Anda di halaman 1dari 34

Gene Expression

Gene Expression 1
EKSPRESI GEN Merupakan proses pengungkapan bahan informasi genetik yang tersusun sebagai gen ke dalam bentuk
EKSPRESI GEN Merupakan proses pengungkapan bahan informasi genetik yang tersusun sebagai gen ke dalam bentuk
EKSPRESI GEN Merupakan proses pengungkapan bahan informasi genetik yang tersusun sebagai gen ke dalam bentuk
EKSPRESI GEN Merupakan proses pengungkapan bahan informasi genetik yang tersusun sebagai gen ke dalam bentuk

EKSPRESI GEN

Merupakan proses pengungkapan bahan informasi

genetik yang tersusun sebagai gen ke dalam bentuk protein (merupakan proses transkripsi gen tertentu yang diikuti proses translasi)

DNA --> transcription --> RNA -- translation --> Protein

Gene Structure Eukaryotic gene structure: Most eukaryotic genes in contrast to typical bacterial genes, the

Gene Structure

Eukaryotic gene structure: Most eukaryotic genes in contrast to typical bacterial genes, the coding sequences (exons) are interrupted by noncoding DNA (introns). The gene must have (Exon; start signals; stop signals; regulatory

control elements).

The average gene 7-10 exons spread over 10-16kb of DNA.

start signals; stop signals; regulatory control elements).  The average gene 7-10 exons spread over 10-16kb
Protein Synthesis: Four stages  Transcription  RNA processing  Translation  Post-translation processing

Protein Synthesis: Four stages

Transcription

RNA processing Translation

Post-translation processing

Transcription Synthesis of an RNA that is complementary to one of the strands of DNA. Translation Ribosomes read a messenger RNA and make protein according to its instruction.

INISIASI
INISIASI

INISIASI

INISIASI
ELONGASI

ELONGASI

ELONGASI
ELONGASI
TERMINASI

TERMINASI

TERMINASI
TRANSKRIPSI PADA PROKARIOT •Tidak memerlukan TATA Box. (RNA Polimerase dapat langsung menempel pada promotor dan

TRANSKRIPSI PADA PROKARIOT

•Tidak memerlukan TATA Box. (RNA Polimerase dapat langsung menempel pada promotor dan memulai transkripsi) •Pada
•Tidak memerlukan TATA Box.
(RNA Polimerase dapat
langsung menempel pada
promotor dan memulai
transkripsi)
•Pada Prokariot awal Inisiasi
RNA Polimerase dibantu oleh
faktor sigma
•Transkripsi dimulai dengan
adanya binding dari RNA
polimerase ke promotor dalam

Proses transkripsi langsung menghasilkan mRNA (tanpa adanya splicing)

binding dari RNA polimerase ke promotor dalam Proses transkripsi langsung menghasilkan mRNA (tanpa adanya splicing)
TRANSKRIPSI PADA EUKARIOT  Terjadi di dalam nukleus yang kemudian ditranslasi di sitoplasma  Memerlukan

TRANSKRIPSI PADA EUKARIOT

TRANSKRIPSI PADA EUKARIOT  Terjadi di dalam nukleus yang kemudian ditranslasi di sitoplasma  Memerlukan TATA

Terjadi di dalam nukleus yang

kemudian ditranslasi di sitoplasma

Memerlukan TATA Box dan faktor-faktor Transkripsi sebagai

tempat menempelnya RNA

Polimerase dan memulai Transkripsi

Melibatkan 3 macam RNA Polymerase (I, II, dan III)

Transkripsi menghasilkan “pre-

mRNA” yang kemudian Mengalami “splicing” untuk menjadi mRNA

 Pada organisme prokariot mempunyai 1 tipe RNA polimerase  Pada eukariotik memiliki 3 tipe

Pada organisme prokariot mempunyai 1 tipe RNA polimerase Pada eukariotik memiliki 3 tipe RNA polimerase :

RNA

polimerase

I

lokasi

ada

di

nukleolus,

1.

