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SEDIMENTOLOGI

TEGUH JATMIKO
Blok C no 101.RT58 Ds Perengwetan
Perumahan Sedayu Permai
Bantul 55752. DIY
Mobile : 082138212570
E-mail :jatmiko.teguh@yahoo.co.id
PENGERTIAN & TUJUAN
Sedimentologi adalah salah satu cabang dari
ilmu geologi yang mempelajari batuan sedimen,
tentang: sifat2 fisik, tempatnya dalam kerangka
geologi, proses pembentukan dan mekanisme
lingkungan pengendapannya

Tujuan mata kuliah ini adalah agar setelah me-


nempuh kuliah mahasiswa dpt menentukan je-
nis batuan, menganalisa proses serta mekanis-
me pembentukannya, dan mampu menginter-
pretasi maknanya dalam ruang dan waktu geo-
logi, serta mengaplikasikannya
Tujuan Instruksional Khusus
I. Stlh kuliah mhs dpt menjelaskan: prinsip2: asal-usul kejadian,
& klasifikasi btn sedimen, serta hub sedimentologi dgn disiplin
ilmu geologi lainnya.
II. Stlh kuliah, mhs dpt melakukan penelitian btn sedimen, dgn
metoda lapangan.
III. Stlh kuliah mhs dpt menjelaskan: aspek fisik butiran2 penyu-
sun bat, hub, & makna penyebaran butiran tsb dlm btn sed
IV. Stlh kuliah mhs dpt menjelaskan jenis2 btn sedimen serta ke-
terdapatannya di alam ini.
V. Stlh kuliah mhs dpt menjelaskan jenis2, serta mekanisme pem
bentukan struktur sedimen.
VI. Stlh kuliah mhs dpt menjelaskan model2 fasies pengendapan
btn sedimen, baik scr lateral maupun vertikal.
VII. Stlh kuliah mhs dpt membuat & menganalisa kolom stratigrafi
VIII.Stlh kuliah mhs dpt menjelaskan manfaat data btn sedimen
dlm eksplorasi, eksploitasi sumber daya mineral, maupun da-
lam keteknikan.
Materi Kuliah Sedimentologi,

I. Pendahuluan
II. Tekstur
III. Klasifikasi
IV. Perekaman Data
V. Hidrodinamik Fluida
VI. Struktur Sedimen
VII. Fasies Lingkungan Pengendapan
VIII. Diagenesa & Provenan
Pendahuluan
1. Ruang Lingkup
2. Anatomi Bumi Mineral - Daur Batuan
3. Perkembangan Ilmu Sedimentologi
4. Out line Proses Batuan Sedimentasi
Klastik
5. Resistance of Minerals to Weathering
6. Hubungan sedimentologi dng ilmu lain &
aplikasinya
Ruang Lingkup

Shallow
Swamp
Inset
Profil Vertikal Deltaic
Distributary
Pola tumpukan channel
Bat sed
Tidal flat Inset:Litolhogy Framework
Subtidal (Fragmen, Matrix, Cement)
sandbody

Illustrasi mengenai ruang lingkup materi kuliah sedimentologi: batuan asal transpor
tasi sedimentasi - litifikasi, termasuk didalamnya: tekstur, komposisi, struktur sedimen,
fasies & lingkungan Pengendapan
Anatomi Bumi

0 rocks cold, rigid,


brittle
hot, plastic
Ultrabasic igneous rocks

1000

hot, high pressure,


rigid, brittle
2000
Depth (km)

4000 liquid
Fe, Ni

5000

solid
6000
LAPISAN KOM POSISI KEDALAM AN SIFAT
Kerak
Basalt 7 - 10 km Dingin, kaku, dan rapuh
Kerak samudera
Kerak benua Granit 20 - 70 km Dingin, kaku, dan rapuh
Litosfer
Bervariasi, antara
mencakup
kerak dan mantel 100 km
Litosfer kerak dan Dingin, kaku, dan rapuh
berbeda
mantel
komposisinya
bagian atas
Bagian atas
mantel
merupakan
bagian dari
litosfer

