Anda di halaman 1dari 46

TEKNIK PENULISAN

KARYA TULIS ILMIAH

Tineke Mandang

Workshop PKM-T 2010 HIMATETA


I. PENGERTIAN
II. JENIS KARYA ILMIAH
III. KAIDAH & ETIKA
PENULISAN
IV. CONTOH

Workshop PKM-T 2010 HIMATETA


Peneliti/
Penulis Pembaca

Komunikasi
Penelitian/ Proposal
Kajian/telaa
h
Laporan

Bahasa
Ilmiah
Hasil Penelitian
Penelitian/ Laporan
Karya Ilmiah Magang
Skripsi
Karya Tulis Tesis
Ilmiah
Desertasi
Artikel/Makala
h Ilmiah
Workshop PKM-T 2010 HIMATETA
DEFINISI (1)
Karya Tulis (Tulisan) Ilmiah :
Suatu karya tulis atau tulisan yang
memuat hasil/temuan dari suatu
penelitian atau hasil pemikiran yang
mengikuti metoda ilmiah
( Diolah dari berbagai sumber)

Workshop PKM-T 2010 HIMATETA


DEFINISI
(2)

Merupakan tulisan berisi ide kreatif


yang disusun secara komprehensif
berdasarkan data akurat
(terpercaya), dianalisis secara
runtut, tajam dan diakhiri dengan
kesimpulan yang relevan
(DIKTI, 2004)

Workshop PKM-T 2010 HIMATETA


DEFINISI (3)
A scientific paper is a written report describing original
research results whose format has been defined ….
(Dirangkum dari berbagai sumber)

Karya tulis ilmiah mengandung unsur-unsur :


judul, abstrak, pendahuluan, tujuan, tinjauan
pustaka, bahan dan metoda, hasil dan
pembahasan, simpulan dan saran.

Workshop PKM-T 2010 HIMATETA


JENIS TULISAN ILMIAH (1)

1. Jenis Tulisan Ilmiah : Contoh untuk Fateta (S0,


S1,S2/S3)
1) Proposal Penelitian/Proposal Praktek
Lapang/Magang
2) Laporan Praktek Lapang/Laporan
Magang
3) Skripsi/Tesis/Desertasi
4) Makalah Seminar

Workshop PKM-T 2010 HIMATETA


JENIS TULISAN ILMIAH (1)
2. Jenis Tulisan Ilmiah : Untuk keperluan
publikasi atau lainnya

1) Makalah untuk Jurnal/buletin


ilmiah/seminar

2) Artikel untuk keperluan lain : lomba,


dsb

Workshop PKM-T 2010 HIMATETA


Format umum, Konsistensi & Pengetikan

Proposal, Laporan PL, Skripsi, Laporan Magang,


Makalah Seminar

Lihat pedoman penulisan karya


ilmiah Fateta IPB
(akan segera terbit)

Workshop PKM-T 2010 HIMATETA


SISTEMATIKA DAN FORMAT

Catatan Penting :

be noted that most publications have rules


about a paper's format: some divide papers
into some sections, others do not, and the
order may be different in different
publications. So be prepared to revise your
paper in to a publication's format when you
are ready to submit.

Workshop PKM-T 2010 HIMATETA


Reports and other scientific texts are
an important part of a study
•Scientific papers should be written in
a clear and concise style
•Good language is important

Workshop PKM-T 2010 HIMATETA


Anatomi atau Struktur
Tulisan :
1. Pendahuluan (Latar
belakang dan tujuan)
2. Isi (Terdiri dari
beberapa bagian)
3. Penutup (Simpulan dan
saran)

Workshop PKM-T 2010 HIMATETA


VERSI UMUM
(diolah dari berbagai sumber) :

1. Rumus IMRAD (Introduction, Material


and Method, Results and Discussion)

Dilengkapi dengan

2. TASCAR (Title, Authorships, Summary/


Abstract, Conclusion, Acknowledgments,
References)

Workshop PKM-T 2010 HIMATETA


Untuk karya ilmiah, hal-hal yang perlu
diperhatikan (1):
Judul Singkat, menggambarkan isi; hindari kata-
kata klise (pengaruh …, mempelajari,
..dll.)
Penulis Lengkap (tentukan urutan yang
seharusnya)
Ringkasan & Uraikan secara singkat mengapa penelitian
Kata kunci dilaksanakan, tujuan, metode, hasil-
hasil yang penting, simpulan utama.
Tuliskan kata-kata kunci yang tepat.