mengkatalisis sintesis r RNA

2. RNA

mengkatalisis sintesis hn RNA atau pre-m RNA

3. RNA

mengkatalisis sintesis sn RNA dan t RNA

:

polimerase

II

lokasi

di

nukleoplasma,

:

polimerase

III

lokasi

di

nukleoplasma,

:

RNA Processing (Pre- mRNA → mRNA)  Capping  Splicing  Addition of poly A
RNA Processing (Pre- mRNA → mRNA)  Capping  Splicing  Addition of poly A
RNA Processing (Pre- mRNA → mRNA)  Capping  Splicing  Addition of poly A
RNA Processing (Pre- mRNA → mRNA)  Capping  Splicing  Addition of poly A

RNA Processing (Pre-mRNA → mRNA)

Capping

Splicing

Addition of poly A tail

Addition of poly A tail:

Synthesis of the poly (A) tail involves cleavage of its 3' end and then the addition of about 40-

200 adenine residues to form a

poly (A) tail.

Capping The cap structure is added to the 5' of the newly transcribed mRNA precursor in the nucleus prior to processing and subsequent transport of the mRNA molecule to the cytoplasm. Splicing:

Step by step removal of pre mRNA and joining of remaining exons; it takes place on a special structure called spliceosomes.

Eukaryotic RNA is processed

before leaving the nucleus

Noncoding segments, introns,

are spliced out

A cap and a tail are added to the ends

Exon Intron Exon Intron Exon DNA Cap Transcription Addition of cap and tail RNA transcript
Exon Intron
Exon
Intron
Exon
DNA
Cap
Transcription
Addition of cap and tail
RNA
transcript
Introns removed
Tail
with cap
and tail
Exons spliced together
mRNA
Coding sequence
NUCLEUS
CYTOPLASM

Figure 10.10

Alternative Splicing Alternative splicing: is a very common phenomenon in higher eukaryotes. It is a

Alternative Splicing

Alternative splicing:

is a very common

phenomenon in higher

eukaryotes. It is a way to get more than one

protein product out of

the same gene and a way to control gene expression in cells.

It is a way to get more than one protein product out of the same gene

Translation of nucleic acids into amino acids

The “words” of the DNA “language” are triplets of bases called codons

The codons in a gene specify the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide

Figure 10.7

Gene 1 Gene 3 DNA molecule Gene 2 DNA strand TRANSCRIPTION RNA Codon TRANSLATION Polypeptide
Gene 1
Gene 3
DNA molecule
Gene 2
DNA strand
TRANSCRIPTION
RNA
Codon
TRANSLATION
Polypeptide
Amino acid

Third Base

First Base

Virtually all organisms share the same genetic

code “unity of life”

U

C

A

G

UUU

UUC

UUA

UUG

CUU

CUC

CUA

CUG

AUU

AUC

AUA

AUG

GUU

GUC

GUA

GUG

U

U A C U G A U U A U C A U A A U

U A C U G A U U A U C A U A A U

U A C U G A U U A U C A U A A U

U A C U G A U U A U C A U A A U

phe

leu

leu

ile

met (start)

