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AMERICAN AND BRITISH CONVERSATION

ABC
American and British Conversation
Modul Pembelajaran 1). Pronunciation 2). Speaking Class 3). Grammer for speaking Disusun Oleh : Riki Rismanto Adi Mifarizky Noviaranty Director : Ust. Bairus Salim, M.Pd.I

Editor

: MD

AMERICAN AND BRITISH CONVERSATION

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AMERICAN AND BRITISH CONVERSATION

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Kata Pengantar

Assalamualaikum wr wb

Puji Syukur Kehadirat Allah SWT, yang mana berkat rahmat-Nya lah sehingga Pocket pembelajaran ini bisa terselesaikan. Tidak lupa pula shalawat beserta salam Allah semoga selalu terlimpah curahkan kehadirat nabi Agung Muhammad SAW. Pocket pembelajaran ini merupakan usaha untuk mempermudah pembelajaran di American and British Conversation (ABC) yang merupakan salah satu tempat kursus bahasa inggris di Metro. Yang dimana dalam pocket ini dibahas beberapa point pembahasan yaitu: 1) Pronunciation I, 2) Speaking Class, 3) Grammer for Speaking. Tentunya dalam penulisan Pocket Pembelajaran ini masih ada kekeliruankekeliruan. Oleh karena itu, penulis berharap adanya kritik dan saran yang membangun guna perbaikan di masa yang akan datang. Demikian, semoga Pocket Book ini bermanfaat.

Wassalamualaikum wr wb.

Metro, 05 Maret 2012

PENULIS

AMERICAN AND BRITISH CONVERSATION

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AMERICAN AND BRITISH CONVERSATION

TABLE OF CONTENT

A. Pronounciation ........................................................................................................ 1 1. Alphabet ............................................................................................................ 1 2. Table of Pronunciation Symbols................................................................. 2 3. Matching Alphabet Sounds ......................................................................... 4 4. Exercise for / i : / and / I /...................................................................... 4 5. EXERCISE for / e / and / / ................................................................ 5 6. EXERCISE For / /and / / .................................................................... 6 7. EXERCISE for / / and / / ................................................................. 8 8. EXERCISE For / e / dan / eI / ................................................................. 9 9. EXERCISE For / / dan / ...................................................................... 10 10. EXERCISE for / aI /, / / , and /I / .................................................. 12 11. EXERCISE for / / and / u: / .............................................................. 12 12. EXERCISE for / / and / / ............................................................... 13 13. STRESSING ................................................................................................... 13 14. EXERCISE for / / and / / ................................................................... 14 15. POP Sound ....................................................................................................... 14 16. ED- FORM ....................................................................................................... 16 B. Speaking Stage .................................................................................................... 16 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Greeting ........................................................................................................... 16 Introduction ................................................................................................... 17 Apologizing ..................................................................................................... 20 Invitation ....................................................................................................... 22 British and US Time ................................................................................... 25 Practice Cardinal, Ordinal, Number, Reaction and Multicative ........ 25 Asking and Giving Directions .................................................................... 27 Offering Help ............................................................................................... 30 Expressing Certainty .................................................................................... 31 Expressing Doubts ....................................................................................... 32 Expressing likes and dislikes .................................................................... 33

AMERICAN AND BRITISH CONVERSATION

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34 35 36 38 39

12. Expressing an opinion ................................................................................. 13. Expressing agreement / disagreement .................................................. 14. Money, Current and coins ........................................................................... 15. Key of learning .............................................................................................. C. Grammer Stage ...................................................................................................

1. The parts of speech ................................................. 40 1) Nouns ......................................................................................................... 40 2) Verbs ........................................................................................................ 41 3) Adjective ................................................................................................. 42 4) Adverbs .................................................................................................... 42 5) Pronoun ...................................................................................................... 43 6) Conjunction ............................................................................................... 44 7) Preposition ................................................................................................ 45 8) Interjection ............................................................................................. 46 9) Modal (auxiliary) ..................................................................................... 46 10) Article ....................................................................................................... 47 2. Sentence ............................................................ 50 3. Tense ................................................................ 50 1) Present ..................................................................................................... 51

2) Past ............................................................................................................ 55
Reference ................................................................. 60

3) Future ........................................................................................................ 57

PRONOUNCIATION 1

PRONOUNCIATION 1

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1.ALPHABETH

A..... F..... K..... P..... U....


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B..... G.... L..... Q..... V.....

C..... H..... M..... R..... W.....

D..... I..... N... S..... X.....

E..... J..... O..... T..... Y.....

Z.....

STUDENT TASK : 1. spell your name and street name of your address: E.g : My name is plankton. And the spelling is P- l-a-n-k-t-o-n I live on palapa street . its P-a-l-a-p-a. Four important points in pronunciation : 1. Vowel 2. Consonat 3. Stressing 4. Pop sound 1. Vowel Lax (short ) Tense (medium) Glide (long /difthong)
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: [ , e , I , , , : , , u , i ] : [ : , i: , u: , : , ] : [ eI , aI , , a , I , I, e , ]

Z = /zed/ BrE,

/zi:/ AmE

PRONOUNCIATION 1

2. Consonant Voiceless : light voice (wispering)

p, k , t , t , f , h , , s ,
Voice : heavy sound

b , d , g , , l , m , n , v , w, , j , , z ,

2.TABLE OF PRONUNCIATION SYMBOLS There are three pronunciation symbol , that are : a) Vowel : Symbol / / // // /I/ // /:/ /:/ /:/ /e/ /u/ /u:/ /i:/ /i / / / b) Difthong : Symbol /eI / / aI / Example in English Pay Buy Example in indonesia ........................... Somai, cabai Example in English Hat ago hot sit put arm fur saw ten usual too see any cut Example in Indonesia Embek (suara kambing ) Ke lobak Lele Tut (tidak mengubah wajah) Aah(mengaduh) Seram Ndeso...! (bhs.jawa) nenek Utang Susu..,cucu.. Hi...(menjijikan) Cinta kamera

PRONOUNCIATION 1

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Join Now Hair Pure Go near Example in English Paste Baby Test Damn Cat got Chair,chin join fit Very thing The Sad Zebra Shoe Vision Huge Man narrow Sing, ring, drink Let Rush Yeah, yes Window Koin, amboi Kalau, atau ............................ ........................... Toko, logo Iyem Example in indonesia pasar Babe Tempe dandan kemarin ................ ............... Joko Fitri .............. Tsanawiyah ............... .................... Zakaria Syarat .............. Hutan Makan Nama .................. .................... .................... ........................ Warung

c)

/I / /a / /e / / / / / /I / Consonants : Simbols P B T D K G t F V S Z H M N L R J W

PRONOUNCIATION 1

3.MATCHING ALPHABET SOUNDS Which one letters have the same vowel sound ? E.g: a has the same vowel sound as j a e i u f s h c w STUDENT TASK : 1. Write the pronunciation symbols of every letter 2. Make an arrow or some arrows to the letter which have the same vowel sound 3. Practice to your friend and correct each other y m q u g j u f v

4. EXERCISE for / i : / and / I / Drills for vowel and consonants EXERCISE : /I/ /i:/ /It/ /i:t/ it Eat

PRONOUNCIATION 1

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/I/ set fill ship hiil fit lives risen filled grin ice MEANING :

/ i: / Seat Feel Sheep Heel Feet Leaves Reason Field Green Eyes

a. a. You cant sleep on the floor b. You cant slip on the floor b. a.Theres sheep in the bay. b.Theres ship in the bay. c. a.Oh dear ! I cant feel the bath. b. Oh dear ! I cant fiil the bath. d. a. Hes walking on a high heel b. Hes walking on a high hiil.

