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Operations

Management
Chapter 1 –
Operations and
Productivity
PowerPoint presentation to accompany
Heizer/Render
Principles of Operations Management, 7e
Operations Management, 9e
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1–1
Apakah Manajemen
Operasi?

Produksi adalah proses


penciptaan barang dan jasa
Operations management (OM)
adalah serangkaian aktivitas
yang menghasilkan nilai dalam
bentuk barang dan jasa dengan
mengubah input menjadi output

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1–2


Pengorganisasian untuk
menghasilkan barang dan jasa

 Essential functions:
 Marketing – menghasilkan
permitaan
 Production/operations –
menghasilkan produk
 Finance/accounting – mengawasi
sehat tidaknya sebuah organisasi,
membayar tagihan, dan
mengumpulkan uang

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1–3


Organizational Charts
Commercial Bank

Operations Finance Marketing


Teller Investments Loans
Scheduling Security Commercial
Check Clearing Real estate Industrial
Collection Financial
Transaction Accounting Personal
processing
Facilities Mortgage
design/layout
Auditing
Vault operations
Trust Department
Maintenance
Security
Figure 1.1(A)
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1–4
Organizational Charts
Airline

Operations Finance/ Marketing


Ground support accounting Traffic
equipment Accounting administration
Maintenance Payables Reservations
Ground Operations Receivables Schedules
General Ledger Tariffs (pricing)
Facility
maintenance Finance Sales
Catering Cash control Advertising
Flight Operations International
exchange
Crew scheduling
Flying
Communications
Dispatching
Management science Figure 1.1(B)
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1–5
Organizational
Manufacturing
Charts

Operations Finance/ Marketing


Facilities accounting Sales
Construction; maintenance Disbursements/ promotion
Production and inventory control credits Advertising
Scheduling; materials control Receivables Sales
Quality assurance and control Payables
General ledger Market
Supply chain management research
Funds Management
Manufacturing
Tooling; fabrication; assembly Money market
International
Design exchange
Product development and design
Detailed product specifications Capital requirements
Industrial engineering Stock issue
Efficient use of machines, space, Bond issue
and personnel and recall
Process analysis
Development and installation of
production tools and equipment Figure 1.1(C)
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1–6
Mengapa kita mempelajari
MO?
 MO adalah satu dari 3 fungsi
utama(marketing, finance, and
operations) dari setiap organisasi
 Kita ingin mengetahui bagaimana
barang dan jasa diproduksi
 Kita ingin memahami apa yang
dikerjakan manajer operasi
 MO merupakan bagian yang paling
banyak menghabiskan biaya dalam
sebuah organisasi
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1–7
Options for Increasing
Contribution
Finance/
Marketing Accounting OM
Option Option Option

Increase Reduce Reduce


Sales Finance Production
Current Revenue 50% Costs 50% Costs 20%
Sales $100,000 $150,000 $100,000 $100,000
Cost of Goods – 80,000 – 120,000 – 80,000 – 64,000
Gross Margin 20,000 30,000 20,000 36,000
Finance Costs – 6,000 – 6,000 – 3,000 – 6,000
Subtotal 14,000 24,000 17,000 30,000
Taxes at 25% – 3,500 – 6,000 – 4,250 – 7,500
Contribution $ 10,500 $ 18,000 $ 12,750 $ 22,500

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1–8


What Operations
Managers Do
Basic Management Functions
 Planning
 Organizing
 Staffing
 Leading
 Controlling
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1–9
Ten Critical Decisions
Ten Decision Areas Chapter(s)
 Design of goods and services 5
 Managing quality 6, Supplement 6
 Process and capacity 7, Supplement 7
design
 Location strategy 8
 Layout strategy 9
 Human resources and 10, Supplement 10
job design
 Supply chain 11, Supplement 11
management
 Inventory management 12, 14, 16
 Scheduling 13, 15
 Maintenance 17
Table 1.2
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 10
The Critical Decisions
 Design of goods and services
 Produk dan jasa apa yang
ditawarkan?
 Bagaimana kita merancang produk-
produk ini
 Managing quality
 Bagaimana kita mendefinisikan
kualitas?
 Siapa yang bertanggungjawab dalam
hal kualitas?
Table 1.2 (cont.)
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 11
The Critical Decisions
 Process and capacity design
 Proses apa dan berapa kapasitas yang akan
dibutuhkan oleh produk ini?
 Peralatan dan teknologi apa yang diperlukan
oleh proses-proses ini?