Berkisar dari 100 Panas dan plastik, 1


Astenosfer
- 350 km atau 2 % bagian mencair

Keseluruhan
Bagian atas Panas, dibawah tekanan
Mantel mantel Berkisar dari 350
mantel yang besar, kaku, dan
merupakan - 670 km
sisanya rapuh
batuan beku
ultrabasa.
Mineralnya
bervariasi sesuai
kedalamannya
Tekanan yang tinggi
Mantel
mengakibatkan mineral
bagian Berkisar dari 670
yang terbentuk berbeda
bawah - 2900 km
dari yang ada di mantel
bagian atas

Inti bagian Berkisar dari


Besi dan nikel Cairan
luar 2900 - 5150 km
Inti Berkisar dari
Inti bagian
Besi dan nikel 5150 sampat ke Padatan
dalam
pusat bumi
Keberadaan Batuan Sedimen di Bumi
Prosentase total volume bat sed dengan bumi = 0.05%
Prosentase total volume bat sed dengan kerak= 9.5%
Prosentase total area bat sed dgn area kerak bumi = 80%
Prosentase
Element Komposisi
Simbol kimia Bumi
% Berat % Volume % Atom
Element Simbol % Berat % Volume % Atom
Oksigen O 46,6 93,8 60,5
Silikon
Oksigen OSi 27,7
46,6 93,80,9 20,5
60,5
Aluminium
Silikon SiAl 8,1
27,7 0,90,8 6,2
20,5
Besi
Aluminium AlFe 5,0
8,1 0,80,5 1,9
6,2
Kalsium
Besi Ca
Fe 3,6
5,0 0,51,0 1,9
1,9
Sodium
Kalsium Na
Ca 2,8
3,6 1,01,2 2,5
1,9
Potasium
Sodium K
Na 2,6
2,8 1,21,5 1,8
2,5
Magnesium
Potasium KMg 2,1
2,6 1,50,3 1,4
1,8
Magnesium Mg
Semua elemwnt lain 2,1
1,5 0,3- 1,4
3,3
Semua elemwnt lain 1,5 - 3,3
1. batulempung = 50 %
2. batupasir = 24%, Prosentase Jenis bat sedimen
3. batuan karbonat = 24%
4. sisanya adlh bat sed evaporit, bat sed kimiawi/ biokimia dll
Definisi Dasar:
Geologi: adlh Ilmu yang mempelajari tentang proses, kejadian,
komposisi, arsitektur (kulit) bumi
Kerak bumi/ litosfer dari batuan2 dari mineral2 yg sejenis/ tdk

Batuan: adlh mrpkn semua bahan penyusun kerak bumi, & mrpkn
suatu kumpulan mineral2 yg telah mengeras
Mineral: adlh zat/ persenyawaan anorganik, kristalin, terbentuk
scr alamiah, bersifat homogen, mempunyai sifat fisik & kimia
tertentu, mrpkn & mempunyai susunan kimia yg tetap

Mineral terbentuk dr atom2, molekul2 dr berbagai unsur kimia


Atom: adlh satuan terkecil dr suatu unsur/ element.
Unsur / Element: adlh suatu bahan/ zat/ material yg tdk dpt diba-
gi lagi dgn metoda kimia biasa.
Contoh Komposisi Mineral & Batuan
Granite