A U G G U U G U C G U A G U G U

val

UCU

UCC

UCA

UCG

CCU

CCC

CCA

CCG

ACU

ACC

ACA

ACG

GCU

GCC

GCA

GCG

C

C A C C G A C U A C C A C A A C

C A C C G A C U A C C A C A A C

C A C C G A C U A C C A C A A C

C A C C G A C U A C C A C A A C

Second Base

ser

pro

thr

ala

UAU

UAC

UAA

UAG

CAU

CAC

CAA

CAG

AAU

AAC

AAA

AAG

GAU

GAC

GAA

GAG

A

A A C A G A A U A A C A A A A A

A A C A G A A U A A C A A A A A

A A C A G A A U A A C A A A A A

A A C A G A A U A A C A A A A A

A A C A G A A U A A C A A A A A

A A C A G A A U A A C A A A A A

A A C A G A A U A A C A A A A A

tyr

stop

stop

his

gln

asn

lys

asp

glu

UGU

UGC

UGA

UGG

CGU

CGC

CGA

CGG

AGU

AGC

AGA

AGG

GGU

GGC

GGA

GGG

G

C G A C G G A G U A G C A G A A

C G A C G G A G U A G C A G A A

C G A C G G A G U A G C A G A A

C G A C G G A G U A G C A G A A

C G A C G G A G U A G C A G A A

cys

stop

trp

arg

ser

arg

gly

U

C

A

G

U

C

A

G

U

C

A

G

U

C

A

G

An exercise in translating the genetic code

Transcribed strand DNA Transcription RNA Start Stop codon codon Translation
Transcribed strand
DNA
Transcription
RNA
Start
Stop
codon
codon
Translation

Polypeptide

Figure 10.8B

Transfer RNA molecules serve as interpreters during

In the cytoplasm, a ribosome attaches to

the mRNA and

translates its message into a polypeptide

The process is aided (dibantu) by transfer RNAs

translation

Amino acid attachment site Hydrogen bond RNA polynucleotide chain Anticodon
Amino acid attachment site
Hydrogen bond
RNA polynucleotide chain
Anticodon

Figure 10.11A

Each tRNA molecule has a triplet anticodon on one end and an amino acid attachment site on the other

anticodon on one end and an amino acid attachment site on the other Anticodon Amino acid
anticodon on one end and an amino acid attachment site on the other Anticodon Amino acid

Anticodon

Amino acid

attachment

site

anticodon on one end and an amino acid attachment site on the other Anticodon Amino acid

Figure 10.11B, C

Ribosomes build polypeptides

Growing

polypeptide

tRNA

Ribosomes build polypeptides Growing polypeptide tRNA molecules Large subunit mRNA binding site mRNA Small subunit
molecules Large
molecules
Large

subunit

mRNA

binding

site

mRNA

Small

subunit

P site

A site

P A
P
A
Next amino acid to be added to polypeptide Growing polypeptide tRNA mRNA Codons
Next amino acid
to be added to
polypeptide
Growing
polypeptide
tRNA
mRNA
Codons

An initiation codon marks the start of

an mRNA message

AUG = methionine

Start of genetic message End
Start of genetic message
End

mRNA, a specific tRNA, and the ribosome subunits assemble during initiation

Large ribosomal subunit P site A site Start codon Small ribosomal subunit
Large
ribosomal
subunit
P site
A site
Start
codon
Small ribosomal
subunit

Initiator tRNA

mRNA

1 2
1
2

Elongation

The mRNA moves a codon at a time relative to the ribosome

A tRNA pairs with each codon, adding an amino acid to the growing polypeptide A STOP codon causes the mRNA-ribosome complex to fall apart

Amino acid Polypeptide A site P site Anticodon mRNA 1 Codon recognition mRNA movement Stop
Amino acid
Polypeptide
A
site
P site
Anticodon
mRNA
1
Codon recognition
mRNA
movement
Stop
codon
New
2
Peptide bond
peptide
formation
bond
3
3

Translocation

Figure 10.14

Table 14.2

Types of RNA

Type of RNA

Messenger RNA (mRNA)

Transfer RNA

(tRNA)

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

RNA (mRNA) Transfer RNA (tRNA) Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) Functions in Nucleus, migrates to ribosomes in cytoplasm

Functions in

Nucleus,

migrates to ribosomes in cytoplasm

Cytoplasm

Cytoplasm

Function

Carries DNA

sequence information to ribosomes

Provides linkage between mRNA and amino acids; transfers amino acids to ribosomes