..................................................... ..................................................... ..................................................... ..................................................... ..................................................... ..................................................... ..................................................... .....................................................

5. EXERCISE for / e / and EXERCISE : /e/ // /e / ............... ............... Bed Bad //

/ /

PRONOUNCIATION 1

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and back sad bag hamlet hat shampo

Burry Friend Guess Many Men Red Said


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On Wednesday the tree deaf men want to read to bury their dead

friend. Death said edy. will come again many times . Ill be the next, I guess.

The man in black hat bent in back map. jack, he said,stand back .

were in jam. According to this plan , this piece of cake of land is hand. So, light the lamp and lend a hand.

6. EXERCISE For / /and / / EXERCISE : / / ............. / / .............. // At Up //

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This text is for exercise of / e / symbol This text is for exercise of / / symbol

PRONOUNCIATION 1

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bug but cup hut lump much rug run sung MEANING:

Bag Bat Cap Hat Lamp Match Rag Ran Sang

1. a. What do you think of my hat ? b. What do you think of my hut ? 2. a. She s got a lamp on her head. b. She s got a lump on her head. 3. a. He bought a nother cap. b. He bought a nother cup. 4. a. Hed never seen such a cat b. Hed never seen such a cut 5. a. She had a rag to keep her warm b.She had a rug to keep her warm / / london once run trouble

..................................................... ..................................................... ..................................................... ..................................................... ..................................................... ..................................................... ......... ............................................ ..................................................... ..................................................... .....................................................

PRONOUNCIATION 1
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huury up.! Run ! Rikis ready and mothers come. Once a month she came

from London. She brought a ton of luggage with her , and a dozen bunches of jasmines. The fuss and trouble ! treated us like country cousins . You should have seen the colour of her gloves. Must have cost a lot of money. 7. EXERCISE for / / and EXERCISE : / / / / ...................... ...................... Up not / /

bus colour cuff cut duck gun hut lust nut shut

boss collar cough cot dock gone hot lost not shot MEANING :

1. a. I am afraid the bus will be late b. I am afraid the boss will be late 2. a. I could tell him by his cuff b. I could tell him by his cough. 3. a. His colour was blue b. his collar was blue
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..................................................... ..................................................... ..................................................... ..................................................... ..................................................... .....................................................

This text is for exercise of / / symbol

PRONOUNCIATION 1

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..................................................... ..................................................... ......... ............................................ .....................................................

4. a. The policeman shut the door . b. the policeman shot the door 5. a. They looked for the ducks b. they looked for the docks / / austria cough orange because want tom yacht
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/ : / born august awful daughter fought wall war

I want to an orange squash . Im not tell the time. Because my wash

was stopped , John said . its one clock .And theres no orange squash . have a cough drop. I found a box on that rich australians yacth. I supposed theyre really cough drops , then ! what a lot of rot you talk !
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On morning in August , at dawn , he rode his past the lawn, along the

wall to the orchard . how awful not to have been born , he called to his daughter. You fought a war for this . she thought. Then they walked in the cornfields. And thanked the lord for their good fortune. 8. EXERCISE For / e / dan / eI / EXERCISE : /e/ / eI / ............ ........... get gay

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This text is for exercise of // symbol This text is for exercise of /: / symbol

PRONOUNCIATION 1

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/eI / eight date gate main mate pain raid sail MEANING :

/e/ etch debt get let men get pen red

1. a. You wont sell this boat b. You wont sail this boat 2. a. Dont forget your debt b. Dont forget your date
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.................................................................. ................................................................. ................................................................. .................................................................

for heavens sake ! Be a saint and change the tape. Thats the eighth

time youve played it. The neighbours will complain. O.K But I say, Help me move this table . Its such a weight . My back will break . great ! now lets play a game . such is late on raniny day. 9. EXERCISE For / / dan / / EXERCISE : / / ............. / / / / ............. no not

/ /

This text is for exercise of /eI /symbol

PRONOUNCIATION 1

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cost cod cot hop on rod want MEANING :

coast code coat hope own road wont

1. a .He stood near the holy tree

...............................................

b. he stood near the holly tree ............................................... 2. a. The fish is at the end of the road......................................... b. The fish is at the end of the rod.........................................

/ / Blow Moan Toe No Nose


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No..!.no..! wont . oh wont you ? Do as youre told. Blow your nose , and a fit when he gets home finds you

then go and show your clean clothes to your mother. No....no...no.... ! its no joke , you know. Father will throw moarning and groaning. And all because I trod on your little toe.

This text is for exercise of / /symbol

PRONOUNCIATION 1

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10. EXERCISE for / aI /, / / , and /I / EXERCISE : / aI / ........ / / /I / ........ ......... My Now boy

1. Eleven nines are ninety nine. The clever girl replied. 2. oil, said the policeman . whats all that noise ? 3. Its an noying when prices rise. 4. I never enjoy my dentists appoinment 5. They threw some coins in the lountain. 6. I doubt whether any noise an noys an syster. 7. Ive got something in my eye. She sighed. 11. EXERCISE for / / and / / Good Put Should look
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/ u: /

/ u: / do fool shoe you queue nuisance

You fool! You knew Its not good for you to swim in in the pool. If

you dont come soon. Ill pull you out. Where did you put your clothes and shoes? You are nuisance! Dont be so cruel! Look! If I choose to do something I shouldnt do, they cant put the blame on you . Anyway , later the pool gets full and theres an awful queue.

This text is for exercise of / / and / u: /symbols

PRONOUNCIATION 1

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12. EXERCISE for / / and / / / ............ / / ............ thin this /

EXERCISE :

EXERCISE:

13. EXERCISE for / / and / / //

Initial Sheep Ship Shoe Sugar Sure

Medial Cashier Dictionary National Russia washing / /

final Brush Finish Rubbish spalsh wash

Medial s , z Leisure Measure Pleasure Treasure Seizure 10 The explosion, the garden

Medial sion Desicion Explosion Illusion Occasion television he thought , came

Final ge Beige Camouflage Espionage Garage massage from behind the shrubs , just near

the garage. Had the chauffeur left the machine inside ? he dashed across , knocked over the rubbish bins and shone his torch in the that someone had lost a shoe. Caustiously feered direction of the garage. Sure enough a hole measuring four by four. Further axemination showed

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This text is for exercise of / / and / u: /symbols

PRONOUNCIATION 1

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through the hole. There was a shirck, just television, He said. But believe me, theres precious little pleasure in espionage. 14. STRESSING Stress is the degree of loudness or force with which a syllable is spoken. In English, there are four degrees of stress that are importance.

