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Pengertian Report Text

Istilah report text sering juga dikenal dengan sebutan informational

report. Report, dalam Concise Oxford Dictionary Edisi 10, diartikan
sebagai 1) an account given of a matter after investigation or
consideration. 2) a piece of information about an event or situation. Jika
disimpulkan, secara bahasa report text adalah teks yang berfungsi untuk
memberikan informasi tentang suatu peristiwa atau situasi, setelah
diadakannya investigasi dan melalui berbagai pertimbangan.

Definisi report text ini juga hampir mirip dengan apa yang sering
disebutkan dalam berbagai buku bahasa Inggris di tingkat menengah,
"Report is a text which present information about something, as
it is. It is as a result of systematic observation and analyses."
[Report adalah sebuah teks yang menghadirkan informasi tentang suatu
hal secara apa adanya. Teks ini adalah sebagai hasil dari observasi dan
analisa secara sistematis.]

Dengan demikian, sebenarnya teks report dan descriptive mempunyai

perbedaan yang cukup jelas, meski nampak keduanya dikatakan sebagai
"saudara kembar" sekalipun.

Generic Structure Report Text.

Seperti halnya dengan descriptive text, Report text juga hanya memiliki
dua struktur umum [generic structure] yaitu :

1. General Clasification; Pernyataan umum yang menerangkan

subjek laporan, keterangan, dan klasifikasinya.

2. Description: tells what the phenomenon under discussion ; in

terms of parts, qualities, habits or behaviors; Pada bagian ini
biasanya memberikan gambaran fenomena-fenomena yang terjadi;
baik bagian-bagiannya, sifat-sifatnya, kebiasaannya, ataupun
tingkah lakunya. Intinya adalah penjabaran dari klasifikasi yang
disajikan dengan ilmiah.

Ada juga beberapa keterangan mengenai generic structure report text,

yang meliputi :

1. General information

2. Bundles of Specific Information

General information adalah bagian yang menyebutkan informasi umum
dari tema tulisan yang. Sedangkan Bundles of specific information, adalah
penjabaran dari informasi umum tersebut.

Tujuan Report Text

Setiap tulisan pasti memiliki tujuan mengapa tulisan itu ditulis. Begitu
juga dengan report text. Beberapa pakar menyebutkan bahwa tujuan teks
report adalah :

Its social purpose is presenting information about something. They

generally describe an entire class of things, whether natural or made:
mammals, the planets, rocks, plants, countries of region, culture,
transportation, and so on.

Jika disimpulkan, tujuan report text adalah untuk menyampaikan informasi

hasil pengamatan dan analisa yang sistematis. Informasi yang dijelaskan
dalam report text biasanya bersifat umum, baik itu alamiah ataupun
buata seperti binatang mamalia, planet, bebatuan, tumbuh-tumbuhan,
negara bagian, budaya, transportasi, dan lain sebagainya.

Pola Tata Bahasa dalam Report Text

Setiap tulisan pasti memiliki ciri bahasa tersendiri; jika recount text dan
narrative text cenderung memiliki ciri menggunakan simple past, lalu
bagaimana dengan report text? Oke berikut adalah pola grammar yang
umum digunakan dalam teks report, yang meliputi :

Use of general nouns, eg hunting dogs, rather than particular nouns,

eg our dog;

Use of relating verbs to describe features, eg Molecules are tiny


Some use of action verbs when describing behaviour, eg Emus

cannot fly;

Use of timeless present tense to indicate usualness, eg Tropical

cyclones always begin over the sea;

Use of technical terms, eg Isobars are lines drawn on a weather

Use of paragraphs with topic sentences to organise bundles of
information; repeated naming of the topic as the beginning focus of
the clause.

Keterangan :

General nouns, maksudnya adalah, suatu benda (baik itu hidup

atau mati) yang bersifat umum. Coba bandingkan : Hunting dogs
>< My dog. Hunting dogs bersifat umum; sedangkan my dog
bersifat khusus.

Relating verbs, dalam grammar disebut juga dengan linking

verbs. Seperti to be [is, am, are: present], seem, look, taste dan lain

Timeless present tense adalah salah satu penanda waktu dalam

simple present seperti "often, usually, always" dan lain-lain.

