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NERACA MASSA

Kapasitas perancangan per tahun : 31.500 ton/tahun


Waktu operasi dalam satu tahun : 330 hari
Kapasitas perancangan per jam

Kapasitas per jam = 31500 ton 1000 kg 1 tahun 1 hari


x x x
tahun 1 ton 330 hari 24 jam
= 3977.2727 kg

Komposisi umpan :
Methyl Formate Dimethylamine
C2H4O2 = 97% bw C2 H 7 N = 99% bw
CH3OH = 3% bw C3 H 9 N = 0.50% bw
100% bw H 2O = 0.50% bw
100% bw
Spesifikasi Produk
Dimethylformamide (DMF) Methanol
C3H7NO = 99.85% bw CH3OH = 99.28% bw
CH3OH = 0.05% bw impuritas = 0.72% bw
H 2O = 0.10% bw 100.00% bw
100.00% bw
Diagram Alir proses
Neraca Massa Reaktor
Arus 9
bawah :
komponen kg %berat BM kmol %mol
C2 H 7 N 2.8107 0.0074 45.084 0.0623 0.0094
C3 H 9 N 1.3798 0.0036 59.111 0.0233 0.0035
C2H4O2 358.9561 0.9402 60.053 5.9773 0.8996
CH3OH 18.6266 0.0488 32.042 0.5813 0.0875
381.7732 1.0000 6.6443 1.0000

Arus 1
komponen kg %berat BM kmol %mol
C2H4O2 3270.4918 0.9700 60.053 54.4601 0.9452
CH3OH 101.1492 0.0300 32.042 3.1568 0.0548
3371.6410 1.0000 57.6169 1.0000

Arus 2
komponen kg %berat BM kmol %mol
C2 H 7 N 2458.8369 0.9900 45.084 54.5390 0.9838
C3 H 9 N 12.4184 0.0050 59.111 0.2101 0.0038
H 2O 12.4184 0.0050 18.015 0.6893 0.0124
2483.6736 1.0000 55.4384 1.0000

Arus 3
komponen kg %berat BM kmol %mol
C2 H 7 N 2.8107 0.0007 45.084 0.0623 0.0010
C3 H 9 N 1.3798 0.0004 59.111 0.0233 0.0004
C2H4O2 3629.4479 0.9670 60.053 60.4374 0.9405
CH3OH 119.7758 0.0319 32.042 3.7381 0.0582
3753.4142 1.0000 64.2612 1.0000

konversi : 90%
reaksi :
C2H7N + C2H4O2 ---------------> C3H7NO + CH3OH
mula2 54.6014 60.4374
reaksi 54.3937 54.3937 54.3937 54.3937
sisa 0.2077 6.0437 54.3937 54.3937

Arus 4
komponen kg %berat BM kmol %mol
C2H4O2 362.9448 0.0582 60.053 6.0437 0.0505
CH3OH 1862.6578 0.2986 32.042 58.1318 0.4856
C2 H 7 N 9.3633 0.0015 45.084 0.2077 0.0017
C3 H 9 N 13.7982 0.0022 59.111 0.2334 0.0020
H 2O 12.4184 0.0020 18.015 0.6893 0.0058
C3H7NO 3975.9054 0.6375 73.095 54.3937 0.4544
6237.0878 1.0000 119.6996 1.0000

komponen Arus 2 Arus 3 Arus 4


C2H4O2 3629.4479 362.9448
CH3OH 119.7758 1862.6578
C2 H 7 N 2458.8369 2.8107 9.3633
C3 H 9 N 12.4184 1.3798 13.7982
H 2O 12.4184 12.4184
C3H7NO 3975.9054
Subtotal 2483.6736 3753.4142 6237.0878
Total 6237.0878 6237.0878

Neraca Massa Menara Distilasi-01


Arus 4
umpan :
komponen kg %berat BM kmol %mol TD, oC
C2H4O2 362.9448 0.0582 60.053 6.0437 0.0505 31.7
CH3OH 1862.6578 0.2986 32.042 58.1318 0.4856 64.6
C2 H 7 N 9.3633 0.0015 45.084 0.2077 0.0017 6.9
C3 H 9 N 13.7982 0.0022 59.111 0.2334 0.0020 2.87
H 2O 12.4184 0.0020 18.015 0.6893 0.0058 100
C3H7NO 3975.9054 0.6375 73.095 54.3937 0.4544 153
6237.0878 1.0000 119.6996 1.0000

Arus 5
Atas :
komponen kg %berat BM kmol %mol
C2H4O2 359.3153 0.8958 60.053 5.9833 0.8541
CH3OH 18.6266 0.0464 32.042 0.5813 0.0830
C2 H 7 N 9.3633 0.0233 45.084 0.2077 0.0296
C3 H 9 N 13.7982 0.0344 59.111 0.2334 0.0333
401.1034 1.0000 7.0057 1.0000

Arus 6
bawah :
komponen kg %berat BM kmol %mol
C2H4O2 3.6294 0.0006 60.053 0.0604 0.0005
CH3OH 1844.0312 0.3160 32.042 57.5504 0.5107
H 2O 12.4184 0.0021 18.015 0.6893 0.0061
C3H7NO 3975.9054 0.6813 73.095 54.3937 0.4827
5835.9844 1.0000 112.6939 1.0000

komponen Arus 4 Arus 5 Arus 6


C2H4O2 362.9448 359.3153 3.6294
CH3OH 1862.6578 18.6266 1844.0312
C2 H 7 N 9.3633 9.3633
C3 H 9 N 13.7982 13.7982
H 2O 12.4184 12.4184
C3H7NO 3975.9054 3975.9054
Subtotal 6237.0878 401.1034 5835.9844
Total 6237.0878 6237.0878
Neraca Massa Menara Distilasi-02
Arus 6
umpan :
komponen kg %berat BM kmol %mol TD, oC
C2H4O2 3.6294 0.0006 60.053 0.0604 0.0005 31.7
CH3OH 1844.0312 0.3160 32.042 57.5504 0.5107 64.6
H 2O 12.4184 0.0021 18.015 0.6893 0.0061 100
C3H7NO 3975.9054 0.6813 73.095 54.3937 0.4827 153
5835.9844 1.0000 112.6939 1.0000

