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PENGANTAR ILMU ANTROPOLOGI (2nd class)

REVIEW MATERI PERTEMUAN KEDUA & ANALISA BUKU REFERENSI 1. Review pengertian antropologi dan ruang lingkup kajian antropologi 2. Paham Penciptaan dan Paham Evolusi 3. Argumentasi Evolusi Darwin. 4. Bukti demonstratif teori Darwin. Anthropology berarti ilmu tentang manusia dan merupakan suatu istilah yang sangat tua. Dahulu istilah itu digunakan dalam arti yang lain, yaitu ilmu tentang ciri-ciri tubuh manusia (malahan pernah juga dalam arti ilmu anatomi). Dalam perkembangan fase ketiga sejarah perkembangan antropologi, istilah itu mulai dipakai terutama di Inggris dan Amerika dalam arti yang sama dengan ethnology ilmu bangs-bangsa pada awalnya. Di Inggris kemudian istilah anthropology malahan mendesak istilah ethnology dan di Amerika istilah anthroplogy dipakai dalam arti yang amat luas karena meliputi baik bagian-bagian fisik maupun sosial dari ilmu tentang manusia. Di Eropa Barat dan Tengah istilah anthropology terbagi dalam dua pokok istilah, yaitu cultural anthropology terutama dipakai di Amerika diikuti di negaranegara lain sebagai istilah untuk menyebut bagian dari ilmu antropologi dalam arti luas yang tidak mempelajari manusia dari sudut fisiknya, jadi sebagai lawan daripada physical anthropology, saat ini dipakai secara resmi di Universitas Indnesia menjadi :antropologi budaya untuk menggantikan istilah Prof. G.J. Held ilmu kebudayaan. Dan istilah kedua, yiatu social anthropology dipakai di Inggris untuk menyebut antropologi sebagai lawwan dari ethnology, di Amerika diselaraskan menjadi satu, social anthropology di mana ethnology termasuk subbagian dari ilmu antropologi. Antropologi di universitas-universitas Amerika Serikat telah berkembang secara ruang lingkup dan batas lapangan perhatiannya yang luas menyebabkan sedikitnya ada lima masalah penelitian khusus, yaitu: 1. masalah sejarah asal dan perkembangan manusia (atau evolusinya) secara biologi; 2. masalah sejarah terjadinya beragam makhluk manusia dipandang dari sudut ciri-ciri tubuhnya; 3. masalah sejarah asal, perkembangan, dan penyebaran beragam bahasa yang diucapkan manusia di dunia; 4. masalah perkembangan, penyebaran, dan terjadinya beragam kebudayaan manusia di seluruh dunia; 5. masalah mengenai asas-asas kebudayaan manusia dalam kehidupan masyarakat dari semua suku bangsa yang tersebar di muka bumi. Masing-masing membutuhkan ahli-ahli, dan berkaitan dengan pengkhususan itu, ilmu antropologi mengenal juga ilmu-ilmu bagian, yaitu: 1. antropologi fisik dalam arti luas terdiri dari paleo-antropologi dan antropologi fisik; 2. antropologi budaya terdiri dari etnolinguistik, prehistori, etnologi. - paleo-antropologi meneliti asal-usul manusia tersimpan dalam lapisan bumi melalui metode penggalian tertentu. - Antropologi fisik mempelajari sejarah terjadinya beragam manusia dilihat dari ciri-ciri tubuhnya. - Etnolinguistik atau antropologi linguistik dengan fokus penelitian pada analisis kebudayaan. - Prehistori mempelajari sejarah perkembangan dan penyebaran semua kebudayaan manusia di bumi sebelum mengenal huruf. - Etnologi mempelajari asas-asas manusia melalui kebudayaan dari semua suku bangsa. Ilmu antropologi berspesialisasi di bidang ekonomi disebut antropologi ekonomi (economic

anthropology), bidang pembangunan disebut antropologi pembangunan (development anthropology), bidang pendidikan disebut antropologi pendidikan (educational athropology), bidang kesehatan disebut (medical anthropology), bidang demografi kependudukan disebut antropologi penduduk (population anthropology), bidang politik disebut antropologi politik (political anthropology), dan bidang penyakit-penyakit jiwa disebut antropologi untuk psikiatri (anthropology in mental health). [sumber: Koentjaraningrat. Pengantar Ilmu Antropologi (PT Rineka Cipta, Revisi 2009): 9 48]