Primary stress ( ) Tertiary stress ( ) weak stress ( ) go, calender , above exercise , understand excitement , manager 15. POP Sound Pop sound will happen on the letter by the ending letters :

p , t , k , t , b , d , g ,
E.g: Bob , rob, tube, cube , coach,.................................................................... Porch , pouch , church , chinch , .............................................................. Pop, soup, peep, type , tape , rape, ......................................................... Speak , take , work , make , look, book, took , break.......................... Right, dont, cat, seat , set, bet, bat, .................................................... Did, kid, word, bed , bad, wood , sound.................................................. Dig, bag, beg, reg , egg,............................................................................. Judge , adage , age , cottage, courage , coverage , edge, emerge , advantage,.....................................................................................................

PRONOUNCIATION 1

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16. ED- FORM

The Ed form is really significant to bat around . the Ed- form in past tense Verb has three diffrent sounds. 1. Ed = t Ed- form is pronunciated t after voiceless. Eg: stopped , kissed , talked , walked

2. Ed = d Ed- form is pronunciated d after voice . Eg : called , controled , mixed , killed 3. Ed = id Ed- form is pronunciated id after the ending letter T and D. Eg : wanted , needed , ......................,....................,..................

SPEAKING STAGE

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SPEAKING STAGE
GREETING A. These are the words to greet somebody: This is used for most of LA people informal: Hello Hi Hola Common greeting or formal: Good morning Good afternoon Good evening Morning Plankton ~ Good morning, Sir/Madam ~ Good afternoon ~ Good evening ~ Morning Kiki
Followed by there, dear, guys, man

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Note : Good night can be used when leaving or closing meeting or parting. B. Asking condition or health There are some word thats used formal and informal: Fomal : How are you? Im fine, thanks and you? How are you today? Im very well, thanks Informal: Hows life? Not too bad, thanks How are you doing? Very well thanks Hows everything? Everything is under control How are you this morning? Im not bad, thanks

How are you getting on? Pretty good How is it going? Ok. What about you? Are you doing Ok? Yupp. Im doing ok Whats up?

SPEAKING STAGE
Alive and kicking Note : how do you do? is used for someone we never meet. C. Expression : Give my regard to your father Thanks I will Give my love to my sweety/girl.. Sure, I will D. Bye bye/ farewells Good bye Good night See you later See you tomorrow See you soon Bye Night see you ok Fine/Ok Say hello to Plankton Sure

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Im leaving now Please Take care of your self Please Be good on the way Fine Have a good time Thanks

Note : If you are going to meet again in the same day, see you later, see you soon, see you are used. INTRODUCTION A. Introducing your self Formal Id like to introduce my self my name is... its pleasure to meet you May I introduce my self? Im... its nine to meet you Demonstration Jhon Ardo : May I introduce myself? My name is Jhon Plankton : How do you do? Im Ardo Laponco Richard: Hello, Im Richard Debbie : Nice to meet you, Richard Exuse me, my names... Im glad to meet you How do you do? Hello, Im......

SPEAKING STAGE
My name is Debbie Jane Informal Heve we met before? Im glad to meet you My name is........ Im happy to meet you I dont think weve met Hello My name is..... Hi Demonstration Mr. Captain Mr. Adam Andy Awan Lia Practice 1. Introduce your self to the class mention your name, profession, or occupation and the place where you live, work or study. Practice 2. You are visiting your friend Lina, at her house, then you see her sister coming. Great her and introduce your self to her. Pactice 3. : Heve we met before? My names captain. : Glad to meet you, Im Adam. : Hello, Im Andy : Nice to meet you, Im Awan : Hi, Im Lia. Im a college studentof BrawijayaIm in the Faculty of Art. I dont think you know me My name is... My name is.... Hello, Im.... Hi,,,Im....

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: Ladies and GentelmenI would like to introduce my selfMy name is Jane, Im student of Standford

SPEAKING STAGE
You are sitting next to beautiful girl in front of ABCs office. She and you

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want to enroll your selves to be an English student at this course. You dont know her, or you have never me before. Introduce your self to her. B. Introducing other Formal Introduction Mr. Tant, Id like to Introduce..... How do you do? Let me Introduce...................... Its nice to meet you Demonstration Mr. Captain meet Mr. Adam Mr. Tant : Its nice to meet you, Mr.Adam Mr. Adam : Its nice to meet you too, Mrs. Brown Informal Introduction Jack, have you met jhon? Im happy to meet you Lia, do you know ika? Hello Alvin, meet my brother, Tom, Hi Oh, look, heres jane.... Bill, this is Mr. Harry May I introduce.................. Im happy to meet you Mr. Tant, I would like you to meet ......

: Mr. Tant, I would like you to

Read the following text! Introduction Knowing one another is very important in our life. By Introduction, we can establish relations and help one another. And because of it, this world became wonderful and absorbing. Every body has own way to present

SPEAKING STAGE
himself. At times, someone wanting to get acquainted with others needs

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sacrifice and is thick skinned to reach it. Many times the great affection is arisen by Introduction as well. Thats why, its pleasant and impressing. Answer the following questions and discuss them together. 1. How do you fell when you introduce your self to the beautiful girl or handsome boy? Why? 2. What will you do if your friend is indifferent? 3. Were you ever disappointed? 4. Have you interesting experience during introduction? 5. What will you do if someone refuses you to present? APOLOGIZING A. Asking people to say something again Formal Beg your pardon? Pardon me? Deomonstration Tourist Beijie Tourist Beijie Tourist Beijie Informal Sorry? What did you say? What was that again? the moneychanger : I beg your pardon? : Im looking for the money changer : Its just around the corner : Thanks you : youre welcome Pardon? Excuse me, what did you say?

: Excuse me, Im looking for

SPEAKING STAGE
Demonstration Alwi Anto Alwi Anto Linda Formal Im sorry Im very sorry Im sorry for......... I apologize... I apologize for.... Excuse me Excuse me, please.... Demonstration Alwi Anwar Ani Nia : Im sorry for stepping on you shoe : Thats quite all right : Im very sorry for spilling my coffee on your seat : Dont worry about it Never mind Forgive me, please... No problem Thats all right Thats quite all right Dont worry about that : Whose car is that? : Thats my fathers : Sorry? : My fathers : Wow luxurious!

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Practice 1. You were inviting by your friend to come to the party. You couldnt come, because you were sick. How to owe him an apology? Practice 2.

SPEAKING STAGE
to him for you? Disccuse the following topics. 1. Is apologizing necessary when we do mistakes? 2. What will happen if there is no pardon in the world? INVITATION A. Formal expression Would you like to...? Would you like to join me? Would you like to take a walk with us? Accepting Invitation Thanks you, Ill be glad to Thanks you, Id like to very much Refusing Infitation Im very sorry, but... Im very sorry, but I dont have much time Im very sorry, but I cant come. My father is sick Thank you, but Im afraid Thats very kind of you, but Im afraid Id like to but..... Id like to but Im not feeling well today Id like to but Im very busy right now No, thank you No, thank you. I hope you will invite me again sometimes No, thank you. I have just eaten B. Informal expression Lets........ Lets go to the restautant Would you like to go shopping with me? Would you be free to come to the concert tonight?