 Location strategy
 Bagaimana cara kita memilih tempat untuk
fasilitasnya?
 Berdasarkan kriteria apa kita harus
mengambil keputusan mengenai lokasi?

Table 1.2 (cont.)


© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 12
The Critical Decisions
 Layout strategy
 Bagaimana kita menata fasilitas?
 Seberapa besar seharusnya
fasilitasnya supaya dapat memenuhi
rencana kita?
 Human resources and job design
 Bagaimana kita menyediakan
lingkungan kerja yang layak?
 Berapa banyak yang dapat kita
harapkan dapat dihasilkan oleh
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
pegawai? Table 1.2 (cont.)
1 – 13
The Critical Decisions
 Supply chain management
 Haruskah kita membuat atau membeli
komponen ini?
 Siapa para pemasok lita dan siapa yang dapat
menggabungkan semuanya ke dalam program
e-commers?

 Inventory, material requirements


planning, and JIT
 Berapa banyak persediaan dari setiap barang
yang harus kita miliki?
 Kapan kita harus memesan ulang?
Table 1.2 (cont.)
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 14
The Critical Decisions
 Intermediate and short–term
scheduling
 Apakah kita mengupah orang-orang
tetap selama bisnis menurun?
 Pekerjaan apa yang akan kita lakukan
selanjutnya
 Maintenance
 Siapa yang bertanggung jawab dalam
perawatan?
 Kapan kita melakukan perawatan?
Table 1.2 (cont.)
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 15
Where are the OM Jobs?

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.


Figure 1.2 1 – 16
Peristiwa Bersejarah dalam MO

Figure 1.3

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 17


The Heritage of OM
 Division of labor (Adam Smith 1776;
Charles Babbage 1852)
 Standardized parts (Whitney 1800)
 Scientific Management (Taylor 1881)
 Coordinated assembly line (Ford/
Sorenson 1913)
 Gantt charts (Gantt 1916)
 Motion study (Frank and Lillian Gilbreth
1922)
 Quality control (Shewhart 1924; Deming
1950)
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 18
The Heritage of OM
 Computer (Atanasoff 1938)
 CPM/PERT (DuPont 1957)
 Material requirements planning (Orlicky 1960)
 Computer aided design (CAD 1970)
 Flexible manufacturing system (FMS 1975)
 Baldrige Quality Awards (1980)
 Computer integrated manufacturing (1990)
 Globalization (1992)
 Internet (1995)

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 19


Eli Whitney
 Born 1765; died 1825
 In 1798, received government
contract to make 10,000 muskets
 Showed that machine tools could
make standardized parts to exact
specifications
 Musket parts could be used in any
musket

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 20


Frederick W. Taylor
 Born 1856; died 1915
 Known as ‘father of scientific
management’
 In 1881, as chief engineer for
Midvale Steel, studied how tasks
were done
 Began first motion and time studies
 Created efficiency principles
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 21
Taylor’s Principles
Management Should Take More
Responsibility for:
 Matching employees to right job
 Providing the proper training
 Providing proper work methods and
tools
 Establishing legitimate incentives for
work to be accomplished

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 22


Frank & Lillian Gilbreth
 Frank (1868-1924); Lillian (1878-
1972)
 Husband-and-wife engineering team
 Further developed work
measurement methods
 Applied efficiency methods to their
home and 12 children!
 Book & Movie: “Cheaper by the
Dozen,” book: “Bells on Their Toes”
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 23
Henry Ford
 Born 1863; died 1947
 In 1903, created Ford Motor
Company
 In 1913, first used moving assembly
line to make Model T
 Unfinished product moved by
conveyor past work station
 Paid workers very well for 1911
($5/day!)
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 24
W. Edwards Deming
 Born 1900; died 1993
 Engineer and physicist
 Credited with teaching Japan
quality control methods in post-
WW2
 Used statistics to analyze process
 His methods involve workers in
decisions
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 25
Contributions From
 Human factors
 Industrial engineering
 Management science
 Biological science
 Physical sciences
 Information technology