Arus 7
atas : 0.7182
komponen kg %berat BM kmol %mol
C2H4O2 3.6294 0.0020 60.053 0.0604 0.0010
CH3OH 1842.1872 0.9911 32.042 57.4929 0.9895
H 2O 8.9192 0.0048 18.015 0.4951 0.0085
C3H7NO 3.9759 0.0021 73.095 0.0544 0.0009
1858.7117 1.0000 58.1028 1.0000

Arus 8
bawah :
komponen kg %berat BM kmol %mol
CH3OH 1.8440 0.0005 32.042 0.0576 0.0011
H 2O 3.4992 0.0009 18.015 0.1942 0.0036
C3H7NO 3971.9295 0.9987 73.095 54.3393 0.9954
3977.2727 1.0000 54.5911 1.0000

komponen Arus 6 Arus 7 Arus 8


C2H4O2 3.6294 3.6294
CH3OH 1844.0312 1842.1872 1.8440
H 2O 12.4184 8.9192 3.4992
C3H7NO 3975.9054 3.9759 3971.9295
Subtotal 5835.9844 1858.7117 3977.2727
Total 5835.9844 5835.9844

Neraca Massa Stripper


Arus 5
Umpan masuk :
komponen kg %berat BM kmol %mol TD, oC
C2H4O2 359.3153 0.8958 60.053 5.9833 0.8541 31.7
CH3OH 18.6266 0.0464 32.042 0.5813 0.0830 64.6
C2 H 7 N 9.3633 0.0233 45.084 0.2077 0.0296 6.9
C3 H 9 N 13.7982 0.0344 59.111 0.2334 0.0333 2.87
401.1034 1.0000 7.0057 1.0000

Arus 10
Atas :
komponen kg %berat BM kmol %mol
C2H4O2 0.3592 0.0186 60.053 0.0060 0.0166
C2 H 7 N 6.5526 0.3390 45.084 0.1453 0.4022
C3 H 9 N 12.4184 0.6424 59.111 0.2101 0.5813
19.3302 1.0000 0.3614 1.0000

Arus 9
bawah :
komponen kg %berat BM kmol %mol
C2 H 7 N 2.8107 0.0074 60.053 0.0468 0.0071
C3 H 9 N 1.3798 0.0036 45.084 0.0306 0.0046
C2H4O2 358.9561 0.9402 60.053 5.9773 0.9007
CH3OH 18.6266 0.0488 32.042 0.5813 0.0876
381.7732 1.0000 6.6360 1.0000

komponen Arus 5 Arus 9 Arus 10


C2H4O2 359.3153 358.9561 0.3592
CH3OH 18.6266 18.6266
C2 H 7 N 9.3633 2.8107 6.5526
C3 H 9 N 13.7982 1.3798 12.4184
Subtotal 401.1034 381.7732 19.3302
Total 401.1034 401.1034

neraca massa total


Arus 1 3371.6410 Arus 9 19.3302
Arus 2 2483.6736 Arus 6 1858.7117
Arus 7 3977.2727
5855.3146 5855.3146

NERACA MASA TOTAL


ARUS MASSA Kg/Jam
KOMPONEN Arus 1 Arus 2 Arus 3 Arus 4 Arus 5 Arus 6 Arus 7 Arus 8 Arus 9
C2H4O2 3270.4918 3629.4479 362.9448 359.3153 3.6294 0.3592 358.9561 3.6294
CH3OH 101.1492 119.7758 1862.6578 18.6266 1844.0312 18.6266 1842.1872
C2 H 7 N 2458.8369 2.8107 9.3633 9.3633 6.5526 2.8107
C3 H 9 N 12.4184 1.3798 13.7982 13.7982 12.4184 1.3798
H2 O 12.4184 12.4184 12.4184 8.9192
C3H7NO 3975.9054 3975.9054 3.9759
TOTAL 2483.6736 3371.6410 3753.4142 6237.0878 401.1034 5835.9844 19.3302 381.7732 1858.7117

1. Neraca Massa Total

Tabel 2.1 Neraca Massa Total


input, kg/jam output, kg/jam
KOMPONEN Arus 1 Arus 2 Arus 7 Arus 9 Arus 10
C2 H 4 O 2 0.0000 3270.4918 0.3592 3.6294 0.0000
CH3OH 0.0000 101.1492 0.0000 1842.1872 1.8440
C2 H 7 N 2458.8369 0.0000 6.5526 0.0000 0.0000
C3 H 9 N 12.4184 0.0000 12.4184 0.0000 0.0000
H2 O 12.4184 0.0000 0.0000 8.9192 3.4992
C3H7NO 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 3.9759 3971.9295
TOTAL 5855.3146 5855.3146

2. Neraca Massa Disekitar Reaktor

Tabel 2.2 Neraca Massa Disekitar Reaktor


input, kg/jam output, kg/jam
KOMPONEN Arus 1 Arus 2 Arus 8 Arus 4
C2 H 4 O 2 0.0000 3270.4918 358.9561 362.9448
CH3OH 0.0000 101.1492 18.6266 1862.6578
C2 H 7 N 2458.8369 0.0000 2.8107 9.3633
C3 H 9 N 12.4184 0.0000 1.3798 13.7982
H2 O 12.4184 0.0000 0.0000 12.4184
C3H7NO 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 3975.9054
TOTAL 6237.0878 6237.0878