PAHAM PENCIPTAAN (CREATIONISM) Despite many peoples tendency to think of all creationist in one group and all evolutionist in another, creationism refers to a wide range of beliefs. This will cover the breadth of creationist beliefs (and a little of the variety of evolutionist belief) from influential people, organization, books, and periodicals which espouse its own positions. The differences between types of creationism are not minor. Most of the creationist beliefs described are mutually exlusiveand often their differences are as great as their differences with evolution. Many creationist disagree asa much with other creationist as they do with evolutionists. Creation and evolution are not a dichotomy, but ends of a continuum and most creationist and evolutionist positions may be fit along this continuum (Scott 1999). Creationist is divided in: 1.) Flat Earthers; 2.) Geocentrist; 3.) Young Earth CreationistOmphalos; 4.) Old Earth CreationistsGap Creationists; Day-Age Creationists; Progresive Creationists; and Intelligent Design Creationist; 5.) Evolutionary Creationists. Evolutionist is divided in: 1.) Theistic Evolutionists; 2.) Methodological Materialistic Evolutionists; and 3.) Philosophical Materialistic EvoluionistsEvolution. Flat Earthers they believe that earth is flat and covered by a solid dome or firmament . Waters above the firmament were the source of Noah's flood; based on the Bible. {International Flat Earth Society, Box 2533, Lancaster, CA : Charles K. Johnson} Geocentrism accept a spherical earth but deny that the sun is the center of the solar system or that the earth moves; based on the Bible. "It is not an interpretation at all , it is what the words say." {Willis 2000} both Flat Earther and Geocentrism reflect the cosmological views of ancient Hebrews. Young Earth Creationism they claim a literal interpretation of the Bible as a basis of their beliefs; what accept a spherical earth and heliocentric solar system and also popularized the modern movement of scientific creationism by taking the ideas of George Mc Cready Price, A Seventh Day Adventist, and publishing them in The Genesis Flood (Withcomb and Morris, 1961). {Institute of Creation Research (ICR), El Cajon, CA : Henry Morris, John D. Morris, Duane Gish, Steven A. Austin, Larry Vardiman, Kenneth B. Cumming, Andrew Snelling. Http://www.icr.org. Whitcomb and Morris, The Genesis Flood (The Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Co., Philadelphia, PA, 1961). Morris, Henry M., Scientific Creationism (Master Books, Green Forest, AR, 1974, 1985). Newsletter : Acts and Facts (Included Back to Genesis and Impact)--Omphalos argued based on book of Philip Henry Gosse (1857) that the universe was created young but with the appearance of age, indeed that an appearance of age is necessary. Old Earth Creationism

its creationist accept the evidence for an ancient earth but still believe that life was specially createm by God and still based on the Bible. {American Scientific Affiliation, Ipswich, MA. Periodical : Perspective on Science and Christian Faith. Http://www.asa3.org/index.html} - Gap Creationism (or Restitution Creationism) views that there was a long temporal gap between Genesis 1:1 with God recreating the world in 6 days after the gap; allows both an ancient earth and a Biblical special creation. {Armstrong, Herbert W., Mistery of the Ages. Dodd, Mead, New York, NY, 1985)} - Day-Age Creationism interprets each day of creation as a long period of time even thousands or millions of years. {Anonymous, Life--How Did It Get Here? By Evolution or Creation? (Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of New York, Booklyn, NY, 1985)} - Progressive Creationism accepts most of modern physical science even viewing the Big Bang as evidence of the creative power of God, but rejects much of modern biology. {Reasons to Believe, Pasadena, CA, Hugh Ross). Http://www.reasons.org.} - Intelligence Design Creationism argues that God's design could be seen in life (Paley 1803) {Discovery Institute, Seattle, WA., Center for Renewal of Science and Culture (CRSC) : Philip Johnson, Michael Behe, William Dembski Paul Nelson, Jonathan Wells, Stephen C. Meyer. Periodical: Origins and Design. http://www.discovery.org/crsc. Behe, Michael. Darwins Black Box (Free Press, NY, 1996). Dembski, William. The Design Inference (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, UK 1995)} Evolutionary Creationism Its creationist says that God operates not in the gaps, but the nature has no existence independent of His will, consistent with both literal Genesis and objective science. {Schneider, Susan 1984. Evolutionary Creationism Torah Solves the Problem of Missing Links. http://www.orot.com/ec.html.} Theistic Evolution Says that God creates through evolution, promoted by the Pope and taught at mainline Protestant seminaries {Teilhard de Chaedin, Pierre. The Phenomenon of Man (Harper Collin, San Francisco 1959, 1980)} Methodological Materialistic Evolution They limit itself to describing the natural world with natural causes it says nothing at all about the supernatural, neither affirming nor denying its existence or its role in life. {Gold Stephen J., Rocks of Ages: Science and Religion in the Future of Life (Ballantine Publishing Group, NY 1999)} Philosophical Materialistic Evolution Says that the supernatural does not exist, not only is evolution a natural process, but is everything else. (Richard Dawkins and William Provine) There are some positions on origins which dont fit cleanly in the continuum given before; based on other religion except Christianity as people hold them. Raelians They believe that life was created by scientists from another planet {http://www.rael.org. Rael. The True Face of God (The Raelian Foundation 1998)} Panspermia It is the position that primitive life in the form of bacteria or other microbes was carried to earth from other star systems. Other life evolved from there. {Hoyle, Fred, and Chandra Wickamsinghe. Evolution from Space: A Theory of Cosmic Creationism (Simon and Schuster, NY 1981) http://www.panspermia.org} Catastrophic Evolutuion This position says that evolution occurred suddenly driven by extreme planet-wide catastrophes. {Velikousky, Immanuel. Earth in Upheaval (Pocket Books, NY 1955)} Creationism has also from scientific other religion of the world.