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You are playing football. You kick your friends head. How to make an apology

SPEAKING STAGE
Lets take a walk Lets go shopping How about.... How about joining me? How about taking a walk? How about going to the cinema? Will you join us for dinner? What about.........? What about going to the movie? What about having breakfast? What about playing music? Why dont......... Why dont you join me? Why dont we go to restaurant? Why dont we take a walk? Accepting invitation Thanks Id love to Thanks Id like to Sure, that sounds great Sure, that sounds like fun Yes, with pleasure Refusing Inivitation Thanks but.... Thanks but I havet much time Thanks but I must be right back home Im sorry, but........ Im sorry, but Im very busy right now Im sorry, but I get busy

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SPEAKING STAGE
Id love to but....... Id love to but Im not feeling well today No, thanks Demostration Tony Sari Tony Sari Tony Sari Tony Sari Tony Sari : Hello, how are you enjoying your stay in pare? : Im enjoying it very much, thank you : By the way, what are you doing tommorrow night? : Nothing special as far as I know : Well, would you like to come for a ride in the country? : Thanks, Id love to : Fine, lets meet here about sevenoclock? : That would be very nice : Good, see you tomorrow : Fine

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Practice 1. Change the acceptances to refusals in the demonstration above! Practice 2. You have a plan for going to picnic on you holiday make short conversation about it. By acceptance or refusal response. Ask your friend the following question, then make a short presentation to the class. 1. Do you always invite your friend for a ride around the country? 2. Where you ever dissaponted in your friends invitation? 3. How do you feel if your girl/ boy friend refuse your invitation? 4. Tell me your impressing experience of your inviting a friend of yours! 5. Do you always take responsibility when you invite a friend of yours?

SPEAKING STAGE
Expression : If youd like, Ill show you around: Kalau kamu mau, ku akan mengajakmu keliling BRITISH and US TIME There a bit different to tell the british and U.S Time: A. Brithish 07:00 07:30 08:15 B. American 07.00 Seven Oclock 08.31 07.30 Seven thirty 09.45 08.15 Eight fifteen 01.58 Am (Ante mederium) 00.00 - 12.00 Pm (Post mederium) Sosial Language Time is money Its about time to..... Its the time punctual? Its 5 minutes faster/slower At 7 sharp Tell me the time cause my watch has stopped No buying time! Time off Time is over/up! Time after time Time will tell! Lets wait and see! What time is it? 12.00 00.00 Eight thirty one Nine forty- five One fifty- eight Seven Oclock Thirty past seven Quater past eight 08:31 09:45 01:58 Twenty nine to nine Quater to Ten Two to two

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PRACTICE CARDINAL, ORDINAL, NAUMBER, RFACTION AND MULTICATIVE I was bron in LA one the 27th of August Im 22 years old now A have 3 elder vbrothers 1 younger sister and 1 youngr brother So, we are 6 of us Im the fourth child in my family

SPEAKING STAGE
The 6th one still studying in 2nd level of elementary school We live on the 2nd floor of an apartment building Wed moved house twice CARDINAL 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 101 102 33 44 55 66 77 88 99 222

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ORDINAL 1at 2nd -3nd 4th 5th - 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 21st 22th 23nd 24th 25th 26th 27th 28th 29th 30th 101st 102nd .......etc. FRACTION 1/2 1/3 1/5 1/6 1/8 a a a a a half thrid fifth sixth eighth 2/2 2/4 2/5 2/6 2/8 two helf two fourth two fifth two sixth two eighth 2 two a half 14 fourteen and quarter 50 1/5 fifty and fifth 16 2/3 sixteen and two third 8 eight and three fourth

MULTICATIVE Once twice three (thrice) four time etc. Exemple: heve you ever been to Bali? Ive been to Bali once.

SPEAKING STAGE
ASKING AND GIVING DIRECTIONS A. Asking Directions How do I get to.....? Which way is it to.....? Can you tell me the way to....? Which bus goes to..........? Is this the right way to......? Turn left at the end of the street Turn on the left at the end of the street Its on the right Its on the corner Its on the right corner Demostration James Ispector James Inspector : Excuse me : Yes, sir! : How can I go to pare? : Its very easy, there is a bus every ten minutes from stop number two,and the ticket to pare ten thousands. It take two hours to get there. Practice 1. Tell the class about your home town. 1. Whats your name? 2. Where are you from? 3. Whats the nick name of your hometown? 4. How far is it from here? B. Giving Directions Go straight on Go straight a head Go down this street Follow this street Is this the right way to......?

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Its about five houses away from here Take The first turning on the right Its about two kilometers away from here You cant miss it

SPEAKING STAGE
5. Can you tell us how to get there? By bus or train? 6. Whats about the weather? 7. Whats your hometown famous for? 8. Is there anything that you dont like about your hometown? Whats it? Practice 2.

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Someone is asking about library. Its too near from your hometown. How to give him direction? Vocabularies Highway : Jalan raya Border : Perbatasan Road : Jalan Bend : Tikungan Side walk : Trotoar A sharp bend : Tikungan tajam Crossroad :Simpangn empat Thorough fare : Jalan tembusan Three jucntions : Prtigaan Shortcut : Jalan pintas Stadium : Stadion Blind/dead alley : Jalan buntu Gate : Gerbang Zig zag : Jalan berliku-liku Shop : Toko Right side Inn Left side Mosque Circle Fence Traffic llight Tower Flower Garden Gas Station Bridge Field Rice field Calling station Grade : Sebelah Kanan : Warung : Sebelah kiri : Masjid : Bundaran : Pagar/tembok : Lampu lalulintas : Menara : Taman : Pom Bensin : Jembatan : Lapangan : Sawah : Warnet : Tanjakan

SPEAKING STAGE

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SPEAKING STAGE
OFFERING HELP A. Expression Formal May I.....? Could I....? Would you like me to....? Accepting Offers Thank you very much Thank you If you dont mind, thank you Id appreciated it Refusing Offers No, thanks No, I appreciate your offer No, thanks not necessary Informal Can I.......? Shall I....? Let me help you with.....? Read the following text! Giving Mutual Aid Accepting offers Please, thanks Yes, thanks Sure, thanks Would you? Thanks

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Refusing Offers No, thanks you a lot for youre asking No, thanks any way No, dont botherm I can do it myself No, its right, I can manage it Thanks a lot, but Im Ok

Giving mutual aid is one of the human activities as social creature, and it is a shape of the human consciousness in the weakness and limits he has. It is so important that most of people bring it out and maintain it. It forms a part of culture as well. On occasion, one views the kindness of others by this culture. 1. When do you need help? 2. What will you do if your friend refuses your asking help?

SPEAKING STAGE
culture? 4. What kind a help do like? 5. How to maintain this culture? Give three ways! EXPRESSING CERTAINTY Im sure I believe I believe for sure Demonstration Michael John Michael John Michael John Demostation Rara Clieve Rara Olieve Rara Olieve Reza Rifa : Olieve, is this your dictionary? : No, Its not mine, I think Its Desys : Are you sure : Yes, Im sure : It has name on the back let me see : Yes, you are right. Ill give it to him later : Please, sit down here and wait for him, Hell come and help you for sure! : Ok. Thanks : I have a bad cold today : Wait minutes : Whats that?