HTMS
Calcium
Olivin Augite (Px) feldspar

ITMS
1
2

5mm
Hornblende Sodium
3
(amphibole) Biotite(mica) Feldspar

LTMS 1. Feldspar:
(NaAlSi3O8 - KAlSi3O8)
2.Quartz: SiO2
Muskovite
(mica) Potassium Quartz
3.Biotite: KMg3AlSi3O10(OH)2 -
Feldspar KFe3AlSi3O10(OH)2
History
Sorby (18261909), tercatat sbg ahli yg dianggap/ tercatat
mengawali mempelajari sedimentologi, kmdn
Twenhofel (th 20an), Pettiyohn, Krumbein, Kuehnen (th
50an), Bouma, (th 60an), dll, dimana perkembang an
sedimentologi sehubungan berkembangannya teknologi.
Perkembangan awal sedimentologi tidak lepas dari pema-
haman para ahli tentang perlapisan spt N.Steno (1669)
Law of Superposition, Law of Horizontallity, Law of Ori-
ginal Continuity, James Hutton (1785 Uniformitaria-
nism: the present is the key to the past), Smith (1816
Strata identified by fossils), Powel (1888 Lithostratigra-
phic unit), Gressly (1836-Facies), Walther (1894) dll
The Rock Cycle
surface
Low
Temperature
High
Rocks
Cycle
The Rock Cycle
Igneous Rock
(Terrestrial Extrusive
Volkanic)
Terrigenous
Metamorphic Sedimen
Rock
Neritic
(Recent, Sediment
unexposed) Andesit
exposed Sedimentary Deep
Rock Oceanic
Sediments
Igneous Rock Igneous Rock
(Terrestrial Intrusive
Plutonik)
Konsep Tektonik Lempeng &
Pembentukan Batuan
Cycle 1 Cycle 2
Klasifikasi Batuan
1. Batuan Beku Bat yg terbentuk dr hasil pembekuan & pema-
datan (cooling & solidification) dr lava atau magma cair. Mag-
ma: Material cair (60013000C) yg berada di bawah permuka-
an bumi (60100 km). Lava: Magma yg mengalir keluar di per-
mukaan bumi. Kecepatan pembekuan mempengaruhi tekstur
Bat Beku: Quick Cooling = fine, & Slow cooling = coarse grains
2. Batuan Sedimen (Sedimentary Rocks)Bat yg terbentuk dr
hasil pengendapan/ sedimen, Bat yg terbentuk oleh material2
lepas sbg hasil dr proses pelapukan & erosi (air, angin, es) dr
bat lainnya yg berada di permukaan bumi. Sedimen menjadi
bat sedimen melalui proses lithification (pembatuan), yg trdr:
Compaction Cementation - Recrystallization (of carbonate)
3. Batuan Metamorf (Metamorphic Rocks)Batuan yg terbentuk
dr bat induk yg lebih tua (bat sedimen &/ atau bat beku) oleh
pengaruh temperature (heat) dan/ atau pressure
Classification of Rocks
Igneous Rocks Sedimentary Metaporphic Rocks
Rocks
Source of

Rocks under high


material

Molten materials in Weathering and temperatures


deep crust & erosion of rocks & pressures in
upper mantle exposed at surface deep crust
Rock-forming
process

Recrystallization due to
Crystallization Sedimentation, burial
heat, pressure, or
(Solidification of melt) and lithification
chemically active fluids
Are you boring.?
Come on be spirit
Back up
Processes Leading to Formation of
Clastic Sedimentary Rocks
Weathering: the processes that change rocks size and
composition at or near Earths surface
Erosion and Transportation: removal of rock particles (clasts)
from their source by water, wind, or glacial ice
Deposition: the settling of clasts on Earths surface as
sediments, leads to formation of a sedimentary bed
Compaction: pressing together of clasts, squeezing out pore
water, by pressure exerted by overlying beds
Lithification: cementation of clasts together to form a
sedimentary rock
Diagenesis: a process of conversion of unconsolidated
sediments to coherent sedimentary rocks
Types of Weathering
1. Chemical weathering. Changes the chemical composition of rocks by
removing &/ or adding ions (by dissolution, hydrolysis, & oxidation)
2. Mechanical weathering . Breaks rocks into smaller pieces without
changing their composition
Downward leaching of ions & clays
due to percolating water
Soil Horizons
O Organic matter

A Organic matter mixed with mineral matter

Spheroidally
weathered
granite
B Mineral matter mixed with fine clays
and colloids washed down from
the top soil

C Rock fragments mechanically


weathered from bedrock mixed
with partially decomposed rock

D Bedrock
SOIL
A. Soil A layer of weathered unconsolidated material consisting of
mineral matter, organic matter (humus), & pore spaces
B. Loam A fertile soil consisting of equal amounts of sand, silt,
clay, & organic matter
C. Topsoil The dark-colored upper portion of a soil
D. Subsoil Infertile stony organic-poor soil usually underlying
topsoil
E. Regolith Loose unconsolidated rock material resting on
bedrock