Islamic Creationism Contemporary Islam has a greater tendency to literalism than Christianity does. The Koran is taken by almost all Moslem as a direct and unaltered word of Allah and Genesis is considered a corrupted version of Gods message. However the creation accounts in the Koran are more vague and are spread among several surahs (chapters) (2:109-111; 7:52-57; 16:1-17; 40:6670; 41:9-12; 42:28; 65:12) allowing arrange of interpretation similar to these described before. Most Islamic Young Earth Creationism is imported directly from the US (Edid 1994) Vedic Creationism Hinduism speaks of a very ancient earth. One book influenced by Hindu belief argues that anatomically modern humans have existed for billions of years. {Remo, Michael and Richard L. Thompson, Forbidden Archaeology: The Hidden o The Humans Race (Govardhan Hill Inc., San Diego, CA 1994)} There are too many differences sampling creation myths. Unless otherwise noted, all examples come from Sproul (1979) diakses tanggal 13-09-2010.}{sumber Http://www.talkorigins.org/faq/wic.html#ack Hingga saat ini banyak kalangan masih meragukan kebenaran teori evolusi Darwin, terutama mereka dari kalangan agama. Secara ilmiah teori Darwin belum runtuh, sebelum ditemukannya bukti-bukti empiris yang bertentangan dengan kesimpulan tersebut. Begitulah bagian akhir makalah Drs Bambang Agus Suripto SU MSc memahami kembali Teori Evolusi Charles Darwin, Rabu (21/11), pada Diskusi Serial Pemikiran Great Thinkers di Gedung Perpustakaan Pascasarjana UGM. http://www.ugm.ac.id/index.php?page=rilis& diakses tanggal 20-09-2010.artikel=1035 Bahkan di tahun 1858, katanya, Darwin mengajukan dua teori pokok yaitu spesies yang hidup sekarang berasal dari spesies yang hidup sebelumnya, dan evolusi terjadi melalui alam. Perkembangan tentang teori evolusi memang sangat menark untuk diikuti. Darwin pun berpendapat bahwa berdasar polanya evolusi bersifat gradual, berdasarkan arah adaptasinya bersifat divergen dan berdasar hasilnya sendiri selalu dimulai terbentuknya varian baru, ungkap Bambang Suripto. Dalam perkembangannya teori evolusi Darwin mendapat tantangan (terutama dari golongan agama, dan penganut paham teori penciptaan---Universal Creation), dengan berbagai dukungan dan pengkayaan-pengkayaan. Jadi teori evolusi sendiri juga berevolusi, sehingga teori evolusi biologi yang dikenal dengan istilah Neo-Darwinian dan Modern Sintesis, bukanlah murni seperti yang diusulkan oleh Darwin. Berbagai istilah hasil pengkayaan menjadi cermin pergulatan pemikiran dan argumentasi ilmiah seputar teori evolusi ini. Dari sinipun dikenal berbagai istilah seperti berdasar kecepatan evolusi (evolusi quasi dan evolusi quantum), berdasar arah adaptasi (evolusi divergen dan evolusi konvergen), berdasar polanya (evolusi gradual, evolusi punctual, dan evolusi saltasi) dan berdasar skala produknya dikenal evolusi makro dan evolusi mikro, tandas Bambang. (Humas UGM) http://www.ugm.ac.id/index.php?page=rilis& diakses tanggal 20-09-2010.artikel=1035 Kemudian, secara demonstratif, seekor binatang jenis katak atau ada yang berpendapat kodok merupakan hasil proses evolusi begitu lama, yang saya tau, mulai dari zama