Pendahuluan (Latar belakang & tujuan). Mengapa


penelitian ini perlu, sertakan dukungan
informasi (seperlunya tapi jelas)

Tinjauan Pustaka yang melandasi penentuan


Pustaka hipotesis;
gunakan pustaka terbaru dan relevan.
Workshop PKM-T 2010 HIMATETA
Untuk karya ilmiah, hal-hal yang perlu
diperhatikan (2):

Metoda Sejelas mungkin (orang lain dapat


mengulangi)
Hasil dan Pembahasan Sejelas mungkin (tampilkan hasil
dan bahas). Gunakan tabel,
gambarm dll untuk
memperjelas.
Simpulan & Saran Sesingkat mungkin dan menjawab
tujuan penelitian.
Saran menunujukan kelemahan/
kekurangan pada penelitian
(saran tidak harus ada)
Daftar Pustaka Rujuklah sumber informasi dan
tulis dengan cermat

Workshop PKM-T 2010 HIMATETA


Title A title should be the fewest possible words
that accurately describe the content of the
paper. Omit all waste words such as "A study
of ...", "Investigations of ...", Observations
on ...", etc. Indexing and abstracting services
depend on the accuracy of the title, extracting
from it keywords useful in cross referencing
and computer searching.
Authorships Who is the best defined in advance ? How
many ?
Summary/ A well-prepared abstract enables the reader to
Abstract identify the basic content of a document
quickly and accurately, to determine its
relevance to their interests, and thus to
decide whether to read the document in its
entirety. The abstract concisely states the
principal objectives and scope of the
investigation where these are not obvious
from the title. More important, it concisely
summarizes the results and principal
conclusions.
Workshop PKM-T 2010 HIMATETA
Keyword list The keyword list provides the opportunity to
add keywords, used by the indexing and
abstracting services, in addition to those
already present in the title. Judicious use of
keywords may increase the ease with which
interested parties can locate your article
Introduction An important function of the introduction is to
establish the significance of your current
work: Why was there a need to conduct the
study? Having introduced the necessary
literature and demonstrated the need for the
current study, you should state clearly the
scope and objectives.
Materials The main purpose of the 'Materials and
and Methods' section is to provide enough detail
Methods for a competent worker to repeat your study
and reproduce the results. The scientific
method requires that your results be
reproducible, and you must provide a basis
for repetition of the study by others.

Workshop PKM-T 2010 HIMATETA


Results In the results section you present your
findings: display items (figures and tables) are
central in this section. Present the data,
digested and condensed, with important
trends extracted and described. Because the
results comprise the new knowledge that you
are contributing to the world, it is important
that your findings be clearly and simply stated.

Discussion In the discussion you should discuss what


principles have been established or reinforced;
hat generalizations can be drawn; how your
findings compare to the findings of others or
to expectations based on previous work; and
whether there any theoretical/practical
implications of your work.

Conclusion Who needs one ?


Workshop PKM-T 2010 HIMATETA
Acknowledgments Who should be thanked ? Who
paid ? In journals it is not a must
to write acknowledgements but it
is considered polite for the author
to acknowledge the help of them

References Whenever you draw upon


information contained in another
paper, you must acknowledge the
source. All references to the
literature must be followed
immediately by an indication of
the source of the information that
is referenced

Workshop PKM-T 2010 HIMATETA


KEBAHASAAN

Bahasa Ilmiah :
Bahasa yang digunakan
untuk menyampaikan
suatu karya ilmiah,
secara lisan maupun
tertulis

Workshop PKM-T 2010 HIMATETA


Fungsi Umum
Bahasa :
Untuk tujuan praktis : mengadakan hubungan

antar manusia/kelompok
Untuk tujuan artistik : mengolah bahasa
menjadi
indah untuk pemuasan rasa estetis manusia
Sebagai kunci mempelajari ilmu/pengetahuan
Tujuan filolologis : mempelajari naskah tua,
penyelidikan sejarah (manusia, kebudayaan,
adat-
istiadat, perkembangan bahasa
Workshop PKM-T 2010 HIMATETA
Bahasa Ilmiah :
1) Tata Bahasa
2) Pemilihan kata/istilah
3) Gaya bahasa
Ilmiah
4) Sistematika
5) Konsistensi
6) Dll.

