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Simple Grammar Handbook

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CHAPTER 3
COMPARISONS
Comparisons

merupakan

pemabahasan

terkait

perubahan

tingkat

perbandingan kata sifat (adjective) atau kata keterangan (adverb). Secara umum
terdapat tiga tingkat perbandingan (degrees of comparison) yaitu positive,

comparative dan superlative.


A. Adjective Comparison
Berikut adalah beberapa ketentuan yang perlu diperhatikan dalam degrees

of Adjective comparisons
comparisons (tingkat perbandingan pada adjectives):
No
1.

2.

Syllable

Comparative

Superlative

1 Suku

big

o bigger
er

o the biggest
est

kata

smart

o smarter
er

o the smartest
est

bright

o brighter
er

o the brightest
est

long

o longer
er

o the longest
est

clever

o cleverer
er (more)

o the cleverest
est (the

o handsomer
er

o the hansomest (the

2 Suku
Kata

3.

Pasitive

handsome

polite

ugly

stupid

most)

(more)
o politer
er

most)
o the politest
est

o uglier
er

o the ugliest
est

o more stupid

o the most stupid

> 2 Suku o

beautiful

o more beautiful

o the most beautiful

Kata

dilligent

o more dilligent

o the most dilligent

Ketentuan-ketentuan secara umum (berlaku untuk seluruh adjective), sebagai


berikut:
1. Kata clever dan handsome.
Khusus untuk kata clever dan handsome bentuk comparison-nya bisa
menggunakam er atau more-, dan superlative-nya bisa menggunakan est
atau the most.

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2. Stressing Pronunciation.

Stressing Pronunciation pada kata yang memiliki dua suku kata. Apabila
stressing

pronuciation-nya pada

suku

pertama

seperti

stupid,

maka

comparison-nya menggunakan more- dan the most-. Apabila stressing


pronunciation-nya terletak pada suku kata kedua, seperti polite maka
comparison-nys menggunakan -er dan the -est. Untuk mengetahui stressing

pronunciation-nya bisa mendengarkan kaset How to Say It atau menggunakan


kamus oxford.
3. Adjective Participle.

Comparison untuk adjective participle seperti bored, boring, embarrassed,


embarrassing, confused, confusing, dll mengguankan more dan the most.
4. Beberapa adjective yang tidak memiliki comparison adalah senior, final.
5. Beberapa adjective yang memiliki irregular comparison.
comparison
No

36

Positive

Comparative

Superlative

Meaning

1.

good

better

the best

Baik

2.

bad

worse

the worst

Jelek, Buruk

3.

ill

worse

the worst

Sakit, Buruk

4.

evil

worse

the worst

Jahat

5.

old

older

the oldest

Tua, Lama

6.

old

elder

the eldest

Tua

7.

late

later

the last

Akhir

8.

many

more

the most

Banyak

9.

much

more

the most

Banyak

10.

a few

less

the least

Sedikit

11.

few

fewer

the fewest

Sedikit

12.

a little

less

the least

Sedikit

13.

little

littler

the littlest

Kecil

14.

far

farther

the farthest

Jauh

15.

far

further

the furthest

Jauh, lanjut

16.

nigh

nigher

the nighest

Dekat

17.

near

nearer

the nearest

Dekat

18.

hind

hinder

the hindest

Belakang

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Selain menngunakan aturan-aturan di atas, kita dapat meggunakan


ketentuan berikut untuk menemukan bentuk comparative dan superlative.
1. Adjective yang bersuku kata satu, ditambah dengan akhiran er dan est,
seperti:
dear

dearer

the dearest

light

lighter

the lightest

blunt

blunter

the bluntest

big

bigger

the biggest

cruel

crueller

the cruellest

mad

madder

the maddest

fat

fatter

the fattest

thin

thinner

the thinnest

wet

wetter

the wettest

2. Adjective yang bersuku kata satu/dua, berkhiran huruf e, hanya ditambah


dengan akhiran er dan est, seperti:
brave

braver

the bravest

complete

completer

the completest

fine

finer

the finest

humble

humbler

the humblest

impolite

impoliter

the impolitest

large

larger

the largest

lonesome

lonesomer

the lonesomest

pale

paler

the palest

true

truer

the truest

noble

nobler

the noblest

3. Adjective yang bersuku kata satu/dua, berkhiran huruf y, hanya ditambah


dengan akhiran er dan est, seperti:
a.