Factors That Control Soil Formation


1. Composition of the bed rock Mafic rocks weather more rapidly
than felsic rocks
2. Time Longer time leads to more soil formation
3. Climate-A warm moist climate is most effective
4. Topography Horizontal surfaces weather more rapidly
5. Plants & Animals Plants supply nutrients, form acids, & fix
nitrogen, Burrowing animals increase porosity, mix materials
Factors That Influence the Rate of Weathering
1. Structure Structures such as fractures, foliation, cleavage,
bedding enhance the rate at which rocks weather
2. Mineral composition Mafic minerals weather more rapidly
than felsic minerals
3. Climate A warm moist climate most effectively enhances
weathering: hydrolysis, dissolution, oxidation
4. Topography Steep slopes weather less rapidly than
horizontal surfaces because most of the rain runs off instead
of soaking in

Time & Topography


Resistance of Minerals to Weathering

Olivine
Discontinuous branch Most readily

Continuous branch
to weathering
Ca-rich
Pyroxene
Temperature decreases

SiO2 of liquid increases

Ca-Na-rich
Amphibole
More resistant
Na-Ca-rich to weathering
Biotite
Na-rich

K-feldspar
Muscovite

Most resistant
to weathering

Quartz Most resistant of


all to weathering

BOWENS REACTION SERIES


SOIL or REGOLITH TERMINOLOGY

A typical in situ weathering profile with an explanation of the terms for parts of the profile.

Regolith is the weathered & transported earth material that covers fresh rock. It includes in
situ weathered rock & sediments transported by various means (eg colluvium, alluvium, aeolian
materials, lacustrine deposits, till). In places the regolith may contain cemented materials
that form duricrusts (silcrete, ferricrete, managanocrete, calcrete, dolocrete)
Schematic diagram of regolith-landscape

Schematic diagram of regolith-landscape relations in the central Broken


Hill block, Morpho tectonic evolution of the Mundi range front, Broken
Hill region, Western NSW, S M & Kohn, B P, 1999.
Hubungan Sedimentologi Dng Ilmu
Lain & Aplikasinya
Scr umum sedimentologi dpt berinteraksi/ berhubungan dgn disi-
plin ilmu lainnya spt: Oceanography, Physic & chemistry, Atmos-
pheric sciences, Hydrology, Space sciences, Soil sciences dll.

Contoh OBSERVE
OBSERVE INTERPRET
INTERPRET PREDICT
PREDICT
Lithology
Lithology
Textural
Textural
Sedimentary
Sedimentary Sedimetary
Sedimetary Location
Location
Structure
Structure Geometry
Geometry &&
Environment
Environment
Trendofof
Trend
Paleocurrents
Paleocurrents && Paleogeography
Paleogeography Reservoir
Reservoir rock
rock
Fossils
Fossils
Geometry
Geometry Compare
Compare with
with resent
resent
Sedimen
Sedimen oror models
models
Model Interpretasi
Gambar
Gambar I.3.I.3.
Lingkungan
Model
Model
data
data yang
yang Pengendapan
interpretasi
interpretasi
terdapat
terdapat pada
pada berdasarkan
Lingkungan
Lingkungan
bat
bat
Pengendapan
Pengendapan
sedimen
sedimen untuk sedimento-
data
untuk
berdasarkan
berdasarkan
logi untuk memprediksi kualitaskuali
memprediksi
memprediksi batuan
kuali
tas
tas reservoar
batuan
batuan (Selley,
reservoar
reservoar (S1976)
elley.
(Selley. 1976)
1976)
Ruang lingkup materi sedimentologi

Ruang lingkup materi sedimentologi,


Sedimentologi Dalam Ruang dan Waktu
Sedimentologi Dalam Ruang dan Waktu
ic c rusktm
an -+ 10
Oce
Continental crust
- 4 0 km