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 26


Tantangan baru di MO
Dari Ke
 Fokus local atau nasional  Fokus global
 Jumlah pengiriman besar  Kinerja Just-in-time
 Pembelian dengan  Kemitraan rantai
penawaran terendah pasokan
 Pengembangan produk  Pengembangan
yang lama produk yang cepat,
aliansi, kolaborasi
desain.
 Produk yang
distandardisasi  Kustomisasi masal
dengan penekanan
pada kualitas
 Spesialisasi pekerjaan
 Pemberdayaan
pekerja, tim,
perampingan produksi
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 27
Karakteristik Barang
 Sifatnya nyata
 Produknya
konsisten
 Produksi biasanya
berbeda dengan
konsumsi
 Dapat disimpan
 Interaksi dengan
pelanggan rendah

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 28


Karakteristik Jasa
 Produknya tidak nyata
 Produksi dan konsumsi
dilakukan pada waktu yang
sama
 Biasanya unik
 Interaksi dengan pelanggan
tinggi
 Definisi produk tidak
konsisten
 Berdasarkan pada
pengetahuan
 Jasa sering tersebar
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 29
Industry and Services as
Percentage of GDP
90 −
Services Manufacturing
80 −
70 −
60 −
50 −
40 −
30 −
20 −
10 −
0−
Australia

Germany

Japan
Czech Rep

France

Spain
Canada

China

Hong Kong

Mexico

Russian Fed

UK
South Africa

US
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 30
Goods Versus Services
ciri-ciri barang Ciri-ciri jasa (produk
(produk nyata) tidak nyata)
Barang dapat dijual kembali Penjualan kembali tidak
Barang dapat dijadikan persediaan biasa dilakukan
Beberapa aspek kualitas dapat Banyak jasa tidak dapat disimpan
Banyak aspek kualitas sulit
diukur
diukur
Penjualan berbeda dari produksi
Barang dapat dipindahkan Penjualan biasanya merupakan
bagian dari jasa
Lokasi fasilitas sangat Penyedia jasa bukan jasa
memengaruhi biaya biasanya dapat berpindah
Lokasi fasilitas penting untuk
Mudah diproduksi secara otomatis berhubungan dengan pelanggan
Penghasilannya adalah dari Jasa biasanya sulit diproduksi
barang nyata secara otomatis
Penghasilannya dari jasa yang
Table 1.3
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 31
Goods and Services
Automobile
Computer
Installed carpeting
Fast-food meal
Restaurant meal/auto repair
Hospital care
Advertising agency/
investment management
Consulting service/
teaching
Counseling
100% 75 50 25 0 25 50 75 100%
| | | | | | | | |

Percent of Product that is a Good Percent of Product that is a Service


Figure 1.4
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 32
Manufacturing and Service
Employment
120 –

100 –
Employment (millions)

80 – Service

60 –

40 –

Manufacturing
20 –

0– | | | | | | |
1950 1970 1990 2010 (est)
1960 1980 2000
Figure 1.5 (A)
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 33
Manufacturing Employment
and Production
– 150
Industrial
production
Employment (millions)

(right scale) – 125

Index: 1997 = 100


– 100

– 75

40 – Manufacturing – 50
employment
30 – (left scale)
20 – – 25
10 –
0 – | | | | | | –| 0
1950 1970 1990 2010 (est)
1960 1980 2000
Figure 1.5 (B)
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 34
Development of the
Service Economy
United Sta
Cana
Fran
It
Brit
Jap
| | | | |
W. Germa
40 50 60 70 80
1970 2008 (est) Percent

Figure 1.5 (C)


© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 35
Organizations in Each Sector
% of all
Service Sector Example Jobs
Education, Notre Dame University, 25.5
Legal, Medical, San Diego Zoo, Arnold
and other Palmer Hospital
Trade (retail, Walgreen’s, Wal-Mart, 15.1
wholesale) Nordstrom’s
Utilities, Pacific Gas & Electric, 5.2
Transportation American Airlines, Santa
Fe R.R., Roadway
Express

Table 1.4
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 36
Organizations in Each Sector
% of all
Service Sector Example Jobs
Professional Snelling and Snelling, Waste 10.1
and Business Management, Pitney-Bowes
Services
Finance, Citicorp, American Express, 9.6
Information, Prudential, Aetna, Trammel
Real Estate Crow, EDS, IBM
Food, Lodging, Olive Garden, Hard Rock Cafe, 8.5
Entertainment Motel 6, Hilton Hotels, Walt
Disney, Paramount Pictures
Public U.S., State of Alabama, Cook 4.6
Administration County
Table 1.4
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 37
Organizations in Each Sector
Manufacturing % of all
Sector Example Jobs
Manufacturing General Electric, Ford, 11.5
U.S. Steel, Intel
Construction Bechtel, McDermott 7.9
Agriculture King Ranch 1.6