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3. Do you always help your friends because of your kindness or because of

: Here is The medicine you need take it three times a day and Im sure youll get better soon. : Thanks a lot : Its nothing

Demonstration

Expression :

SPEAKING STAGE
Hes bound to success

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Dia pasti berhasil


I can fell it in my bones

Itu pasti terjadi


Your promotion is up in the air

Kenaikan pangkatmu belum pasti


Its sure thing/its in the bag

Itu hal yang sudah pasti


Theres no telling whether

Tidak ada kepastian apakah......


What will the out come be?Its tough and go

Gimana hasilnya? Hasilnya belum, dapat dipastikan


EXPRESSING DOUBTS I dont know Im not sure May be Perhapas I dont think I have my doubt Demonstration 1 Richard David Richard David Ricahrd David Adam : Hi, David : Hi, Richard : wheres Jhon? : I dont know : Is He sleeping? : Maybe : Whats wrong with you Kumara? You look unhappy today

Demostration 2

SPEAKING STAGE
Captain Adam Kumara Adam Dadang Devy Dadang Devy : Well, you know, Ill have a test tomorrow and Im worried about that : Why? : I dont think I can do it well : Come on, keep spirit to study here and you will pass the test : Look, is that new building? : Thats right : Is that a house or a school? : I dont know, but I dont think its a school building EXPERSSING LIKES AND DISLIKES A. Expressing Like I like I do like I enjoy Im B. Expressing Dislike I dont like Im afraid, I dont like I hate Demonstration A B A B A B : How do you like ABC? I keen on I love I do love I really enjoy

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Demonstration 3

I cant stand.... Im not keen on

: Oh I like it very much its a big city. And its right place to know little bit more about English Language. : Do you play chess? : Yes, Im very keen on it :What do you think of Vida? : Oh, Im fond of her, She is so friendly and understranding

Demosntration How do you like Borobudur? I like , but I dont like all the noise around it

SPEAKING STAGE
Do you like badminton? No, Im keen on it How about the weather? Do you enjoy it? No, I cant stand it. Its too cold for me Answer the Questions below! 1. Do you like milk? Why? 2. Do you love dangdut music? Why? 3. Do you enjoy staying at ABC? Why? EXPRESSING AN OPONION A. Asking for opinions Do you like.....? How do you like.....? What do you think of.....? What do you think about....? How do you feel about...? Whats you opinion about...? B. Expressing opinions I believe......... I think/Im afraid In my opinion..... I dont care.... I dont really care It doesnt matter It doesnt make difference to me Demonstration Fatma Riyan Fatma : How did you enjoy your trip? : Oh, I liked Australia very much : What did you think of the food there?

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SPEAKING STAGE
Riyan Fatma Riyan Practice Express your opinion about: 1. English language

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: Well, it was very different form Indonesia food, of course some were quite nice but, I dont care much for the bread and potatoes : No, Im not very fond of potatoes either but, I must say, Id rather eat potatoes than noodle what about the weather? : It was very nice

2. ABC Anglophile community is the right place for beginner to know English 3. Music 4. Experience 5. The most famous place in Indonesia to learn about English is PARE. EXPRESSING AGREEMENT/ DISAGREEMET A. Agreement Of course Absolutely You are right Thats a good idea I agree B. Disagreement Expression No way Its impossible Im against Demostration Romeo Rama Synta : Lets go to the shopping center Do you agree? : Of course What about you Synta? : Im all of it I agree with (someone) I agree to (something) Im for it Im all for it I fell the same way

I dont think.... I dont agree....

SPEAKING STAGE
Demostration Teacher : Any Question? Student : Excuse me sir Teacher : Yes. Please, what is it? Student : May I go home now? Teacher : No way Practice Give an agreement/disagreement response with the following statement! 1. Everybody can be alive without air 2. Money is all the human need 3. Love is blind 4. Study neednt be at school 5. Study without going steady is difficult to be success MONEY, CURRENCY AND COINS A. The other Name of Money Dough Lucre B. Currency Moolah The green

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One dollar bill Twenty dollar bill Two dollar bill Fifty dollar bill Five dollar bill A hundred dollar bill Ten dollar bill Note : 1 dollar = 1 buck, 2 dollar= 2 buck, ect. C. Coins 1 cent 5 cent 10 cent Expression : : A penny : A nickle : A dime 25 cent 50 cent $1 coin : A quarter : A half dollar : Silver dollar

o Make line, please! o You should get bank a loan. o Im in debt.

o You owe me a bundle. o You are loaded.

SPEAKING STAGE
Read the following text! Two Kinds Of People There are two kinds of people. One kind likes to get up early in the morning. The other kind likes to stay in the bed. Art Jhonson is the first kind. He gets up early, brushes his teeth,

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shaves, takes a shower, combs his hair and gets dressed. He has enough time to eat a good breakfast and walk to work. Carl Morgan, his roommate, like to stay in bed. He does the same things art when he gets up, but he does them in a hurry. He runs too work. Hes usually late, work. He felt much better all day. That night, like all the Carls in the world, he said to himself,why dont I do this every day?

SPEAKING STAGE
Key Of learning

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GRAMMER STAGE

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GRAMMER STAGE

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Contents
The parts of speech 1. Nouns 2. Verbs 3. Adjective 4. Adverbs 5. Pronoun 6. Conjunction 7. Preposition 8. Interjection 9. Modal (auxiliary) 10. Article Tenses 1. Present Simple Continous Perfect Perfect continuos 2. Past Simple Continous Perfect Perfect continuos 3. Future Simple Continous Perfect Perfect continuos

GRAMMER STAGE
The concept of parts of speech might be the basic of all English grammar discussion. Before going to the next stage, you have to finish mastering this course material, so that you can continue to the next stage. I. THE PARTS OF SPEECH 1. NOUN What is noun?

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Noun is a part of speech which is used to represent a person, place, or thing. Noun: 1. Person : Man, woman, Jane, Abdul, Maria. 2. Place : House, Home, Campus, Jakarta, Metro. 3. Thing : Animal, tree, sugar, grass, flight. How to recognize noun? A noun can be recognized by the ending, position, and function. 1. Noun ending Word ending -ity -ment -ness -ation -hood -dom 2. Noun position Examples Capability, responsibility, nationality Government, development, improvement Sadness, kindness, brightness Relation, assumption, evaluation Brotherhood, sisterhood, childhood, Freedom, wisdom, kingdom

A noun commonly comes after the determiner. A determiner is a word such us: a, an, the, this, my, such. Determiner A An The Examples He is a lecturer. She buys an egg. I turn the light.

GRAMMER STAGE

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This I like this doll. My This is my room. Such I have such candy. Besides, noun often come after a determiner and one or more adjectives. Here are some examples: A good lecturer. This lovely doll. A delicious egg. My small and comfortable room. The bright light. Such sweet candy. 3. Noun function In a sentence, noun has two function, those are: 1. Subject of sentence: Abdul drives slowly. My lecturer comes on time. 2. Object of sentence: We want freedom. I like candy. Note: the subject or object of a sentence is not always a noun. It could be a pronoun (we) or a phrase (my lecturer). 2. VERBS What is verb? A verb is a part of speech which is used to express an action or an existence. Kind of verbs are verb be and verb other than be, verb be such as (am, is, are, etc.) and verb other than be such as (catch, pull, hit, etc.)

