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Adaptasi terhadap kondisi ekstrem

Tubuh manusia mengalami stress paling ringan dan berkondisi paling sehat jika menerima cukup asupan
makanan dan cairan, serta berada dalam lingkungan nyaman dengan suhu yang sedang, tekanan udara
normal. Dan grativasi standar namun tubuh memiliki kemampuan menakjubkan unruk mengatasi kondisi-
kondisi ekstrem, baik dalam jangka pendek menggunakan tanggapan darurat ataupun melalui adaptasi
bertahap lingkungan baru.

Kisaran suhu

Beraneka ragam proses dan perubahan kimiawi di dalam tubuh 36,5-37,5 oc (97,7-99,5of). sebagai bagian
dari kemampuannya untuk menyeimbangkan dan mempertahankan kondisi-kondisi internal, disebut
homeostatis, tubuh memiliki reaksi-reaksi otomatis yang dikenal sebagai termoregulasi (lihat hal. 30).
Reaksi-reaksi ini antara lain pelebaran pembuluh darah kulit saat suhu hangat atau penyempitanketika
suhu dingin. Kita juga memiliki respon-respon perilaku misalnya mengenakan pakaian lebih tebal
sewaktu kedinginan atau mencari tempat teduh ketika panas. Namun begitu suhu inti tubuh melenceng
lebih dari sekitar1,5oc (2,7 of) untuk waktu yang cukup lama, mulai terjadi reaksi-reaksi yang lebih jauh
dan lebih drastic, dan kerusakan dapat terjadi. Seseorang dinyatakan hipotermia bila suhu intinya 35 oc (95
o
f) atau lebih rendah yang tidak memadai untuk metabolisme normal. Serupa dengan itu hipertemia
dimulai ketika suhu inti naik lebih daripada sekitar 1 oc (1,8 of) di atas suhu tubuh normal dalam siklus 24
jam.

Efek kedinginan

citra panas (termogram) ini, yang menunjukkan suhu dari kuning yang berarti paling panas ke warna
indigo yang berarti paling dingin, menampakkan minuman dingin yang akan membantu mengatasi stress
panas dengan cara mendinginkan mulut, tekak, dan inti tubuh.

Spectrum suhu tubuh

Reaksi-reaksi biologis, semisal gemetar dan berkeringat, serta tindakan-tindakan perilaku dapat
melindungi tubuh dari ekstrem suhu untuk waktu singkat. Akan tetapi dalam kondisi membeku,
ekstremitas tubuh berisiko mengalami masalah serius, misalnya radang beku dalam beberapa menit,
dengan akibat kehilangan jaringan secara permanen. Terlepas dari itu, bahkan meskipun ini terjadi, suhu
inti dalam organ-organ vital dalat dipertahankan cukup lama agar kita bertahan hidup.

Suhu inti tubuh


Dingin ekstrem Dingin sedang Dingin sedikit
Kondisi hiportemia Detak jantung (denyut nadi) dan Detak jantung (denyut nadi) dan
menyerang, laju pernapasan laju pernapasan semakin laju pernapasan agak menurun
semakin menurun, namun melambat demi menghemat
detak jantung mungkin energy untuk otak
meningkat akibat aritmia
Jaringan-jaringan permukaan Peredaran darah ke kulit dan Pembuluh-pembuluh darah kulit
menderita kebekuan dan ekstremitas semakin terbatas, menyempit , membatasi aliran
radang dingin yang tidak dapat menyebabkan tampilan pucat darah dan kehilangan panas dari
dipulihkan , organ-organ inti seperti lilin dan peningkatan kulit sehingga menjaga panas
mulai menghentikan resiko radang dingin inti dan menjadikan kulit pucat
aktivitasnya
Hilangnya ingatan dan Mati rasa dan tidak lagi cekatan, Otot-otot yang tertaut ke rambut
kebingugan dapat tidak lagi peka terhadap nyeri, kulit memendek,menegakkan
menyebabkan orang melucuti pergerakkan menjad lamban dan rambut untuk menginsulasi
baju secara irasional sulit sekali panas di atas kulit
paradoxical undressing (menyebabkan merinding)
Otak biasanya merupakan Jika gemataran hebat tidak Otot-otot bergetar atau gemetar
organ terakhir yang berhenti membantu tubuh menjadi diam secara tidak sadar menyebabkan
berfungsi untuk menghemat energy yang produksi panas yang di edarkan
tersisa dan panas pada organ- oleh darah
organ vital
Tanda-tanda peringatan dingin
Gemetar dan hilangnya
kepekaan kulit adalah tanda-
tanda awal yang
memperingatkan penderita
agar mengenakan pakaian
yang lebih tebal terutama di
kepala dan leher dan berpindah
ketempat yang lebih terlindung
dimana angin tidak teru-
menerus meniup panas tubuh
menjauh (efek yang di kenal
dengan sebagai wild chill).
ADAPTATION TO EXTREME CONDITIONS
THE HUMAN BODY IS EXPERIENCING STRESS LIGHTEST AND MOST
UNCONDITIONED HEALTHY IF THEY RECEIVE SUFFICIENT INTAKE OF FOOD AND
FLUIDS, AS WELL AS BEING IN A COMFORTABLE ENVIRONMENT WITH MILD
TEMPERATURES, NORMAL AIR PRESSURE. AND GRAVITATION STANDARDS, BUT
THE BODY HAS AN AMAZING ABILITY UNRUK OVERCOME EXTREME
CONDITIONS, BOTH IN THE SHORT TERM USE OF EMERGENCY RESPONSE OR
THROUGH THE GRADUAL ADAPTATION OF NEW ENVIRONMENTS.