Mantel

Outer core
2900- Inner
2900 Km 5000 Km Core
6370 km
0,05 % vol total bumi Btlp = 50%
9,5 % total kerak bumi Btpsr = 24 %
80 % permukaan bumi Btgmp = 24 %
Other ...?
C ur s t Oceanic Continental
Lithosphere
Mantel

Asthenosphere
Rocks Cycle
Earths Surface
Rendah
Temperatur
Tinggi
Perkembangan Ilmu Sedimentologi
Sorby (18261909), tercatat sbg ahli yg dianggap/ trctt
mengawali mempelajari sedimentologi, kmd tercatat
generasi berikutnya spt:
Twenhofel (th20an), Pettiyohn, Krumbein, Kuehnen (th
50an), Bouma, Soecity of Eccn, Pal & Min (th 60an), dll,
dimana perkembangan sedimentologi sehubungan
berkembangannya teknologi.
Perkembangan awal sedimentologi tdk lepas dr pemaha-
man para ahli ttg perlapisan spt N. Steno (1669) Law of
Superposition, Law of Horizontallity, Law of Original
Continuity, James Hutton (1785 -Uniformitarianism: the
present is the key to the past), Smith (1816 Strata
identified by fossils), Powel (1888 Lithostratigraphic
unit), Gressly (1836- Facies), Walther (1894) dll
SEDIMENTARY ROCKS

Rocks formed from material derived from


preexisting rocks by surfacial processes
followed by diagenesis
There are two main classes of sedimentary rocks
Clastic (detrital) sedimentary rocks
are formed from bits and pieces of previously
existing rocks, called clasts or detritus
Chemical sedimentary rocks
are formed in several ways
By precipitation from aqueous solution
From plant material
From animal material
Out line Proses Batuan Sedimentasi
Klastik
Processes Leading to Formation of Clastic Sedimentary
Rocks
Weathering: the processes that change rocks size &
composition at or near Earths surface
Erosion &Transportation: removal of rock particles
(clasts) from their source by water, wind, or glacial ice
Deposition: the settling of clasts on Earths surface as
sediments, leads to formation of a sedimentary bed
Compaction: pressing together of clasts, squeezing out
pore water, by pressure exerted by overlying beds
Lithification: cementation of clasts together to form a
sedimentary rock
Diagenesis: a process of conversion of unconsolida-ted
sediments to coherent sedimentary rocks
Resistance of Minerals to Weathering
the effect of mineral composition
on the resistance to weathering
Olivine
Discontinuous branch Most readily

Continuous branch
to weathering
Ca-rich
Pyroxene
Temperature decreases

SiO2 of liquid increases

Ca-Na-rich
Amphibole
More resistant
Na-Ca-rich to weathering
Biotite
Na-rich

K-feldspar
Muscovite

Most resistant
to weathering

Quartz Most resistant of


all to weathering

BOWENS REACTION SERIES


Hubungan sedimentologi dng ilmu
lain & aplikasinya
OBSERVE INTERPRET PREDICT
Lithology
Textural
Sedimentary Sedimetary Location
Structure Geometry &
Environment
Trend of
Paleocurrents & Paleogeography Reservoir rock
Fossils
Geometry Compare with resent
Sedimen or models
6 aspek yg harus diamati & dicatat pd
singkapan bat sedimen di lapangan.
1. Warna batuan sedimen
2. Tekstur yg menunjukkan ciri-ciri & susunan
butiran.
3. Struktur sedimen baik yg terdpt pd permu-
kaan, bagian dalam atau bagian dasar suatu
lapisan sedimen.
4. Komposisi & atau minerologi sedimen.
5. Geometri & hubungan antar lapisan atau
satuan batuan serta perubahan yang terjadi
secara lateral dan vertikal.
6. Keberadaan, distribusi dan preservasi fosil
yang terdapat pada batuan sedimen
Tahap Penelitian Bat Sedimen
berbasis Pemetaan Geologi
1. Catat scr lengkap lokasi dimana singkapan dijumpai,
buat sketsa pd buku lapangan & bila memungkinkan
buat suatu log graphic. Jika lapisan terlipat, tentukan
bagian bawah dan bagian atas lapisan batuan.
2. Tentukan nama batuan berdasarkan pengamatan
minerologi/ komposisi batuan.
3. Deskripsi tekstur batuan (ukuran butir, bentuk butir
dan pembundaran, sortasi, kemas dan warna).
4. Amati struktur sedimen yang terdapat pada
permukaan bagian dalam atau bagian bawah bidang
perlapisan.
Tahap Penelitian Bat Sedimen berbasis Pemetaan
Geologi