3. Neraca Massa di Menara Distilasi 01

Tabel 2.3 Neraca Massa di Menara Distilasi 01


Komponen input, kg/jam output, kg/jam
C2 H 4 O 2 362.9448 359.3153 3.6294
CH3OH 1862.6578 18.6266 1844.0312
C2 H 7 N 9.3633 9.3633 0.0000
C3 H 9 N 13.7982 13.7982 0.0000
H2 O 12.4184 0.0000 12.4184
C3H7NO 3975.9054 0.0000 3975.9054
Total 6237.0878 6237.0878

4. Neraca Massa di Striper


Tabel 2.4 Neraca Massa di Striper
input, kg/jam output, kg/jam
KOMPONEN Arus 5 Arus 7 Arus 8
C2H4O2 359.3153 0.3592 358.9561
CH3OH 18.6266 0.0000 18.6266
C2 H 7 N 9.3633 6.5526 2.8107
C3 H 9 N 13.7982 12.4184 1.3798
H2 O 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
C3H7NO 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
TOTAL 401.1034 401.1034

5. Neraca Massa di Menara Distilasi 02

Tabel 2.5 Neraca Massa di Menara Distilasi 02


input, kg/jam output, kg/jam
KOMPONEN Arus 6 Arus 9 Arus 10
C2 H 4 O 2 3.6294 3.6294 0.0000
CH3OH 1844.0312 1842.1872 1.8440
C2 H 7 N 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
C3 H 9 N 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
H2 O 12.4184 8.9192 3.4992
C3H7NO 3975.9054 3.9759 3971.9295
TOTAL 5835.9844 5835.9844
Arus 10

1.8440

3.4992
3971.9295
3977.2727
Neraca Panas
Data kapsitas panas gas :
Cp = A +BT + C T2 + DT3
Keterangan :
Cp = Kapasitas Panas (kJ/kmol K)
T = Suhu, K

CpdT = A (T -298) + B/2 (T2-2982) + C/3 (T3 - 2983) + D/4 (T4 - 2984)
komponen A B C D
C2H4O2 42.381 0.57084 -0.0019727 2.8945E-06
CH3OH 40.152 0.31046 -1.029E-03 1.460E-06
C2H7N 36.962 0.95817 -3.585E-03 5.399E-06
C3H9N 47.96 0.7302 -0.0028388 4.6585E-06
H2O 92.05 -4.00E-02 -2.11E-04 5.35E-07
C3H7NO 63.727 0.60708 -1.62E-03 1.86E-06

komponen TC (K) TBP HV (J/mol) DHF (Kj/mol) DGF (Kj/mol)


CH3OH 512.6 64.6 35278 -201.3 -162.62
H2O 647.3 100 40683 -242 -228.77
C2H7N 437.6 6.8 26502 -18.81 68.04
C3H9N 433.2 2.4 24116 -23.86 98.98
C2H4O2 487.2 31.7 28219 -350.02 -297.39
C3H7NO 647 153 39410 -191.7 -88.41

ln Pi = A -B/(C+T), mmHg VICOSITAS CAIRAN


komponen A B C komponen A
CH3OH 18.5875 3626.55 -34.29 C2H4O2 -8.0637
H2O 18.3036 3816.44 -46.13 CH3OH -9.0562
C2H7N 16.2653 2358.77 -35.13 C2H7N -11.5558
C3H9N 16.0499 2230.51 -39.15 C3H9N -3.9726
C2H4O2 16.5104 2590.87 -42.6 H2O -10.2158
C3H7NO 15.770 3147.7 -81.342 C3H7NO -5.329

Neraca Panas Reaktor


Arus 2 T= 383.1500
komponen kmol A B C D Cp dT
C2H7N 54.5390 36.962 0.95817 -3.585E-03 5.399E-06 13790.5624
C3H9N 0.2101 47.96 0.7302 -0.0028388 4.6585E-06 12990.5278
H2O 0.6893 92.05 -4.00E-02 -2.11E-04 5.35E-07 6410.9599
Total 55.4384

Arus 3 T= 383.1500
komponen kmol A B C D Cp dT
C2H7N 0.0623 36.962 0.95817 -3.585E-03 5.399E-06 13790.56
C3H9N 0.0233 47.96 0.7302 -0.0028388 4.6585E-06 12990.53
C2H4O2 60.4374 42.381 0.57084 -0.0019727 2.8945E-06 10466.41
CH3OH 3.7381 40.152 0.31046 -1.029E-03 1.460E-06 7192.38
Total 64.2612

Arus 4 T= 383.1500
komponen kmol A B C D Cp dT
C2H4O2 6.0437 42.381 0.57084 -0.0019727 2.8945E-06 10466.41
CH3OH 58.1318 40.152 0.31046 -1.029E-03 1.460E-06 7192.38
C2H7N 0.2077 36.962 0.95817 -3.585E-03 5.399E-06 13790.56
C3H9N 0.2334 47.96 0.7302 -0.0028388 4.6585E-06 12990.53
H2O 0.6893 92.05 -4.00E-02 -2.11E-04 5.35E-07 6410.96
C3H7NO 54.3937 63.727 0.60708 -1.62E-03 1.86E-06 13325.52
Total 119.6996
komponen DHf
C2H7N -18.81
C2H4O2 -350.02
C3H7NO -191.70
CH3OH -201.30