Note: The concept of verb is very essential in the discussion on English sentence. An English sentence should contain a verb, be it verb be or verb other than be. For example: I am a student of ABC; I wear a uniform.

GRAMMER STAGE
3. ADJECTIVES

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An adjective is part of speech which is used to qualify or modify a noun. In other words adjective is used to give more information about the noun. Generally, an adjective is used before noun (a wonderful day) , or after noun (the boy naughty). 4. ADVERB An adverb is part of speech which is used to modify a verb (drive slowly), an adjective (very good), another adverb (very well). An adverb can be recognized by the function, form, and position. 1. Function The function of adverb is to modify a verb, an adjective, and another adverb. Modify a verb The teacher teaches seriously. (how) We lived locally. (where) I never smoke. (when) Modify an adjective She is really diligent. Alexandra is very smart. Modify another adverb He speaks too fast. The driver drives incredibly slowly.

2. Form Many adverbs end in ly, we form such adverbs by adding ly to the adjective. For examples: (strong) strongly, (quick) quickly, (honest) honestly, (interesting) interestingly. Not all words that end in ly are adverbs. Like friendly, weekly, monthly, those are adjectives. Some adverbs have no particular form, for example: well, fast, very, never, always, often, still, etc.

GRAMMER STAGE
Some adverbs have the same forms as their adjective forms, for example: Adjective form Fast Hard Late 3. Position Adverb form Fast Hard Late

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Adverbs have three main positions in the sentence: Front (before the subject) Now we will study English grammar. Middle (between the subject and the main verb) We almost study English grammar. 5. PRONOUN Personal pronoun Subject Object I Me You You They Them We Us He Him She Her It It For examples: Possessive adjective My Your Their Our His Her Its Possessive pronoun Mine Your Theirs Ours His Hers Reflective pronoun My self Your self Their selves Our selves Himself Herself It self End (after the verb or object) We study English grammar seriously.

- Subject - Object - Possessive adjective - Possessive pronoun - Reflective pronoun

: They catch the cats. : I have them catch the cats. : My cats are caught by them. : the cat that caught by them is mine. : I can do it by myself.

GRAMMER STAGE
Relative pronoun; is used to repeat the meaning of previous noun, they are; who, whom, which/that, whose, where, when, and why. At the same time it connects a relative clause to the rest of the sentence. Here are the following examples: The man who loves me is John. The man whom I loved is John. The car which is parked in front of my house is mine. I have a cat whose tail is long. 6. CONJUNCTION 1. Coordinative conjunction

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They go to the city where I was born. She went home when it was late of night. I didnt know why he cried.

Correlative conjunction; both and, either..or, neither.nor., not only, but.also. Both my brother and my sister are in London now. You can go to Jakarta either by bus or by plane. I have neither food nor water. Mr. William not only has a big house but also a luxurious car. Conjunctive adverb; - Nevertheless, however, yet, = namun He isnt a rich man; however he can send his children to university. - Therefore, accordingly, hence, as a result = oleh karena itu She always works hard; therefore she is promoted to a manager of the company. - Thus = dengan demikian The girl is very beautiful; thus she is adored by the boys. - Besides, in addition = disamping itu Mr. Nakata is a kind; in addition he is generous.

GRAMMER STAGE
- Moreover, furthermore= lagipula He was very handsome; moreover he was very polite.

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2. Subordinate conjunction Because, as, for, since because of, due to, on account of the fact that= karena - She was absent yesterday because/as/for/since she was sick.(sentence) - She was sick due to/because/of the cold weather. (noun) Although, even though, despite, in spite of = meskipun/walaupun - I am happy although I have no money at all. If (jika, seandainya), unless (kecuali jika), as long as (selama), otherwise (jika tidak) - I will always love you as long as you love me. When, while, since, after, before, as soon as, until. - I was studying while you turned the music. - She has been living here since 1990. So that, in order that= supaya - They studied hard in order that they passed the exam. As if, as though (seolah-olah, as (sebagaimana) than (dari pada) - He walked around as though he was in a daze. 7. PREPOSITION a). in ; in a line, in a row, in a queue, in a street, in a photograph, in a picture, in a mirror, in the sky, in the world, in a book, in a newspaper, in a magazine, in a letter. When I go to the cinema, I prefer to sit in the front of. I live in Jendral Sudirman Street. You live in A. Yani Street. Who is the woman in that photograph? Let me see your article in your paper. It was a lovely day; there wasnt a cloud in the sky.

GRAMMER STAGE

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b). on; on the left, on the right, on the floor, on a map, on the menu, on a list, on a farm. In Jakarta we drive on the right. My room is on the second floor of the apartment. Here are the shopping list, dont buy anything thats not on the menu. The farmer worked on a farm. To understand more about preposition, let us discuss at the following examples: In; - I live in Bandung. - I came here in July. - I was born in 1990. - I like jogging in the morning. - The farmers plant the rice in rainy season. - She slept in my room. On: - I live on Jend. Sudirman street. - I am going to go home on Sunday. - I put my book on the table. - I get here on foot. At: - I stayed at home yesterday. - I always get up at 5 oclock. - She lives at Ahmad Yani street No.18 8. INTERJECTION; is the word or sentence to express the emotional. Wow, oh, shit, how, fuck. How beautiful you are! What a cold nigh it is! 9. MODAL a. Modal present
S + MODAL + Verb base

1. Will (to be going to) = akan

GRAMMER STAGE
- Future ( to tell something that will happen in the future) Example: He will arrive tomorrow. - Polite request Example: Will you open the door, please? 2. Shall = akan - Future ( to tell something that will happen in the future) Example: We shall leave here next month. - Agreement Example: shall I open the door? - To make decision that has to do. Example: You shall open the door now! 3. Must (has/ have to )= harus/pasti - Must You must study hard to face your final exam. - Conclusion You got the highest score, you must be smart. 4. May = mungkin/boleh - He is absent, he may be sick. - May I go home? 5. Can = dapat/mampu - I can speak English well. - Can I help you? 10. Article Article is divided into definite (the) and indefinite (a, an)

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We use definite to mean sure, certain. Definite is particular. On the other hand we use indefinite to mean not sure, not certain. Indefinite is general. When we are talking about one thing in particular, we use the. When we are talking about one thing in general we use a or an. The 1. The capital city of Lampung is Bandar Lampung. 2. I have found the mobile that I lost. 3. Have you cleaned the room? a, an 1. I was born in a small village of Central Lampung. 2. Jack had an omelet for lunch. 3. I ordered a drink.