Structural

component

of ribosomes

New peptide Growing bond Stage 4 Elongation polypeptide forming A succession of tRNAs add their
New peptide Growing bond Stage 4 Elongation polypeptide forming A succession of tRNAs add their
New peptide Growing bond Stage 4 Elongation polypeptide forming A succession of tRNAs add their
New peptide Growing bond Stage 4 Elongation polypeptide forming A succession of tRNAs add their
New
peptide
Growing
bond
Stage 4 Elongation
polypeptide
forming
A succession of tRNAs
add their amino acids to
the polypeptide chain as
the mRNA is moved
through the ribosome,
one codon at a time.
Codons
mRNA
Polypeptide
Stage Termination
The ribosome recognizes
a stop codon. The poly-
peptide is terminated and
released.
5
Stop Codon

Figure 10.15 (continued)

The Genetic Code  The sequence of codons in the mRNA defines the primary structure

The Genetic Code

The sequence of codons in the mRNA defines the

primary structure of the final protein.

Three nucleotides in mRNA (a codon)specify

one amino acid in a

protein.

primary structure of the final protein.  Three nucleotides in mRNA (a codon ) specify one
The Genetic Code  The triplet sequence of mRNA that specify certain amino acid .

The Genetic Code

The triplet sequence of mRNA that specify

certain amino acid.

64 different combination of

bases; 61 of them code for

20 amino acids (AA); the

last three codon

(UAG,UGA,UAA) don not

code for amino acids; they are termination codons.

Degenerate

More than on triplet codon specify the same amino acid.

Unambiguous

Each codon specifies a

particular amino acid, the

codon ACG codes for the amino acid threonine, and only threonine.

Non overlapping

This means that successive triplets are read in order. Each nucleotide is part of only one triplet codon.

DNA Codon RNA Codon 31
DNA Codon RNA Codon 31
DNA Codon RNA Codon 31
DNA Codon RNA Codon 31
DNA Codon
DNA Codon
RNA Codon

RNA Codon

Translation

Translation  Translation is the process by which ribosomes read the genetic message in the mRNA

Translation is the process by which ribosomes read the

genetic message in the mRNA

and produce a protein product according to the message's instruction.

read the genetic message in the mRNA and produce a protein product according to the message's
Pengemasan dan Prosesing  Rantai polipeptida mulai menggulung, melipat secara spontan membentuk protein fungsional
Pengemasan dan Prosesing  Rantai polipeptida mulai menggulung, melipat secara spontan membentuk protein fungsional
Pengemasan dan Prosesing  Rantai polipeptida mulai menggulung, melipat secara spontan membentuk protein fungsional
Pengemasan dan Prosesing  Rantai polipeptida mulai menggulung, melipat secara spontan membentuk protein fungsional

Pengemasan dan Prosesing

Rantai polipeptida mulai menggulung, melipat secara

spontan membentuk protein fungsional suatu konformasi yg spesifik

Protein menjadi berfungsi melalui proses post

translasi dengan cara dimodifikasi, misal dengan

penambahan gugus prostetik, reaksi karboksilasi, fosforilasi, penghilangan urutan penanda dll

MODIFIKASI PASCA TRANSLASI • Modifikasi terminal amino dan terminal karboksil gugus fornil, residu metionin pemula
MODIFIKASI PASCA TRANSLASI • Modifikasi terminal amino dan terminal karboksil gugus fornil, residu metionin pemula

MODIFIKASI PASCA TRANSLASI

Modifikasi terminal amino dan terminal karboksil

gugus fornil, residu metionin pemula dan 1 atau lebih

residu berikutnya sering tidak muncul pada produk

protein (residu terminal amino/karboksil mengalami metilasi)

Terlepasnya urutan memberi isyarat urutan pengisyarat (untuk mengarahkan protein ke tujuan akhir) dilepaskan oleh peptidase spesifik

Fosforitasi aa hitrosi

fosforritasi gugus hidrosi residu serin untuk mengatifkan enzim-enzim tertentu

Reaksi karboksilasi

penambahan gugus karboksil glutamat

pada aa aspartat dan

Metilasi gugus R

residu lisin dan gutamate mengalami metilasi

Pengikatan rantai sisi karbohitrat rantai sisi karbohirat gliprotein diikat secara kovalen selama atau setelah sintesis protein