Reaksi : -393.00
C2H7N + C2H4O2 ---------------> C3H7NO + CH3OH -368.83

DHf298 = DHf298produk -DHf298 reaktan


= -24.17 kJ/mol x 54393.6708 mol
= -1314695.023236 kJ

.DHR = DH reaktan + DHf298 + DHproduk


= -1518076.73 kJ
a. Neraca Panas di Sekitar Reaktor

Tabel 2.7 Neraca Panas di Sekitar Reaktor


komponen Masuk, kJ/jam Keluar, kJ/jam
C2 H 4 O 2 632562.5540 63256.2554
CH3OH 26885.7563 418105.8287
C2 H 7 N 752123.6678 859.7479 2864.1069
C3 H 9 N 2729.1224 303.2326 3032.3550
H2 O 4419.2984 4419.2984
C3H7NO 724823.8275
Subtotal 759272.0886 660611.2908 1216501.6718
Pns reaksi 1314695.0232 4.1795 air
Pendingin 1518076.7308 total pendingin =
Total 2734578.4026 2734578.4026
Neraca Panas Menara Distilasi-01
menghitung bubble point dan dew point umpan, distilat dan bottom
Umpan masuk
Bubble point T= 379.5405 K P=
komponen %mol A B C ln Pi Pi
C2H4O2 0.0505 16.5104 2590.87 -42.6 8.8210 6775.0
CH3OH 0.4856 18.5875 3626.55 -34.29 8.0834 3240.2
C2H7N 0.0017 16.2653 2358.77 -35.13 9.4166 12290.5
C3H9N 0.0020 16.0499 2230.51 -39.15 9.4971 13321.1
H2O 0.0058 18.3036 3816.44 -46.13 6.8569 950.4
C3H7NO 0.4544 15.770 3147.7 -81.342 5.2143 183.9
1.0000

Dew Point T= 436.9060 K P=


komponen %mol A B C lnPi Pi
C2H4O2 0.0505 16.5104 2590.87 -42.6 9.9397 20737.3
CH3OH 0.4856 18.5875 3626.55 -34.29 9.5800 14472.9
C2H7N 0.0017 16.2653 2358.77 -35.13 10.3944 32677.5
C3H9N 0.0020 16.0499 2230.51 -39.15 10.4422 34274.8
H2O 0.0058 18.3036 3816.44 -46.13 8.5373 5101.5
C3H7NO 0.4544 15.770 3147.7 -81.342 6.9173 1009.6
Total 1.0000

Distilat :
Bubble point T= 333.4883 K P=
komponen %mol A B C ln Pi Pi
C2H4O2 0.8541 16.5104 2590.87 -42.6 7.6036 2005.5
CH3OH 0.0830 18.5875 3626.55 -34.29 6.4666 643.3
C2H7N 0.0296 16.2653 2358.77 -35.13 8.3595 4270.4
C3H9N 0.0333 16.0499 2230.51 -39.15 8.4719 4778.4
1.0000

Dew Point T= 338.2896 K P=


komponen %mol A B C ln Pi Pi
C2H4O2 0.8541 16.5104 2590.87 -42.6 7.7483 2317.6
CH3OH 0.0830 18.5875 3626.55 -34.29 6.6580 779.0
C2H7N 0.0296 16.2653 2358.77 -35.13 8.4847 4840.0
C3H9N 0.0333 16.0499 2230.51 -39.15 8.5935 5396.4
Total 1.0000

Bottom :
Bubble point T= 384.7544 K P=
komponen %mol A B C ln Pi Pi
C2H4O2 0.0005 16.5104 2590.87 -42.6 8.9382 7617.3
CH3OH 0.5107 18.5875 3626.55 -34.29 8.2397 3788.2
H2O 0.0061 18.3036 3816.44 -46.13 7.0332 1133.6
C3H7NO 0.4827 15.770 3147.7 -81.342 5.3957 220.4
1.0000

Dew Point T= 439.1212 K P=


komponen %mol A B C ln Pi Pi
C2H4O2 0.0005 16.5104 2590.87 -42.6 9.9764 21512.7
CH3OH 0.5107 18.5875 3626.55 -34.29 9.6293 15204.1
H2O 0.0061 18.3036 3816.44 -46.13 8.5923 5390.2
C3H7NO 0.4827 15.770 3147.7 -81.342 6.9721 1066.5
Total 1.0000

Temperatur Umpan Distilat Bottom


Bubble point 379.5405 333.4883 384.7544
Dew Point 436.9060 338.2896 439.1212
Menentukan komponen kunci atas (LK) dan bawah (HK)
LK C2H4O2
Hk CH3OH
60.3383
umpan dalam keadaan bubble point q = 1 111.6044
Menghitung a rerata
Ki
i =
K komponenberat
komponen Ki atas Ki bawah a top a bottom a rerata
C2H4O2 0.9773 3.7121 3.1175 2.0108 2.5641 LK
CH3OH 0.3135 1.8461 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 HK
C2H7N 2.0811 6.6383 0.0000 3.3192
C3H9N 2.3286 7.4279 0.0000 3.7139
H2O 0.5524 0.0000 0.2992 0.1496
C3H7NO 0.1074 0.0000 0.0582 0.0291

Cek distribusi dengan Fenske


komponen a fi di bi di/bi
C2H4O2 2.5641 6.0437 5.9833 0.0604 99.0000 LK
CH3OH 1.0000 58.1318 0.5813 57.5504 0.0101 HK
C2H7N 3.3192 0.2077 0.2077 0.0000 0.0000
C3H9N 3.7139 0.2334 0.2334 0.0000 0.0000
H2O 0.1496 0.6893 0.6893 0.0000
C3H7NO 0.0291 54.3937 54.3937 0.0000

