity ribbon grounding electrodes (ohm)
ρ = Resistivity type of soil (ohm-meters)
L = length of the electrode plate (m)
d = depth of the embedded plate from the ground surface (m)

c. Plat electrode plate electrode is an electrode of the metal plate. How to mount is perpendicular to a
depth of approximately 1 meter below ground level is calculated from the upper side of the plate.
Equation (3) is the grounding for the electrodes prisoners plat form as follows:
Where:
R = Resistivity grounding elektrodapelat (ohm)
ρ = Resistivity type of soil (ohm-meters)
L = length of the electrode plate (m)
b = plate width (m)
t = depth of the embedded plate from the ground surface (m)

3. Type and Size Electrode Material The following is a table containing the grounding electrode measures
commonly used in the grounding system.

4. Number / Configuration Electrodes To obtain the desired grounding prisoners and if not enough with
one electrode, more electrodes can be used with a variety of configurations pemancangannya in the
ground.

5. Depth Piling / Soil Cultivation In The Pile This depends on the type and properties of the soil. There are
more effective planted in, but some are quite grown shallow.

6. Type Soil Resistivity (ρ) To know the price of accurate soil resistivity measurement required directly at
the location, because the soil structure is actually not as simple as expected, for every different locations
have barriers are not the same type of soil.

a. Metode Empat Elektroda ( Four electroda method


When I go into the ground flows through one of the electrodes and return electrode to the other
quite far away, so the influence of the diameter of the conductor can be ignored. thus:
Where:
a = the distance between the electrodes
[m] R34 = prisoners between the electrodes 3 and 4 [Ω]
ρ = soil resistivity [Ω-m]

b. The composition method Schlumberger. Currents injected through the electrodes C1, and the
potential difference measurements performed on the electrodes P1, where the current electrode
distance (C1) is much larger than the voltage electrode spacing (P1). The composition of
Schlumberger method can be demonstrated
Where:
ρ = Resistivity Soil type [Ω.m]
R = Resistivity measured [Ω]
c = distance between the electrodes the outside with the inside [m]
d = distance between electrodes inside [m]
b = electrodes are embedded [m]

RESEARCH METHODS

The tools used during the study were as follows:


1. Analog Earth Teste
With the following data: Brand: YOKOGAWA Power Source: DC 1.5 V battery type R20P (Sanyo
Super) x 4. Type: Analog Earth Resistance Tester 3235. This tool is used to display the earthing
resistivity values measured by the ability to measure up to 1000 Ω (ohm).
This tool serves to show the grounding resistance value measured by the ability to measure up to 1000 Ω
(ohm).

2. Hammer / Hammer Hammer or hammer serves as a tool to grind the electrode rod, so as to
facilitate the planting and the addition of depth electrodes. 3. Lock Pipe Serves as a tool to
facilitate revoke electrodes that have been implanted.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Measurement of ground resistivity values using a measuring instrument types Analog Earth Tester. Earth
Tester is connected to three electrodes implanted, where 2 of them are auxiliary electrode and the first
main electrode. In full form measurement of earth resistance values as shown below

Measurements were made using rod electrodes, with a depth that bevariasi between the depth 0,25-0,5-
0,75-1 meters from the ground is done to determine whether the level of depth of planting electrodes
affect grounding resistance value. The measuring process is done as much as ten times the experiment
location of reclaimed land and non reclaimed land, is done to value detainees can be averaged to get a
grounding desired resistance value
1. Measurement of Soil Resistivity type Reclamation / Non Reclamation
Measurement data is the data taken from the measurement results on the ground resistance
values reclaimed and non reclaimed area on Housing Citra Land. There the results is the
difference between the value of resistance grounding reclaimed and non reclaimed area.
Measurement results showed that the value of resistance grounding, grounding resistance value on non
reclaimed area is higher than land reclamation amounted to 3.03 Ω grounding resistance value is
generated.
2. Calculation of Value Detainees Grounding Prior to the calculation of earthing resistance values,
advance
calculation of soil resistivity value of the location of non-reclaimed land and land reclamation. Here
are the results of measurements of soil resistivity.
3. Comparison of Results of Measurement and Results Calculation Value Detainees Grounding. After
the process of measuring earth resistivity values in the area of reclaimed land and land reclamation
and earthing resistance value calculation process, then obtained the following results:

From the graph above shows that the measurement results and the results of calculation of the value
of resistance grounding electrode type rod on the location of most non reclamation and land reclamation
generate enough value is different, because the value detainee type of soil that is used is a value obtained
by direct measurement, not of value provisions established by the General Terms Electrical Installation
2000 (PUIL 2000) on page 80 Table 3,181 resistance soil types. As well as the process of measuring
resistivity value of land is done only using 4 points, so resistivity value obtained is less accurate and
therefore contributes to ground resistance values obtained from the measurement results.

CONCLUSION

Earthing resistance values generated at the location of non-reclaimed land 5 Ω and grounding resistance
value generated by reclaimed land amounted to 3.03 Ω. From what condition the electrode planting
depth, a depth of 1 meter that produces low resistance values the earth, it can be concluded that the
deeper the planting electrode rod then results will be obtained will be more small / getting better.
Earthing resistance values on non reclaimed land is higher than the value detainee good grounding on
reclaimed land from the measurement results and the calculation results
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