GRAMMER STAGE
4. There are five eggs in the fridge. 4. He stands under an umbrella. 5. Please, switch off the TV when you 5. Have you got a pen? study. Surely, often we use the or a/an for the same word. It depends on the situation, not the word. Here are some examples;

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- He stands under an umbrella. (any umbrella, not a particular umbrella) - Where is the umbrella? (we already have an umbrella, we are looking for our umbrella, a particular umbrella) This little story should help you understand the difference between the and a/an. A boy and a girl were looking for something in a shop. The girl saw a dress that she liked. She asked the boy to buy the dress for her. Then, the boy said: do you think the shop will accept a credit card? I dont bring cash money. Special notes: Use an and the for the words begin with vowel sounds such as; hour, honest, and accident. Use an and the for the words begin with consonant sounds such as; university, European, book, etc. We do not use article (a, an) for uncountable nouns like money, advise, etc. We may use the for both countable and uncountable noun. When the is used with adjectives like in; the rich, the poor, the blind, etc, the phrases is always supposed as plural. Example; the poor are not always sad. the is commonly used for Family Name like in ; The Jack, the John.

GRAMMER STAGE
Common Combination of Parts of Speech.

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Is a kindergartente acher

Is a good teacher

My mother
Teaches very well

Teaches patiently

Is verybeau tiful

Every name is called a noun, As field and fountain, street and town. In place of noun the pronoun stands, As he and she can clap their hands. The adjective describes a thing, As magic wand or bridal ring. Most verbs mean action, something done, To read and write, to jump and run. How things are done the adverbs tell, As quickly, slowly, badly, well. The preposition shows relation, As in the street or at the station. Conjunctions join, in many ways, Sentences, words, or phrase and phrase. The interjection cries out, Heed! An exclamation point must follow me!

GRAMMER STAGE
II. SENTENCE Sentence (kalimat) adalah rangkaian kata yang memiliki kata kerja yang mengandung pengertian yang sempurna. Macam- macam kalimat: a. Kalimat berdasarkan penggunaannya diklasifikasikan menjadi empat macam 1. A declarative sentence makes a statement.

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It is raining. The children are playing with Tom likes football. the dog. The school bell was ringing. Nakata is in Japan. An interrogative sentence asks a question. Where are my keys? Who is talking to the teacher? Why is the sky blue? Is this the way to the ice skating rink? 3. An exclamatory sentence makes a verystrong statement called an exclamation. It shows a strong feeling such How beautiful she is! as surprise oranger. The silly boy! What a kind thing to do! 2. b. Kalimat berdasarkan kata kerja utamanya diklasifikasikan menjadi 2 macam. 1. Kalimat verbal adalah kalimat yang kata kerja utamanya bukan to be. III. TENSES The twelve traditional tenses A. Present 1. 2. 3. 4. Simple present ( I do, he does) Present Continuous (I am doing, He is doing) Present perfect (I have done, he has done) Present perfect continuous (I have been doing, has been doing)

GRAMMER STAGE
B. Past 5. Simple past (I did. He did) 6. Past continuous (I was doing, they were doing) 7. Past perfect ( I had done, he had done) 8. Past perfect continuous (I had been doing, he had been doing) C. Future 9. Simple future (I will do, he will do) 10. Future continuous (I will doing, he will doing) 11. Future perfect (I will have done, he will have done) 12. Future perfect continuous (I had been doing, he had been doing) A. PRESENT 1. Simple present

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1) Verbal - She studies Grammar every day - She doesnt study grammar every day. - Does she study grammar every day? 2) Nominal - He is here every morning. - He is not here every morning. - Is he here every morning? A. Aturan penambahan s/es 1. Verb yang berakhiran : ss, sh, ch, x, o, ditambah es. Example: Kiss : kisses Watch : watches Fix : fixes Go : goes 2. Verb yang berakhiran y yang sebelumnya konsonan, y diubah menjadi I dan ditambah es. Example: carry : carries , study : studies . 3. Verb yang berakhiran y yang sebelumnya vocal, langsung ditambah s. Example ; say : says, play; plays. 4. Selain ketentuan diatas, verb nya langsung ditambah s. Example: write ; writes, read : reads, work : works, etc.

GRAMMER STAGE

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B. Time signal Menggunakan general time signal : Always, often, seldom, never, usually, generally, habitually, sometimes, on and off, now and then, occasionally, every day, every week, once a day, twice a week. C. Penggunaan 1. Menyatakan kejadian yang berulang-ulang (habitual action) She gets up at 5 oclock every day. 2. Menyatakan kebenaran umum (general truth) The earth is round. 3. Menyatakan kecakapan , kemampuan dan watak atau sifat seseorang. Plankton speaks English fluently. My father is very kind. 2. Present continuous 1) Verbal - I am studying English now. - I am not studying English now. - Am I studying English now? 2) Nominal - He is at home now. - He is not at home now. - Is he at home now? Aturan perubahan verb1 menjadi verb ing Dibentuk dari verb 1 + ing Contoh : visit : visiting , read : reading. Verb yang berakhir dengan single e laangsung diganti dengan ing Contoh : smile : smiling , write : writing. Verb yang berkhiran ee langsung ditambah ing Contoh : agree : agreeing , see : seeing Verb satu suku kata dengan 1vokal dan berakhir dengan single konsonan, maka konsonan didobelkan dan ditambah ing. Contoh : hit : hitting , stop : stopping, run : running.

GRAMMER STAGE
Verb yang lebih dari suku kata , akhir suku kata hanya ada 1 vokal dan berakhir dengan 1konsonan, maka konsosan di dobelkan dan ditambah ing. (jika tekanan jatuh pada akhir suku kata) Contoh : begin : beginning , prefer : preferring, admit : admitting . Exception : jika tekanan jatuh pada awal suku kata , maka cukup ditambah ing. Contoh : enter : entering Kata kerja yang tidak dipakai dalam tenses continuous Mental state (know, believe, imagine, want, doubt, need, forget, etc.) Emotional state ( love, care, envy, like, hate, mind, fear, appreciate) Possession (posses, have, own, belong Sense perception ( taste, smell, see, feel) Other exiting states (seem, look, appear, cost, owe, weight, exist, contain, etc.) Time signal : Now, right now, at present , at this moment, this semester, today, look!, listen!, Penggunaan : 1. Menyatakan perbuatan yang sedang berlangsung saat ini Short term activity : pada saat berbicara proses itu sedang berlangsung Contoh : she is watching TV right now. Long term activity : pada saat berbicara aktivitas itu tidak harus terjadi, tetapi masih dalam proses. Contoh : I am writing a novel now. 2. Digunakan untuk menyatakan perbuatan berulang-ulang yang mengandung makna jengkel/terganggu, atau untuk menunjukkan rasa kagum. Contoh : He is always disturbing my sister. She is always reading many books. 3. Manyatakan situasi yang berubah. The population of the world is rising very fast. The birth rate in Indonesia is increasing.

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GRAMMER STAGE
4. Menyatakan kebiasaan yang bersifat sementara I am living in Metro at the moment. (sementara) I live in Metro. (menetap) 3. Present perfect

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1) Verbal - She has studied English up to now. - She has not studied English up to now. - Has she studied English up to now? 2) Nominal - I have been in Metro recently. - I have not been in Metro. - Have I been in Metro? Time signal : Just, already, not yet, never. So far, until now, up to now, up to present, ever since, all day, all my life, recently, lately, since and for. Penggunaan : 1. Menyatakan sesuatu yang telah selesai dilakukan tetapi hasilnya masih dirasakan sampai sekarang. I have already eaten. ( sampai sekarang masih kenyang ) He has just washed the car (sampai sekarang mobilnya masih bersih) 2. Menyatakan sesuatu yang dimulai diwaktu lampau dan masih berlangsung sampai sekarang. I have been in Metro since I studied English. They have built the building for two years. He has lived in Jakarta ever since. 4. Present perfect continuous 1) verbal - She has been studying English for a month. - She has not been studying English for a month. - Has she been studying English for a month? 2) Non verbal - They have been living in Metro since 1990. - They have not been living in Metro since 1990. - have they been living in Metro since 1990?