TEMPERATURE sekitar1,5oc (2,7 of) for quite


RANGE a long time, began to occur
reactions that further and
Diverse processes and more drastic, and damage can
chemical changes in the body occur. Someone stated
36,5-37,5oc (97,7-99,5of). as hypothermia when the core
part of its ability to balance temperature of 35oC (95 of)
and maintain internal or lesser inadequate for
conditions, called normal metabolism. Similarly
homeostasis, the body has hyperthermia begin when the FREEZING EFFECT
automatic reactions known as core temperature rises more "Hot image" (calorimetry),
thermoregulation (see p. 30). than about 1oC (1.8 of) above which indicates the
These reactions include normal body temperature temperature of the hot yellow
dilation of blood vessels skin within 24 hours. means to indigo, which
when the temperature is
means the most cold, cold
warm or cold temperatures.
drinks reveal that will help
We also have behavioral
overcome heat stress by
responses eg wear thicker
cooling the mouth, pharynx,
when cold or seek shade
and core body.
when it's hot. But once the
body's core temperature to
deviate more than

Spectrum Body Temperature

Biological reactions, such as conditions, the extremities of from that, even though this is
shaking and sweating, as well the body at risk of serious the case, the core temperature
as measures of behavior can problems, such as frostbite in vital organs dalat
protect the body from within minutes, with the maintained long enough for
extreme temperatures for a consequent loss of a us to survive.
short time. But in the freezing permanent network. Apart
Extreme Cold Cold Cold Was A Little
Conditions hiportemia attack, The heart rate (pulse) and The heart rate (pulse) and
respiratory rate decreased, but respiratory rate slowed to save respiratory rate slightly
the heart rate may increase as a energy for the brain decreased
result of arrhythmia

Tissues surface of the ice and Blood circulation to the skin The skin blood vessels to
suffered frostbite that can not and extremities increasingly narrow, restricting blood flow
be restored, organs began to restricted, causing a pale look and heat loss from the skin so
stop their activities core "like a candle" and increase the keep the heat core and makes
risk of frostbite the skin pale

Memory loss and confusion Numbness and no longer The muscles that are linked to
may cause people to disarm nimble, no longer sensitive to skin hair shortened, straightened
clothes irrationally pain, movement becomes slow hair to insulate the heat on the
"paradoxical undressing" and difficult skin (causing goose bumps)

The brain is usually the last If shaking does not help the The muscles vibrating or
organ that ceases to function body to be silent in order to shaking unconsciously lead to
save energy and heat remaining the production of heat that
in vital organs circulated in the blood

Warning signs of a cold


Shaking and loss of skin
sensitivity are early signs that
warn the patient to wear a
thicker, especially in the head
and neck and move to place
more sheltered where the wind
does not Teru consistently
blowing body heat away (the
effect of which is known as a
wild chill).

The Core Body Temperature


Heat a little Heat medium Heat Ekstrem
Increased thirst Headache and nausea Hyperthermia occurs
sensation to replace may occur more nausea, accompanied by
water lost as sweat, followed by vomiting and confusion and perhaps
exhaled air is getting diarrhea aggression, then fainted,
hot and humid suffered tissue damage
that can not be restored
Dilated skin blood If dehydration occurs, the Great thirst may be
vessels, increasing blood thickens and more missing "paradoxical
blood flow and heat loss, likely to clot so that the replenishment" though
as well as changing the risk of stroke or heart the body water content
skin becomes red or attack increases dropped to a critical level
"flushed"
Tiny muscles attached Drop in blood pressure, Low blood pressure and
to the skin relaxes hair, affects the ability to lack of oxygen to change
so the hair fell down and stand and move, people into a blue skin, muscles
the heat of the skin can are more likely to fall started twitching
easily switch to the air
Skin sweat glands Sweat may be increased Convulsions,
secrete sweat, which so that the skin becomes unconsciousness, heart
evaporates and cools hot and dry, a striking rate becomes weaker and
the body surface sign of hyperthermia. more irregular, orhan
vital organs have failed
to work.

Warning signs of heat


The conditions were very
hot cause sweating, light-
headedness berkunag
and thirst is a sign that
we drink more fluids and
rest in a cool temput for
example in the shade
and no wind bias is
continuously presenting
any perspiration that
evaporates so that the
cooling effect increases
.