LK= di/bi= 99.0000


HK=di/bi= 0.0101

di
log = A +C log i
bi
HK --> log 0.0101 = A + C log 1.0000
A = -1.9956

LK --> log 99.0000 = -1.9956 + C log 2.5641


C = 9.7600
Maka: log di/bi = -1.9956 + 9.7600 log i
fi = di + bi
fi/bi = di/bi +1
bi = fi/(di/bi+1)

komponen i fi kmol/j di/bi bi kmol/j di kmol/j xi d


C2H4O2 2.5641 6.0437 99.0000 0.0604 5.9833 0.8541
CH3OH 1.0000 58.1318 0.0101 57.5504 0.5813 0.0830
C2H7N 3.3192 0.2077 1229.1234 0.0002 0.2075 0.0296
C3H9N 3.7139 0.2334 3680.8322 0.0001 0.2334 0.0333
H2O 0.1496 0.6893 0.0000 0.6893 0.0000 0.0000
C3H7NO 0.0291 54.3937 0.0000 54.3937 0.0000 0.0000
Total 119.6996 112.6941 7.0055 1.0000

Selanjutnya dengan cara trial dan error dicari q (konstanta underwood)

( ixi )
1q= (Coulson & Richardsons,hal 470)
( i )
q = 2.2324
( ix i )
komponen frak ump ai ai.xi ai - q ( i )
C2H4O2 0.0505 2.5641 0.1295 0.3317 0.3903
CH3OH 0.4856 1.0000 0.4856 -1.2324 -0.3941
C2H7N 0.0017 3.3192 0.0058 1.0867 0.0053
C3H9N 0.0020 3.7139 0.0072 1.4815 0.0049
H2O 0.0058 0.1496 0.0009 -2.0828 -0.0004
C3H7NO 0.4544 0.0291 0.0132 -2.2033 -0.0060
Total 1.0000 0.0000
Menentukan Rmin
x Menghitung refluk ratio : (Coulson & Richardsons,hal 470)
i
i, d
= R m+ 1
i q = 2.2324
komponen frak dist ai ai.xi ai - q Rm +1
C2H4O2 0.8541 2.5641 2.1899 0.3317 6.6017
CH3OH 0.0830 1.0000 0.0830 -1.2324 -0.0673
C2H7N 0.0296 3.3192 0.0984 1.0867 0.0905
C3H9N 0.0333 3.7139 0.1237 1.4815 0.0835
Total 1.0000 6.7084

Rmin +1 = 6.7084
Rmin = 5.7084
Diambil Rop = 5.7084 x 1,3
= 7.4210
Rmin/Rmin +1= 0.8509
Rop/Rop+1= 0.8812

Menentukan jumlah plate


Menghitung stage minimum dengan metode Fenske Equetion
(Coulson & Richardsons,hal 469)

Nm=
log
[ ][ ]
x LK
x HK d
x HK
x LK b

log LK
XLK distilat = 0.8541
XHK distilat = 0.0830
XLK bottom = 0.0005
XHK bottom = 0.5107
a LK
= 2.5641

Nm = 9.7600
Dari figure 11,11 Coulson & Richardsons, hal 468
Diperoleh harga Nm/N = 0.92
jumlah stage N = 10.6087
Menghitung plate atas dan bawah :

[( )( )]
2
x f , HK x b , LK
log
Nr
Ns [ ]
=0, 206 log
B
D x f , LK )( x d , HK
(Coulson & Richardsons, hal 471)
dimana :
Nr = jumlah stages atas (rectifying)
Ns = jumlah stages bawah (stripping)
B = laju alir Bottom
D = laju alir distilat
xf,HK = consentrasi umpan untuk heavy key
xf,LK = consentrasi umpan untuk light key
xb,HK = consentrasi bottom untuk heavy key
xd,LK = consentrasi distilat untuk light key
data :
B = 112.6941 kmol
D = 7.0055 kmol
xf,LK = 0.0505
xf,HK = 0.4856
xb,LK = 0.0005
xd,HK = 0.0830
log(Nr/Ns) = -0.45105
Nr/Ns = 0.3540
Nr+Ns = 10.6087
Ns = 7.8353 buah
Nr = 2.7734 buah
effisiensi = 0.70
Plate aktual = Plate teoritis
effisiensi
= 10.609
0.70
= 15.1552
Stripping = 11.1933 = 11 buah
Rectifying = 3.9620 = 3 buah
total plate aktual = 14 buah

Panas penguapan :
T= 333.4883 K P= 2.7000 atm
= 60.3382949563 C o
= 2,052.0000 mmHg
Hv = A(1-(T/Tc)n ===> Hv = kJ/mol
A, Tc, n = regretion coefficient for chemical compound
T = Temperature , K
Komponen kmol A Tc, K n H uap, kJ/kmol m. H uap
C2H4O2 5.9833 43.997 487.2 0.453 6941.969378945 41535.9116812217
CH3OH 0.5813 52.23 512.58 0.377 28915.642321187 16809.1713891606
C2H7N 0.2077 41.07 437.65 0.424 41070 8529.6645557164
C3H9N 0.2334 34.6 433.25 0.384 34600 8076.6143356517
Total 7.0057 74951.3619617503

Neraca panas
Umpan masuk (QF) T= 379.5405
komponen kmol A B C D CpdT
C2H4O2 6.0437 42.381 0.57084 -0.0019727 2.8945E-06 9983.78
CH3OH 58.1318 40.152 0.31046 -1.029E-03 1.460E-06 6868.09
C2H7N 0.2077 36.962 0.95817 -3.585E-03 5.399E-06 13139.11
C3H9N 0.2334 47.960 0.7302 -0.0028388 4.6585E-06 12369.92
H2O 0.6893 92.050 -4.00E-02 -2.11E-04 5.35E-07 6137.44
C3H7NO 54.3937 63.727 0.60708 -1.62E-03 1.86E-06 12736.76
Total 119.6996
Panas Distilat (Qd)
Massa yang didinginkan = (R + 1) D T= 333.4883
Komponen kmol A B C D CpdT
C2H4O2 5.9833 42.381 0.57084 -0.0019727 2.8945E-06 4157.34
CH3OH 0.5813 40.152 0.31046 -1.029E-03 1.460E-06 2894.82
C2H7N 0.2077 36.962 0.95817 -3.585E-03 5.399E-06 5402.88
C3H9N 0.2334 47.960 0.7302 -0.0028388 4.6585E-06 5050.31
Total 7.0057