angry

h. dusty

o. healthy

b. bloody

i. greasy

p. sunny

c.

j. greedy

q. silly
r. wry

busy

d. costl

k. gras

e.

curly

l. guilty

f.

coy

g. grey

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m. handy
n. hasty

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4. Adjective yang bersuku kata dua (tekanan suara pada suku pertama) atau
yang bersuku kata lebih dari dua, menggunakan more dan most, seperti:

merciless, experienced, forgetful, merciful, prosperous, etc.


B. Adverb Comparisons
Comparisons
No

Syllable
Syllable

Absolute

1.

1 Suku

o hard

kata

o fast

2.

2 Suku

o often

Kata

3.

Comparison

Superlative

harder

o hardest

faster

o fastest

more often

o most often

o seldom

more seldom

o most seldom

o quickly

more quickly

o most quickly

> 2 Suku

o beautifully

more

o most

Kata

o dilligently

beautifully
o

more

beautifully
o most

dilligently

dilligently

C. Noun Comparison
Noun dapat diperbandingkan menggunakan comparison sebagai berikut:
1. same as
o My house is same as yours, or My house and your are the same (same).
o The cover of my Laskar Pelangi Novel is not same as yours.
2. different from
o Lia is different from Yusha, or Lia and Yusha are different.
o The movie which we watched last night was different from the others.
3. similiar to
o Mr. Nanangs face is similiar to Ms. Aqims.
4. like
o His bag is like mine.
o The picture is like real.

D. Comparison Ekspressions (Ungkapan(Ungkapan-ungkapan Perbandingan)


Berikut bentuk-bentuk comparison expressions yang biasa muncul atau
digunakan:

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1. Absolute Comparisons
Comparisons (Makna Sejajar)
Patterns:
S + V + as(so) Adjective as + ...
S + V + as (so) Adverb as + ...
o My girl is as beautiful as my mother.
o You ride motorcycle as quickly as i do.
Polanya pasti:
as adjective as  Nominal Sentences
as adverb as  Verbal Sentences
o I read a poem more beautifully than Nanang does (does Nanang).
o Your words is as sharp as knife.

2. Comparative Comparisons
Comparisons (Makna Lebih)
Patterns:
S + V + Comparison Adjective + than + ...
S + V + Comparison Adverb + than + ...
o Mr. Djarot is more dilligent than I.
o Yusha joins the class more often than Lia does (does Lia).

3. Superlative
Superlative Comparisons
Comparisons
Patterns:
S + V + Superlative Adjective + of / in /among ...
S + V + Superlative Adverb + of / in /among ...
o

Mr. Pido is the laziest student of his friends (in intermediate class).

Nanang drove his car fastest in the race at the time.

4. Makna
Makna Dua Kali (2x) lebih dari ...
Paterns:
S + V + twice + as adjective as + ...
S + V + twice + as adverb as + ...
o Im twice as tall as lia.
o I syudy twice as dilligent as Mr. Fandy does (does Mr. Fandy).
o You must work twice as hard as before.

5. Makna Tiga kali (empat kali, lima kali, dst) lebih dari ...
Patterns:
S + V + three times + comparative adjective + than + ...
S + V + three times +comparative adverb + than + ...
o I am 100 times richer than Abu Rizal Bakri.
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o I visit my girl three times more often than you do (do you).

6. Makna Jauh lebih


Patterns:
S + V + much/far + comparative adjective + than + ...
S + V + much/far + comparative adverb + than + ...
o He will be muc richer than his brother.
o She always works far harder than her husband.