Technical terms, maksudnya adalah istilah-istilah yang meliputi

teks report tersebut. Misalnya tentang "music" maka, istilah-istilah
musik harus ada.

Contoh Report Text : Thanksgiving Day

Thanksgiving or Thanksgiving Day is a celebration of harvest,

thankfulness for peace, and the attempt of Native Americans. It is usually
celebrated in late autumn.

In the past, Thanksgiving was celebrated for their rich harvest in New
England. In North America, however, it was originally held to thank God
for their survival in the new land which was not easy for them. However,
in Canada, it had been celebrated as in New England. Thanksgiving now is
celebrated in United States of America and in Canada. Thanksgiving
festivals are held every fourth Thursday of November in the U.S and on
the second Monday of October in Canada. It is usually celebrated in four
to five days in the North America and for three days in Canada.

It is celebrated through families and friends gathering to eat and give

good luck. Turkey is the main dish in the thanksgiving dinner.
Thanksgiving parades are also usually held. In Thanksgiving homes are
decorated with wreaths, fresh and dried flowers. Lamps are lighted to
brighten the environment. Tables are decorated with best china and
antique silver dishes to mark the occasion.
Contoh Report Text : Venice
Venice is a city in northern Italy. It is the capital of region Veneto. Together
with Padua, the city is included in the Padua-Venice Metropolitan Area.
Venice has been known as the Queen of the Adriatic, City of Water,
City of Bridges, and The City of Light. The city stretches across 117
small islands in the marshy Venetian Lagoon along the Adriatic Sea in
northeast Italy.

Venice is world-famous for its canals. It is built on an archipelago of 117

islands formed by about 150 canals in a shallow lagoon. The islands on
which the city is built are connected by about 400 bridges. In the old
center, the canals serve the function of roads, and every form of transport
is on water or on foot.

You can ride gondola there. It is the classical Venetian boat which
nowadays is mostly used for tourists, or for weddings, funerals, or other
ceremonies. Now, most Venetians travel by motorised waterbuses
(vaporetti) which ply regular routes along the major canals and between
the citys islands. The city also has many private boats. The only gondolas
still in common use by Venetians are the traghetti, foot passenger ferries
crossing the Grand Canal at certain points without bridges.

You can see the amusing citys landmarks such as Piazza San Marco,
Palazzo Contarini del Bovolo, Saint Marks Cathedral or villas of the
Veneto. The villas of the Veneto, rural residences for nobles during the
Republic, are one of the most interesting aspects of Venetian countryside.

They are surrounded by elegant gardens, suitable for fashionable parties

of high society. The city is also well known for its beautiful and romantic
view, especially at night.

Komodo Dragons

Komodo dragons have thrived in the harsh climate of Indonesias Lesser

Sunda Islands for millions of years, although amazingly, their existence
was unknown to humans until about 100 years ago.

Reaching 10 feet (3 meters) in length and more than 300 pounds (136
kilograms), Komodo dragons are the heaviest lizards on Earth. They have
long, flat heads with rounded snouts, scaly skin, bowed legs, and huge,
muscular tails.
As the dominant predators on the handful of islands they inhabit, they will
eat almost anything, including carrion, deer, pigs, smaller dragons, and
even large water buffalo and humans. When hunting, Komodo dragons
rely on camouflage and patience, lying in wait for passing prey. When a
victim ambles by, the dragon springs, using its powerful legs, sharp claws
and serrated, shark-like teeth to eviscerate its prey.

Animals that escape the jaws of a Komodo will only feel lucky briefly.
Dragon saliva teems with over 50 strains of bacteria, and within 24 hours,
the stricken creature usually dies of blood poisoning. Dragons calmly
follow an escapee for miles as the bacteria takes effect, using their keen
sense of smell to hone in on the corpse. A dragon can eat a whopping 80
percent of its body weight in a single feeding.

There is a stable population of about 3,000 to 5,000 Komodo dragons on

the islands of Komodo, Gila Motang, Rinca, and Flores. However, a dearth
of egg-laying females, poaching, human encroachment, and natural
disasters has driven the species to endangered status.