Panas kondensor (Qc)


0,38
H v 2 =H v 1 [ TcT
TcTb ]
T= 333.4883 K
Komponen kmol Hv1( kJ/kmol.K ) TC TB Hv2 Q = mHv2
C2H4O2 5.9833 6941.969378945 487.2 304.9 6506.27 38929.02
CH3OH 0.5813 28915.642321187 512.6 337.75 29181.46 16963.70
C2H7N 0.2077 41070 437.65 280.03 35088.23 7287.33
C3H9N 0.2334 34600 433.25 276.02 29107.10 6794.42
Total 7.0057 69974.46

Panas keluar Bottom (QB) T= 384.7544


Komponen kmol A B C D CpdT
C2H4O2 0.0604 42.381 0.57084 -0.0019727 2.8945E-06 10682.32
CH3OH 57.5504 40.152 0.31046 -1.029E-03 1.460E-06 7337.21
H2O 0.6893 92.050 -4.00E-02 -2.11E-04 5.35E-07 6532.67
C3H7NO 54.3937 63.727 0.60708 -1.62E-03 1.86E-06 13587.98
Total 112.6939

Panas masuk = panas keluar


Panas reboiler + panas umpan = panas distilat + panas kondensor + panas bottom
Panas reboiler = panas distilat + panas kondensor + panas bottom - panas umpan
= 103,102.3011 kJ

b. Neraca Panas di Menara Distilasi 01

Tabel 2.8 Neraca Panas di Menara Distilasi 01


Masuk, kJ/Jam Keluar, kJ/Jam
Komponen
Umpan Distilat Bottom
C2 H 4 O 2 60339.3595 24874.6389 645.6115
CH3OH 399253.9322 1682.8079 422259.7095
C2 H 7 N 2728.8095 1122.1020
C3 H 9 N 2887.4882 1178.8835
H2 O 4230.7510 4503.1997
C3H7NO 692799.0809 739100.3043
sub total 1162239.4212 28858.4323 1166508.8251
Beban Kondensor 69974.4649
Panas Reboiler 103102.3011
Total 1265341.7223 1265341.7223

Neraca Panas Menara Distilasi-02


menghitung bubble point dan dew point umpan, distilat dan bottom
Umpan masuk
Bubble point T= 354.2898 K P=
komponen %mol A B C ln Pi Pi
C2H4O2 0.0005 16.5104 2590.87 -42.6 8.1981 3633.9
CH3OH 0.5107 18.5875 3626.55 -34.29 7.2545 1414.5
H2O 0.0061 18.3036 3816.44 -46.13 5.9190 372.0
C3H7NO 0.4827 15.770 3147.7 -81.342 4.2378 69.3
Total 1.0000

Dew Point T= 402.5854 K P=


komponen %mol A B C lnPi Pi
C2H4O2 0.0005 16.5104 2590.87 -42.6 9.3132 11083.9
CH3OH 0.5107 18.5875 3626.55 -34.29 8.7406 6252.0
H2O 0.0061 18.3036 3816.44 -46.13 7.5970 1992.1
C3H7NO 0.4827 15.770 3147.7 -81.342 5.9715 392.1
Total 1.0000

Distilat :
Bubble point T= 337.7965 K P=
komponen %mol A B C ln Pi Pi
C2H4O2 0.0010 16.5104 2590.87 -42.6 7.7336 2283.9
CH3OH 0.9895 18.5875 3626.55 -34.29 6.6387 764.1
H2O 0.0085 18.3036 3816.44 -46.13 5.2187 184.7
C3H7NO 0.0009 15.770 3147.7 -81.342 3.4961 33.0
Total 1.0000

Dew Point T= 338.2890 K P=


komponen %mol A B C lnPi Pi
C2H4O2 0.0010 16.5104 2590.87 -42.6 7.7483 2317.5
CH3OH 0.9895 18.5875 3626.55 -34.29 6.6580 779.0
H2O 0.0085 18.3036 3816.44 -46.13 5.2407 188.8
C3H7NO 0.0009 15.770 3147.7 -81.342 3.5196 33.8
Total 0.9991

Bottom
Bubble point T= 424.7805 K P=
komponen %mol A B C ln Pi Pi
CH3OH 0.0011 18.5875 3626.55 -34.29 9.3003 10941.7
H2O 0.0036 18.3036 3816.44 -46.13 8.2245 3731.4
C3H7NO 0.9954 15.770 3147.7 -81.342 6.6047 738.6
Total 1.0000
Dew Point T= 425.7095 K P=
komponen %mol A B C lnPi Pi
CH3OH 0.0011 18.5875 3626.55 -34.29 9.3224 11185.5
H2O 0.0036 18.3036 3816.44 -46.13 8.2492 3824.6
C3H7NO 0.9954 15.770 3147.7 -81.342 6.6295 757.1
Total 1.0000

Temperatur Umpan Distilat Bottom


Bubble point 354.2898 337.7965 424.7805
Dew Point 402.5854 338.2890 425.7095

Menentukan komponen kunci atas (LK) dan bawah (HK)