Mengacu pada Bahasa Indonesia Baku dengan


Ejaan Yang disempurnakan (EYD)

Workshop PKM-T 2010 HIMATETA


Beberapa
tips
1) Tata Bahasa

• Secara umum artikel ilmiah lebih banyak


menggunakan kalimat pasif
• Hindari penggunaan kata ganti orang
(saya, kami, mereka, dll) dalam artikel
ilmiah
• Hindari kalimat yang sangat panjang
karena akan mengaburkan arti bahkan
kehilangan makna
• Bedakan antara kata depan di dan ke
dengan awalan di dan ke.

Workshop PKM-T 2010 HIMATETA


2) Pemilihan kata dan
istilah
• Gunakan kata atau istilah yang umum
digunakan untuk artikel ilmiah bukan
kata-kata untuk bahasa percakapan
sehari-hari atau bahasa pergaulan
• Gunakan “technical term” yang asli bila
belum ada terjemahan yang baku atau
yang masih belum populer
• Hindari penggunaan kata yang sama
berulang-ulang pada kalimat dengan
posisi tertentu.
• dll.

Workshop PKM-T 2010 HIMATETA


3) Gaya bahasa

• Artikel ilmiah menggunakan gaya bahasa


sederhana dan resmi
• Hindari gaya bahasa puitis/pantun, dll.
• Artikel ilmiah mementingkan kedekatan
hubungan antara satu bagian dengan
bagian yang lain
• Artikel ilmiah lebih bersifat “to the
point” artinya tidak bertele-tele
• dll.

Workshop PKM-T 2010 HIMATETA


4) Sistematika,
Konsistensi
• Alur artikel disesuaikan dengan
tujuan

• Urut-urutan bagian artikel sesuai


dengan tujuan

• Penggunaan kata, istilah, tanda baca,


satuan, dll. harus konsisten agar
tidak mengaburkan arti.

Workshop PKM-T 2010 HIMATETA


Etika Penulisan Ilmiah

Plagiarism (Mencuri hak orang) :


Menggunakan data, ide atau hasil penelitian orang
lain tanpa menuliskan sumbernya.

Disengaja ??

Akibat dari lemahnya


Tidak disengaja pengetahuan tentang
penulisan ilmiah

Workshop PKM-T 2010 HIMATETA


Some final words
•Be honest with your work and
thoughts

•Be opened to criticism – not


everyone may be happy with your
work, however accurate and
objective you have tried to be.

Workshop PKM-T 2010 HIMATETA


Karya tulis ilmiah hendaknya
memuat suatu karya
pemikiran dan atau penelitian
yang mengandung keaslian.

Terapkan prinsip
kejujuran dalam setiap
karya kita

Workshop PKM-T 2010 HIMATETA


Lampiran-1 :
Kesalahan umum dalam penulisan karya tulis
ilmiah

Workshop PKM-T 2010 HIMATETA


Common Mistakes in an Abstract
For such a short section, the Abstract is easy to get wrong.
Here are some of themajor ones to watch out for in your own
writing:

1. No Abstract. Every paper needs an abstract. Your is no exception!


2. Abstract Really an Introduction. An Abstract is not an Introduction - it is a
summary of the whole paper. Often, authors will write an Abstract that is ten
sentences of background information, with no reference to the results or
conclusions of the study. Don’t panic about including enough background –
if a reader wants details, she goes to your introduction.
3. Missing Information. Authors frequently forget to include information like:
What was the purpose of this study? What were the methods used? What
were the major results? What do these results mean? Be sure than your
Abstract answers all those questions.
4. Too Much Information. Some authors include way too much information
onthe background, the problem, the methods, or the implications of a study.
Usually, 1- 2 sentences for each of the major sections (Introduction -
Methods - Results -Conclusions) is enough. The Abstract should be short,
snappy, and succinct. When readers want details, they’ll read the actual
paper.