Mining Homestake Mining 0.4


Sector Percent of all jobs
Service 78.6%
Manufacturing 21.4%
Table 1.4
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 38
New Trends in OM
Past Causes Future
Fokus lokal Komunikasi global dan Fokus global,
atau jaringan transportasi yang memindahkan
nasional handal produksi ke
luar negeri
Jumlah Siklus produk yang singkat Kinerja Just-
pengiriman dan modal memberi in-time
yang besar tekanan untuk mengurangi
persediaan
Pembelian Penekanan kualitas Kemitraan
dengan membutuhkan pemasok rantai
penawaran yang terlibat dengan fokus pasokan,
terendah pada pelanggan kolaborasi,
aliansi,
outsourcing

Figure 1.6
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 39
New Trends in OM
Past Causes Future
Pengembang Siklus hidup yang lebih Pengembangan
an produk pendek, internet, produk yang
lama komunikasi internasional cepat, aliansi,
yang cepat, desain dibantu kolaborasi
komputer, kerjasama desain
internasional
Produk yang Pasar global yang Kustomisasi
distandardisa berlimpah, bertambahnya masal dengan
si proses produksi yang penekanan
flexibel pada kualitas
Spesialisasi Berubahnya lingkungan Pemberdayaan
pekerjaan sosial, bertambahnya pekerja, tim dan
masyarakat yang sarat perampingan
informasi dan produksi
pengetahuan

Figure 1.6
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 40
New Trends in OM
Past Causes Future
Fokus Permasalahan lingkungan, Produksi yang
pada biaya ISO 1400, meningkatnya peka pada
rendah biaya pembuangan limbah lingkungan,
produksi ramah
lingkungan,
bahan yang dapat
didaur ulang,
manufaktur ulang.
Etika Bisnis dijalankan lebih Standar etis dan
transparan, kajian publik tanggung jawab
dan global mengenai etika, sosial yang tinggi
tidak mempekerjakan anak,
menolak penyuapan,
menghindari tercipnya
polusi

Figure 1.6
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 41
New Trends in OM
 Global focus
 Just-in-time performance
 Supply chain partnering
 Rapid product development
 Mass customization
 Empowered employees
 Environmentally sensitive production
 Ethics

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 42


Productivity Challenge
Produktivitas adalah perbandingan antara
output (barang dan jasa) dibagi dengan
input (sumber daya seperti tenaga kerja
dan modal)
The objective is to improve productivity!

Important Note!
Production is a measure of output
only and not a measure of efficiency

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 43


The Economic System
Inputs Processes Outputs

Labor, The U.S. economic system Goods


capital, transforms inputs to outputs and
management at about an annual 2.5% services
increase in productivity per
year. The productivity
increase is the result of a
mix of capital (38% of 2.5%),
labor (10% of 2.5%), and
management (52% of 2.5%).

Feedback loop

Figure 1.7

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 44


Improving Productivity at
Starbucks
A team of 10 analysts
continually look for ways
to shave time. Some
improvements:
Stop requiring signatures Saved 8 seconds
on credit card purchases per transaction
under $25
Change the size of the ice Saved 14 seconds
scoop per drink
New espresso machines Saved 12 seconds
per shot
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 45
Improving Productivity at
Starbucks
A team of 10 analysts
continually look for ways
to shave time. Some
improvements:
Operations improvements have
helped Starbucks
Stop requiring signatures increase
Saved yearly
8 seconds
revenue per outlet
on credit card purchases perby $200,000 to
transaction
under $25 $940,000 in six years.
Change the sizeProductivity
of the ice hasSaved
improved by 27%,
14 seconds
scoop or about 4.5% per
peryear.
drink
New espresso machines Saved 12 seconds
per shot
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 46
Productivity

Satuan yang diproduksi


Produktivitas =
Jam kerja yang dipakai

 Measure of process improvement


 Represents output relative to input
 Only through productivity increases
can our standard of living improve

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 47


Productivity Calculations

Labor Productivity
Units produced
Productivity =
Labor-hours used

1,000
= = 4 units/labor-hour
250

One resource input  single-factor productivity

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 48


Multi-Factor Productivity
Output
Productivity =
Labor + Material + Energy
+ Capital + Miscellaneous
 Also known as total factor productivity
 Output and inputs are often expressed
in dollars