LK CH3OH
Hk C3H7NO

umpan dalam keadaan bubble point q = 1


Menghitung a rerata
Ki
i =
K komponenberat
komponen Ki atas Ki bawah a top a bottom a rerata
C2H4O2 3.0051 69.2379 34.6190
CH3OH 1.0054 14.3970 23.1634 14.8142 18.9888 LK
H2O 0.2430 4.9098 5.5989 5.0520 5.3255
C3H7NO 0.0434 0.9718 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 HK

Selanjutnya dengan cara trial dan error dicari q (konstanta underwood)

( ixi )
1q= (Coulson & Richardsons,hal 470)
( i )
q = 1.8389
komponen frak ump ai ai.xi ai - q
( ix i )
( i )
( ix i )
( i )

C2H4O2 0.0005 34.6190 0.0186 32.7800 0.0006


CH3OH 0.5107 18.9888 9.6972 17.1499 0.5654
H2O 0.0061 5.3255 0.0326 3.4866 0.0093
C3H7NO 0.4827 1.0000 0.4827 -0.8389 -0.5753
Total 1.0000 0.0000

Menentukan Rmin
i xi, d Menghitung refluk ratio : (Coulson & Richardsons,hal 470)
= R m+ 1
i q = 1.8389
komponen frak dist ai ai.xi ai - q Rm +1
C2H4O2 0.0010 34.6190 0.0360 32.7800 0.0011
CH3OH 0.9895 18.9888 18.7895 17.1499 1.0956
H2O 0.0085 5.3255 0.0454 3.4866 0.0130
C3H7NO 0.0009 1.0000 0.0009 -0.8389 -0.0011
Total 1.0000 1.1086

Rmin +1 = 1.1086
Rmin = 0.1086
Diambil Rop = 0.1086 x 1,3
= 0.1412
Rmin/Rmin +1= 0.0980
Rop/Rop+1= 0.1237

Panas penguapan :
T= 337.7965 K P= 1.0000 atm
= 64.6464797889 C o
= 760.0000 mmHg
Hv = A(1-(T/Tc)n ===> Hv = kJ/mol
A, Tc, n = regretion coefficient for chemical compound
T = Temperature , K T= 337.7965
Komponen kmol A Tc, K n H uap, kJ/kmol m. H uap
C2H4O2 0.0604 43.997 487.2 0.453 6725.8807 406.4948
CH3OH 57.4929 52.23 512.58 0.377 7598.3584 436851.5861
H2O 0.4951 52.053 647.13 0.321 9804.0641 4853.9560
C3H7NO 0.0544 59.355 647 0.381 13018.8038 708.1405
Total 58.1028 442820.1774

Neraca panas
Umpan masuk (QF) T= 354.2898
komponen kmol A B C D CpdT
C2H4O2 0.0604 42.381 0.57084 -0.0019727 2.8945E-06 6718.97
CH3OH 57.5504 40.152 0.31046 -1.029E-03 1.460E-06 4654.61
H2O 0.6893 92.050 -4.00E-02 -2.11E-04 5.35E-07 4233.22
C3H7NO 54.3937 63.727 0.60708 -1.62E-03 1.86E-06 8682.01
Total 112.6939

Panas distilat (Qd)


Massa yang didinginkan = (R + 1) D T= 337.7965
Komponen kmol A B C D CpdT
C2H4O2 0.060437412 42.381 0.57084 -0.0019727 2.8945E-06 4679.4570
CH3OH 57.492890564 40.152 0.31046 -0.0010291 1.4598E-06 3255.0680
H2O 0.4950963151 92.05 -0.039953 -0.00021103 5.3469E-07 2994.2742
C3H7NO 0.0543936708 63.727 0.60708 -0.0016163 0.000001856 6089.7266
Total 58.1028

Panas kondensor (Qc)


0, 38
Hv 2 =Hv 1 [ TcT
Tc Tb ]
T= 337.7965
Komponen kmol/jam Hv1( kJ/kmol.K ) TC TB Hv2 Q = mHv2
C2H4O2 0.0604 6725.8807 487.2 304.85 6235.3678669023 376.85
CH3OH 57.4929 7598.3584 512.6 337.75 7597.5907628635 436807.45
H2O 0.4951 9804.0641 647.13 373.15 10266.802945652 5083.06
C3H7NO 0.0544 13018.8038 647 426.15 10266.802945652 558.45
Total 58.1028 442825.81

Panas keluar Bottom (QB) T= 424.7805


Komponen kmol A B C D CpdT
CH3OH 0.0576 40.152 0.31046 -1.029E-03 1.460E-06 11104.43
H2O 0.1942 92.050 -4.00E-02 -2.11E-04 5.35E-07 9607.51
C3H7NO 54.3393 63.727 0.60708 -1.62E-03 1.86E-06 20304.82
Total 54.5911

Panas masuk = panas keluar


Panas reboiler + panas umpan = panas distilat + panas kondensor + panas bottom
Panas reboiler = panas distilat + panas kondensor + panas bottom - panas umpan
= 994,474.7647 kJ

c. Neraca Panas di Menara Distilasi 02

Tabel 2.9 Neraca Panas di Menara Distilasi 02


Masuk, kJ/Jam Keluar, kJ/Jam
Komponen
Umpan Distilat Bottom
C2 H 4 O 2 406.0770 282.8143
CH3OH 267874.7499 187143.2662 639.0646
H2 O 2918.1087 1482.4541 1866.1500
C3H7NO 472246.4464 331.2426 1103349.3458
sub total 743445.3819 189239.7771 1105854.5603
Beban Kondensor 442825.8092
Panas Reboiler 994474.7647
Total 1737920.1467 1737920.1467