5. Identifikasi geometri lapisan & satuan bat sedimen,


tentukan hubungan antar lapisan atau unit lapisan.
6. Indentifikasi keberadaan fosil dalam bat sedimen,
tentukan jenis, model keberadaan & preservasinya.
7. Ukur semua struktur sedimen yg dpt memberikan
arah arus purba.
8. Buat interpretasi mengenai lithofasies, siklus, proses
deposisi, ling-peng & paleogeografi.
9. Lakukan pekerjaan laboratorium untuk mengkonfir-
masi & mengembangkan hasil observasi lapangan
baik yg menyangkut komposisi, struktur, fosil prove-
nan, maupun diagenesis yang terjadi.
Where do the sediments form?
Effect of Weathering, Gradient, Distance from Source-Rock
on Clast Size, Shape, Sorting, and Composition

Close to source Far from source


clast size large clasts small clasts
clast shape angular clasts rounded clasts
sorting poorly sorted well sorted
sediments sediments
composition rich in mafic minerals quartz sands and
and feldspar clays
Effects of Compaction, Cementation on Sediments

On mud
On poorly-sorted
sediments

On well-sorted sediments
From sediments to sedimentary rocks

gravel sand silt clay

conglomerate sandstone siltstone claystone


Clastic Sedimentary Rocks Texture
Texture:
the relationship between the grains of minerals
forming a rock

a. grain size
b. roundness
c. sorting
d. fabric
e. fragment, matrix, & cement
Clastic Sedimentary Rocks Texture
Size (mm) Sedimentary clasts Sedimentary rocks
>256 Boulder
128 256 Coarse- Cobble
64 128 Fine- Cobble Conglomerate (predominantly
32 64 Very coarse- Pebble rounded clasts)
16 32 Coarse- Pebble or Breccia (predominantly
8 16 Fine- Pebble Angular clasts)
48 Very fine- Pebble
24 Granule
12 Very coarse- Sand
1/2 1 Coarse Sand
1/4 1/2 Medium- Sand Sandstone
1/8 1/4 Fine_ Sand
1/16 1/8 Very fine Sand
1/32 1/16 Very coarse- Silt
1/64 1/32 Coarse Silt Siltstone
1/128 1/64 Fine- Silt Mudstone
1/256 1/128 Very fine Silt
<1/256 Clay Claystone or Shale

Wentworth Scale
Clastic Sedimentary Rocks Texture

b. Sphericity vs roundness
Sphericity is a degree of similarity to a ball
shape
Roundness is a degree of roundedness of the
edges of a fragment
Roundness
angular intermediate rounded

High sphericity

Low sphericity
Shapes of sand grains
Clastic Sedimentary Rocks Texture

c. Sorting
Degree of similarity in particle size
Clastic Sedimentary Rocks Texture

This quartz grains are:


-well-sorted
-well-rounded
Clastic Sedimentary Rocks Texture

d. Fabric
Opened fabric
Closed fabric

Opened fabric

Closed fabric
Clastic Sedimentary Rocks Texture

e. Fragments, matrix, cement


Fragments (clasts)
Matrix
Cement
Clastic Sedimentary Rocks Texture
The Most Common Sedimentary Cements
Calcite
The most common cement present in marine sedimentary
rocks
Also common in sedimentary rocks formed from sediments
deposited in evaporite basins
Calcite cemented sedimentary rocks give a positive acid
test (will fizz when an acidic solution is dropped on them)
Hematite
The cement present in red colored terrigenous (land-
derived) sedimentary rocks, very common
Hematite cemented rocks will not fizz when an acidic
solution is dropped on them
Silica
The cement present in terrigenous (land-derived)
sedimentary rocks that are not red, very common
Silica cemented rocks will not fizz when an acidic solution is
dropped on them
Clastic Sedimentary Rocks Structure