Multiple resource inputs  multi-factor productivity

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 49


Collins Title Productivity
Old System:
Staff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/day
Payroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/day

Old labor 8 titles/day


=
productivity 32 labor-hrs

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 50


Collins Title Productivity
Old System:
Staff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/day
Payroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/day

Old labor 8 titles/day


=
productivity 32 labor-hrs = .25 titles/labor-hr

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 51


Collins Title Productivity
Old System:
Staff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/day
Payroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/day
New System:
14 titles/day Overhead = $800/day

Old labor 8 titles/day


=
productivity 32 labor-hrs = .25 titles/labor-hr

New labor 14 titles/day


=
productivity 32 labor-hrs

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 52


Collins Title Productivity
Old System:
Staff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/day
Payroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/day
New System:
14 titles/day Overhead = $800/day

Old labor 8 titles/day


=
productivity 32 labor-hrs = .25 titles/labor-hr

New labor 14 titles/day


= = .4375 titles/labor-hr
productivity 32 labor-hrs

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 53


Collins Title Productivity
Old System:
Staff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/day
Payroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/day
New System:
14 titles/day Overhead = $800/day

Old multifactor 8 titles/day


=
productivity $640 + 400

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 54


Collins Title Productivity
Old System:
Staff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/day
Payroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/day
New System:
14 titles/day Overhead = $800/day

Old multifactor 8 titles/day


= = .0077 titles/dollar
productivity $640 + 400

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 55


Collins Title Productivity
Old System:
Staff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/day
Payroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/day
New System:
14 titles/day Overhead = $800/day

Old multifactor 8 titles/day


= = .0077 titles/dollar
productivity $640 + 400

New multifactor 14 titles/day


=
productivity $640 + 800

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 56


Collins Title Productivity
Old System:
Staff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/day
Payroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/day
New System:
14 titles/day Overhead = $800/day

Old multifactor 8 titles/day


= = .0077 titles/dollar
productivity $640 + 400

New multifactor 14 titles/day


= = .0097 titles/dollar
productivity $640 + 800

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 57


Measurement Problems

 Kualitas dapat berubah walaupun


jumlah input dan output tetap

 Unsur eksternal dapat


menyebabkan peningkatan dan
penurunan produktivitas
 Kurang atau bahkan tidak ada
satuan pengukuran yang akurat

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 58


Productivity Variables
 Labor - contributes
about 10% of the
annual increase
 Capital - contributes
about 38% of the
annual increase
 Management -
contributes about 52%
of the annual increase
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 59
Key Variables for Improved
Labor Productivity

 Pendidikan dasar yang sesuai bagi


tenaga kerja
 Kecukupan gizi dari tenaga kerja
 Biaya sosial yang membuat tenaga
kerja tersedia
 Mempertahankan dan meningkatkan
ketrampilan tenaga kerja di tengah
kemajuan teknologi dan ilmu
pengetahuan yang cepat
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 60
Labor Skills
About half of the 17-year-olds in the US cannot
correctly answer questions of this type

Figure 1.8
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 61
Investment and Productivity
10
Percent increase in productivity

0
10 15 20 25 30 35
Percentage investment

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 62


Service Productivity

 Biasanya padat karya (konseling, mengajar)


 Biasanya diproses menurut keinginan individu
yang unik (konsultan investasi)
 Biasanya merupakan pekerjaan intelektual
yang dilakukan oleh seorang profesional
(diagnosis kesehatan)
 Biasanya sulit dimekanisasi (potong rambut)
 Kualitas sulit dievaluasi (konsultan hukum)

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 63


Productivity at Taco Bell
Improvements:
 Revised the menu
 Designed meals for easy preparation
 Shifted some preparation to suppliers
 Efficient layout and automation
 Training and employee empowerment

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 64


Productivity at Taco Bell
Improvements:
Results:
Revised the menu
 Designed meals for easy preparation
 Preparation time cut to 8 seconds
 Shifted some preparation to suppliers
 Management span of control
 Efficient layout and automation
increased from 5 to 30
 Training and employee empowerment
 In-store labor cut by 15 hours/day
 Stores handle twice the volume with
half the labor
 Fast-food low-cost leader

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 65


Ethics and Social Responsibility

Challenges facing
operations managers:

 Mengembangkan dan menghasilkan


produk yang aman dan berkualitas
 Menjaga lingkungan yang bersih
 Menyediakan tempat kerja yang aman
 Menghormati komitmen dalam
masyarakat
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 – 66