7. Double Comparison
Comparison atau Makna Semakin ... semakin ...
 Double Comparison Type I (dua perubahan yang terjadi secara bersamaan)
The comparative + S + V, The comparative + S + V
o The more dilligently i study, the more confused i am.
o The harder i try to leave you, the closer my heart feels to you.
 Double Comparison Type II (Perubahan yang terus menerus)
S + V + Comparative + Comparative
o Lia studies harder and harder.
o Nanang reads more and more dilligently.

8. LogicalLogical-Illogical Comparison (Perbandingan yang masuk akal dan tidak masuk


akal)
Pada Double Comparison Type I:
The shorter, The better
o

The shorter the sentence is, the better the sentence is. Menjadi demikian:

The shorter the better the sentence is.

Pada kasus berikut:


o

The weather of Jogjakarta is hotter than Bandung.


(salah
salah,
salah karena yang diperbandingkan adalah temperaturnya )

The weather of Jogjakarta is hotter than the weather of Bandung.


(kurang
kurang / tidak lazim,
lazim karena terdapat pengulangan kata the weather,
dalam bahasa Inggris dihindari repeatation)

Sehingga harus ada pengganti yaitu


1. that untuk singular, dan
2. those untuk plural
o The weather of Jogjakarta is hotter then that of Bandung.
o The people in Jogjakarta are more arrogant than those in Lampung.

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Comprehensive Exercise of Comparisons


A. Translate the sentences below into
into good English
1. Mengendarai kuda tidak semudah mengendarai sepeda motor.
2. Semakin liar seekor kuda semakin sulit mengendalikannya.
3. Semakin lama semakin semangat aku untuk mengembangkan bisnisku.
4. Semakin lama kondisi kakeknya semakin buruk dan semakin buruk kondisi
kakeknya semakin cemas dia.
5. Semakin sering Aqim menelponku semakin jatuh cinta aku padanya.
6. Semakin serius aku berusaha semakin besar peluang untuk menjadi kaya.
7. Semakin banyak soal yang aku terima semakin sulit bagiku untuk
memecahkannya.
8. Kepalanya sekeras batu bata.
9. Celana Mr. Banana dua kali lebih mahal daripada roknya Lia.
10. Binatang-binatang di kebun binatang jauh lebih cerdas di banding binatangbinatang jalanan.

B. Choose the best answer, A, B, C, or D


1. Temperature, the simplest weather element to measure, is probably _______
used than any other kind of data.
a. more frequently

c. as frequently

b. most frequently

d. frequently

2. Paprika is ____ red or cayenne pepper, and it has a sweeter taste.


a. the least biting

c. lesser biting than

b. less biting than

d. less as

3. According to Bernoullis principle, the higher the speed of fluid gas, _____ the
pressure.
a. it will be lower

c. the lower

b. lower than the

d. Lower it is

4. The foods that contain _____ are made of animal fat whereas vegetables have
the least energy.
a. as much energy

c. as the most energy

b. the more energy

d. more energy

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5. Albert Einsteins contributions to scientific theory were _______ those of


Galileo and Newton
a. important than

c. the most important

b. more important

d. as important as

6. Impalas cannot move as _____cheetahs, but they are more efficient runner.
a. faster

b. fast as

c. the fastest

d. fast

7. Apart from Pluto, the outer planet _____ the inner planets and are made
mainly of lighter materials such as hydrogen and helium.
a. are larger than

c. larger than

b. are the larger

d. are large

8. The bones of the elderly are more prone to fractures and splintering _____ of
young people.
a. than that

b. than those

c. those than

d. that than

9. After quartz, calcite is the _____ in the crust of the earth.


a. mineral is most abundant

c. most abundant mineral that

b. mineral that most abundant

d. most abundant mineral

10. Hubbless law state the greater the distance between any two galaxies, their
relative speed of separation is.
a. the greatest

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b. the greater

c. greater than

d. as great as

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