Workshop PKM-T 2010 HIMATETA


Common Mistakes in an Introduction

1. Too Much Information. Authors sometimes include far too much


information in their Introductions. Only information related to the
subject should be included.
2. Not Enough Information. Another common mistake authors make
is to assume that their audience knows more than they do. Authors
often do not explain concepts, do not provide enough background
information, or do not discuss enough previous studies.
3. Unclear What Study Is. Often, authors will build a thorough
Introduction, but it is unclear what the rest of their paper will cover.
The author needs to bluntly state what this paper will cover, how,
and why. Phrases like “This study examines…”or “In this study…”
are valuable.

Workshop PKM-T 2010 HIMATETA


not. Try to
avoid lists and describe your study in prose instead.
5. Confusing Structure. Authors often throw all sorts of information
into an
Introduction without thinking thru the organization. The result is a
confusing read.
Remember to follow the structure outlined above: Big problem – my
portion of that
big problem – hypothesis (logic underlying my study) – description of
my study –
why the reader should care about this study.
6. First-Person Anecdotes. Undergraduates sometimes confuse a
scientific
manuscript with My Wild Adventures in the Lab. They might try to open
an
Introduction with an amusing story to “draw the reader in”, thinking
that this is an
essay for an English class. First-person reporting does not belong in a
researchPKM-T 2010
Workshop HIMATETA
manuscript. The author shouldn’t even say “I found…” but “It was
Common Mistakes in a Results Section
1. Raw Data. Occasionally an author will for some reason include all his/her raw data. This
is not just unnecessary - it’s mind-numbing. The author should present only the key
results, meaning those results that bear on the question or problem being addressed.
Generally this means presenting means, percentages, standard deviations, etc.

2. Redundancy. Authors will often present their results in a table, then re-state everything
in the text. This is redundant. Text should be used to clarify figures and tables - not
rehash them.
3. Discussion and Interpretation. Authors frequently combine the Results and iscussion
sections or include interpretation in the Results section. Some journals (a very, very few)
permit this. JYI does not. Author cannot include interpretation or discussion in the results
section. This includes discussion of possible sources or causes of error.
4. No Figures or Tables. Every Results section should have at least one table. No matter
what discipline the author is writing in, he/she should have data to present. A notable
exception is some mathematics or computer science papers.

5. Methods/Materials Reported. Often, an author will write something like this is the
Results section: “We found that sample A contained pyroxene, so we ground sample B
to a powder and ran the experiment again. With sample B, we found pyroxene again.”
The information “so we ground sample B to a powder and ran the experiment again” is
M&M material and does not belong in the Results section. The author must report only
results in the Results section – no new methods or materials at all.

Workshop PKM-T 2010 HIMATETA


Common Mistakes in a Discussion Section
1. Combined with Results. It’s amazing how often authors combine the
Results and Discussion sections, even though we specifically tell them not
to. The Results and Discussion sections cannot be combined. They have
two very different purposes. The Results section is for fact. The Discussion
section is for interpretation.
2. New Results. Sometimes an author will include a new result in the
Discussion section – one he/she did not report in the Results section. All
results must be reported in the Results section. They can be restated in
the Discussion section, but they must appear in the Results.
3. Broad Statements. Sometimes an author will draw sweeping
conclusions based on his/her one tiny study. These are only appropriate
even for major, ground-breaking papers – the kinds of papers that
undergraduates rarely write. For example, it’s unlikely that a paper
examining valley networks in one small region of Mars is going to shed
light on the evolution of the Martian climate through time or the fate of
the liquid water that once ran on its surface. The study might provide new
clues, but no sweeping, broad statements can be made.

Workshop PKM-T 2010 HIMATETA


4. The “Inconclusive” Cop-Out. Months of research and pages of words, all
leading up to a: “The results are inconclusive.” What a waste! Don’t waste your
reader’s time with a statement of “it’s inconclusive”. The author needs to draw what
conclusions he/she can, then suggest how the experiment should be changed to
properly test the hypothesis.

5. Ambiguous Data Sources. Often, an author will get so wound up in his/her


Discussion, that it’s hard to tell when he/she is talking about the results of this study
and when he/she is talking about the results of other studies. Don’t let authors get
away with that kind of ambiguity – whose study is being discussed is vital
information.