Sedimentary Beds and Bedding Planes


Beds represent distinct sedimentary event,
times when deposition occurred
Bedding planes represent pauses between
sedimentary events, times when deposition ceased

Bedding
plane

Bed
Clastic Sedimentary Rocks Structure

Graded Sedimentary Beds


Form in response to
decrease in energy
during deposition
Larger, heavier clasts,
first pebbles then sand,
settle out first, in the
bottom of the bed
Smaller, lighter clasts,
silt and finally clay,
settle out last in the top
of the bed
Clastic Sedimentary Rocks Structure
Cross Beds
Cross beds are
deposited in response
Current direction
to movement of a
current
Cross beds are
unidirectional if the
current was constant
in direction
Cross beds are bi-
directional if the
current was not
constant in direction
Note: these beds are
tilted
Clastic Sedimentary Rocks Structure
Mud Cracks
Mud cracks form
Mudcracks
when mud dries
in a
up sedimentary
Their shape and rock
size may vary
considerably

Mudcracks in fresh sediment


Chemical Sedimentary Rocks

Evaporites
water evaporates and
dissolved stuff is
deposited
Salt flats, Utah
mostly marine rocks,
but some lakes/ playas
Salt, gypsum, potash

Death Valley, California


Chemical Sedimentary Rocks

Chert
very fine grained silica
also called flint, jasper,
agate
most formed in ocean
occurs as layers (beds)
& as irregular blobs in
limestone
marine creatures
T&L Fig 6.12 Agate
remove silica from sea
water, make shells
Chemical Sedimentary Rocks

Limestone
formed by marine organisms
(corals, clams, algae)
composed primarily of calcite
(calcium carbonate CaCO3)
most abundant chemical
Coral reef
sedimentary rock
10% of all sedimentary rocks
(by volume)
some deposited directly out of
ocean or other waters

Coquina (rock of shell fragments)


Chemical Sedimentary Rocks

Limestone Mountain
Chemical Sedimentary Rocks

Coal

peat lignite coal anthracite

Coal
buried and compacted plant material
different kinds of coal, depending on formation
process
Classification of Sedimentary Rocks
SILICATE
Breccia Siltstone
Sedimentary Rocks

Conglomerate Claystone
Sandstone Shale
Clastic

CLASTIC

Marl; Clastic limestone


(Calcarudite, Calcarenite, Calcelutite)
Oolite Bioclastic limestone
CARBONATE
Dolomite
Sedimentary Rocks

Crystalline limestone Coral limestone


Chemical

ANORGANIC ORGANIC

EVAPORITE SILICA CARBONACEOUS


Peat
Halite
Radiolarite Lignite
Gypsum Chert
Diatomite Coal
Anhydrite
Anthracite
Clastic Sedimentary Rocks:
Mudstones
Clastic Sedimentary Rocks:
Sandstones
Clastic Sedimentary Rocks:
Conglomerates
Clastic Sedimentary Rocks:
Breccias
Chemical Sedimentary Rocks:
Formed by Precipitation from Aqueous Solution

1. The Evaporites
a. Halite (NaCl)

b. Calcite (CaCO3)

c. Gypsum (CaSO4. H2O)

2. Precipitated Silica

Chert
Chemical
Chemical Sedimentary
Sedimentary Rocks:
Rocks:
Formed from Plants
Formed Material:
from Plant The Coal
Material

Inundated
swamp or Bituminous coal
Peat Lignite
marsh (soft coal)

Coal seams in Mesa Verde National Park Bituminous coal


Chemical Sedimentary Rocks:
Formed from Animal Material: The Limestones
All contain CaCO3 All will fizz in contact with acid

1. Limestone (a limey mudstone)

2. Fossiliferous limestone

3. Coquina

4. Chalk