GRAMMER STAGE
Time signal : since, for, so far, ever since, all day, all morning, lately, recently Penggunaan : untuk menyatakan perbuatan yang dimulai diwaktu lampau dan masih berlangsung sampai sekarang. Contoh : It has been raining all day. B. PAST 5. Simple past tense

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1) Verbal - I studied English yesterday. - I did not study English yesterday. - Did I study English yesterday? 2) Non verbal - She was in Bandung last week. - She was not in Bandung last week. - Was she in Bandung last week? Aturan perubahan verb 1 ke verb 2 1. Verb yang terdiri dari satu suku kata maupun dua kata dengan pola konsonan vocal konsonan , maka konsonan terakhir ditulis rangkap kemodian ditambah ed Contoh : rob : robbed : merampok, wrap : wrapped : membungkus Transfer: transferred: memindah ,offer: offered: menawarkan, occur : occurred : terjadi 2. Verb yang terdiri dari 2 suku kata yang berakhiran huruf L , maka L dirangkap lalu ditambah ed Contoh : cancel : cancelled ; membatalkan, travel : travelled : bepergian 3. Verb yang berakhiran y yang didahului dengan konsonan , maka y diubah menjadi I dan ditambah ed. Contoh: try : tried : mencoba , study ; studied : belajar , cry : cried : menangis . 4. Selain verb-verb diatas, maka tinggal ditambah ed Contoh : love : loved : mencintai , like : liked : menyukai , type : typed : mengetik. Time signal : this morning, yesterday, 2 days ago, last week, last night. Penggunaan : - Menyatakan sesuatu yang terjadi pada masa lampau (telah lewat)

GRAMMER STAGE
Contoh : I went to Yogyakarta last holiday. - Menyatakan kebiasaan yang terjadi dimasa lampau Contoh : He always visited me He would visit me. He used to visit me. He was used to visiting me. 6. Past continuous 1) Verbal - They were studying Grammar at 7.00 oclock yesterday. - They were not studying Grammar at 7.00 oclock yesterday. - Were they studying Grammar at 7.00 oclock yesterday? 2) Non verbal - He was at home at this time last night. - He was not at home at this time last night. - Was he at home at this time last night? Time signal: menggunakan spesifik time : - At this time yesterday. - At 7.00 oclock last night. Penggunaan : - Menyatakan suatu kejadian yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu lampau. I was watching TV at 900 oclock last night. - Menyatakan konsep dua kejadian. You went out when I was coming to your house. 7. Past perfect 1) Verbal - I had studied grammar for 3 hours. - I had not studied grammar for 3 hours. - Had I studied grammar for 3 hours? 2) Non verbal - He had gone since 2002. - He had not gone since 2002. - Had he gone since 2002?

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GRAMMER STAGE

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Time signal : menggunakan beberapa time signal present perfect, tetapi penggunaanya disesuaikan dengan waktu lampau. Yaitu: just, already, since, for. Penggunaan: past perfect penggunaanya setara dengan present perfect, bedanya : present perfect masih berhubungan dengan masa sekarang, sedangkan past perfect digunakan di waktu lampau yang tidak ada hubungannya dengan saat ini. Contoh : My mother asked me to eat this morning whereas I had just eaten. (tadi pagi ibuku menyuruhku makan, padahal aku baru saja selesai makan) 8. Past perfect continuous 1) Verbal - I had been studying grammar for months. - I had been studying grammar for months. - Had I been studying grammar for month? 2) Non verbal - He had been in Jakarta since 1990. - He had not been in Jakarta since 1990. - Had he been in Jakarta since 1990? Time signal : for, since. Penggunaan : Menyatakan perbuatan yang sedang berlangsung diwaktu lampau dengan penekanan pada durasi waktu Contoh : finally, she came yesterday , I had been waiting for her for months. (akhirnya dia datang juga, aku sudah menunggu-nunggu dia selama berbulan-bulan) C. FUTURE 9. Simple future tense 1) Verbal - I will study Grammar tonight. - I will not study Grammar tonight. - Will I study Grammar tonight?

GRAMMER STAGE
Atau - I am going to visit you tomorrow. - I am not going to visit you tomorrow. - Am I going to visit you tomorrow? 2) Non verbal - She will be here later. - She will not be here later. - Will she be here later? Time signal : tomorrow, tonight, this weekend, soon, later, next month. Penggunaan: Untuk menyatakan suatu kejadian yang baru akan dilakukan, baik secara spontan maupun melalui perencanaan. Contoh : I will call you later. ( spontan) She is going to visit me next holiday. 10. Future continuous

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1) Verbal - He will be visiting you tomorrow morning. - He will not be visiting you tomorrow morning. - Will he be visiting you tomorrow morning? 2) Non verbal - He will be at home at 7.00 next week. - He will not be at home at 7.00 next week. - Will he be at home at 7.00 next week? Time signal: at 7.00 oclock tomorrow, at this time next month, tomorrow morning. Penggunaan : Menyatakan sesuatu yang sedang terjadi dimasa lampau yang akan datang. Contoh: I will be watching TV at 7.00 tonight. Menyatakan seuatu yang sedang berlangsung ketika sesuatu yang lain terjadi dimasa yang akan datang. Contoh: I will be doing my homework when you come to my house. 11. Future perfect 1) Verbal - I will have studied by the end of this month.

GRAMMER STAGE

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- I will have not studied by the end of this month. - Will I have studied by the end of this month? 2) Non verbal - I will have been here by next month. - I will have not been by next month. - Will I have been here by next month? Time signal: by + indefinite time By the end of this week, by next month, by this weekend. Penggunaan : Untuk menyatakan suatu kejadian yang telah selesai dilakukan diwaktu yang akan datang. Contoh : by the end of this month, he will have finished his study. Menyatakan sesuatu yang sudah terjadi sebelum sesuatu yang lain terjadi dimasa yang akan datang. Contoh : I will have done the homework before you come to my house. 12. Future perfect continuous Verbal - I will have been watching TV tonight. - I will not have been watching TV tonight. - Will I have been watching TV tonight? Time signal : by next year for two years. Penggunaan : Untuk menyatakan suatu kejadian yang sedang berlangsung dalam durasi tertentu dimasa yang akan datang. Contoh : by the end of this month, I will have been stdying English for two years. -

GRAMMER STAGE
REFERENCE

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Murphy, Raymond. English Grammar in Use, New York: Cambridge University press, 1985. Subkhan, Arif. Bahasa Inggris SMA/MA/SMK, Yogyakarta: Kendi Mas Media, 2008 Irwansyah, Dedi. Structure Course material; 2009

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