6. Missing Information. Authors often leave out critical information from the
Discussion section. For example, they might forget to re-state their hypothesis and
motivation, might not tie their work into the larger field of research, might not
compare their work to other’s, might not discuss sources of error . . . in short, they
might not answer all the questions outlined in the “What is a Discussion Section”
above. Be sure to discuss everything.

Workshop PKM-T 2010 HIMATETA


VERSI : LOMBA KARYA TULIS MAHASISWA (DIKTI,
2004)

Workshop PKM-T 2010 HIMATETA


KARYA TULIS ILMIAH :

1.Bagian Awal
2.Bagian Inti
3.Bagian Akhir

Workshop PKM-T 2010 HIMATETA


Bagian Awal

•Halaman Judul,
•Lembar Pengesahan,
•Kata Pengantar,
•Daftar Isi dan Daftar
lain,
•Ringkasan Karya
Tulis
Workshop PKM-T 2010 HIMATETA
Bagian Inti

• Pendahuluan
• Telaah Pustaka
• Metoda Penulisan
• Pembahasan

Workshop PKM-T 2010 HIMATETA


Bagian Akhir

• Daftar Pustaka
• Daftar Riwayat Hidup
• Lampiran (Jika
diperlukan)

Workshop PKM-T 2010 HIMATETA


SISTEMATIKA PENULISAN
Bagian Awal (halaman judul, lembar
pengesahan, kata pengantar, daftar
isi, ringkasan)
Bagian Inti
Bagian Akhir

PENGETIKAN
Tata letak
Pengetikan kalimat
Penomoran halaman

Workshop PKM-T 2010 HIMATETA


Indikator Bobot Skor

1). Format

2). Kreativitas
3). Topik

4). Data dan Sumber informasi

5). Pembahasan, simpulan, dan


transfer gagasan

(Versi LKTM)

Workshop PKM-T 2010 HIMATETA


CONTOH
PENILAIAN
Bobot Kriteria
5 Format : tata tulis, pengungkapan (sistematika, ketepatan/kejelasan
ungkapan, bahasa)
15 Kreativitas gagasan : komprehensif dan keunikan; struktur gagasan
(didukung oleh argumentasi ilmiah)
5 Topik yang dikemukakan : sifat topik (aktual, menangkap perhatian),
rumusan judul dan kesesuaian dengan bahasan, aktualitas, kejelasan
uraian permasalahan, relevansi topik dengan tema
15 Data dan sumber informasi : relevansi data dan informasi yang diacu
(primer/sekunder), keakuratan dan integritas data/informasi,
kemampuan menghubungkan berbagai data/informasi
20 Pembahasan, simpulan dan transfer gagasan : kemampuan
menganalisis dan mengsistesis serta merumuskan simpulan;
kemungkinan/prediksi transfer gagasan dan proses adopsi

Workshop PKM-T 2010 HIMATETA


RINGKASAN KAIDAH PENULISAN..
Untuk karya ilmiah, hal-hal yang perlu
diperhatikan (1):
1. Judul : Singkat
2. Penulis : Lengkap dengan alamat
3. Ringkasan : Ringkaslah permasalahan dan
pemecahannya
4. Pendahuluan : (Latar belakang & tujuan)
seperlunya tapi jelas
5. Metoda : Sejelas mungkin (orang lain dapat
mengulangi)
6. Hasil dan : Sejelas mungkin (tampilkan
hasil dan bahas)
Pembahasan
7. Kesimpulan
Workshop PKM-T 2010 : Sesingkat mungkinHIMATETA
tapi jelas
RINGKASAN KAIDAH PENULISAN..

Untuk karya ilmiah, hal-hal yang perlu diperhatikan


(2):

a) Penulisan angka, lambang, istilah dan tata nama


ilmiah
b) Penyajian ilustrasi :
- Tabel
- Gambar
- Grafik
- Diagram alir
c) Penulisan kepustakaan
d) Pelengkap (Pengantar, Ucapan terima kasih, dll.)

Selalu lihat
panduan !!!
Workshop PKM-T 2010 HIMATETA