Neraca Panas Stripper


Menghitung tekanan dan suhu umpan T= 326.8667 K P=
Umpan 53.7167 C P=
komponen %mol A B C ln Pi Pi
C2H4O2 0.8541 16.5104 2590.87 -42.6 7.3962 1629.7
CH3OH 0.0830 18.5875 3626.55 -34.29 6.1923 489.0
C2H7N 0.0296 16.2653 2358.77 -35.13 8.1800 3569.0
C3H9N 0.0333 16.0499 2230.51 -39.15 8.2974 4013.6
Total 1.0000

Bottom T= 330.0346 K
45.3761 C P=
komponen %mol A B C ln Pi Pi
C2H7N 0.0071 16.2653 2358.77 -35.13 8.2669 3892.7952
C3H9N 0.0046 16.0499 2230.51 -39.15 8.3819 4367.1949
C2H4O2 0.9007 16.5104 2590.87 -42.6 7.4966 1801.9554
CH3OH 0.0876 18.5875 3626.55 -34.29 6.3251 558.3920
Total 1.0000

atas : T= 300.2950 K
27.1450 C P=
komponen %mol A B C ln Pi Pi
C2H4O2 0.0166 16.5104 2590.87 -42.6 6.4564 636.8
C2H7N 0.4022 16.2653 2358.77 -35.13 7.3698 1587.3
C3H9N 0.5813 16.0499 2230.51 -39.15 7.5086 1823.7
Total 1.0000

T= 299.6344 K
26.4844 C P=
komponen %mol A B C ln Pi Pi
C2H4O2 0.0166 16.5104 2590.87 -42.6 6.4305 620.5102
C2H7N 0.4022 16.2653 2358.77 -35.13 7.3476 1552.4700
C3H9N 0.5813 16.0499 2230.51 -39.15 7.4870 1784.6328
Total 1.0000

Umpan masuk : T= 326.8667


komponen kmol A B C D CpdT
C2H4O2 5.9833 42.381 0.57084 -0.0019727 2.8945E-06 3362.80
CH3OH 0.5813 40.152 0.31046 -1.029E-03 1.460E-06 2345.11
C2H7N 0.2077 36.962 0.95817 -3.585E-03 5.399E-06 4364.02
C3H9N 0.2334 47.960 0.7302 -0.0028388 4.6585E-06 4075.16
Total 7.0057

atas : T= 300.2950
komponen kmol A B C D CpdT
C2H4O2 0.0060 42.381 0.57084 -0.0019727 2.8945E-06 261.8534
C2H7N 0.1453 36.962 0.95817 -3.585E-03 5.399E-06 338.1593
C3H9N 0.2101 47.960 0.7302 -0.0028388 4.6585E-06 314.5644
Total 0.3614 914.5772

Menghitung panas penguapan


0, 38
H v 2 =H v 1 [ TcT
Tc Tb ] T= 300.2950 K
Komponen kmol Hv1 TC TB Hv2 Q = m* Hv2
C2H4O2 0.0060 28219 487.2 304.9 28430.9852 170.07
C2H7N 0.1453 26502 437.6 279.95 25146.3976 3654.85
C3H9N 0.2101 24116 433.2 275.55 22600.9811 4748.14
0.3614 8573.06

Bawah : T= 330.0346
komponen kmol A B C D CpdT
C2H7N 0.0468 36.962 0.95817 -3.585E-03 5.399E-06 4859.08
C3H9N 0.0306 47.960 0.7302 -0.0028388 4.6585E-06 4539.62
C2H4O2 5.9773 42.381 0.57084 -0.0019727 2.8945E-06 3741.75
CH3OH 0.5813 40.152 0.31046 -1.029E-03 1.460E-06 2607.51
6.6360

Beban panas reboiler = panas keluar atas +panas penguapan + panas produk bawah - panas umpan
= 9596.15 kJ
d. Neraca Panas di Striper

Tabel 2.9 Neraca Masa di Striper


Masuk, kJ/Jam Keluar, kJ/Jam
Komponen
Umpan Distilat Bottom
C2 H 4 O 2 20120.6387 1.5664 22365.6449
CH3OH 1363.2553 1515.7919
C2 H 7 N 906.3453 49.1490 227.4212
C3 H 9 N 951.2566 66.0854 138.9358
sub total 23341.4959 116.8008 24247.7937
Beban Kondensor 8573.0560
Panas Reboiler 9596.1546
Total 32937.6505 32937.6505
B C D
1.01E+03 2.09E-02 -2.30E-05
1.25E+03 2.24E-02 -2.35E-05
1.21E+03 3.50E-02 -4.13E-05
4.42E+02 1.07E-02 -1.61E-05
1.79E+03 1.77E-02 -1.26E-05
8.95E+02 1.06E-02 -1.01E-05

K
Q =m CpdT
752123.67
2729.12
4419.30
759272.09

K
Q =m CpdT
859.7479
303.2326
632562.5540
26885.7563
660611.2908

K
Q =m CpdT
63256.26
418105.83
2864.11
3032.35
4419.30
724823.83
1216501.67
27939.9768242 kg/jam
2.7 atm
2052 mmHg
Ki=Pi/Pt yi =Ki xi
3.3017 0.1667
1.5790 0.7669
5.9895 0.0104
6.4918 0.0127
0.4632 0.0027
0.0896 0.0407
1.0000

2052 mmHg
Ki=Pi/Pt xi =yi/Ki
10.1059 0.0050
7.0531 0.0689
15.9247 0.0001
16.7031 0.0001
2.4861 0.0023
0.4920 0.9236
1.0000

2052 mmHg
Ki=Pi/Pt yi =Ki xi
0.9773 0.8347
0.3135 0.0260
2.0811 0.0617
2.3286 0.0776
1.0000

2052 mmHg
Ki=Pi/Pt xi =yi/Ki
1.1294 0.7562
0.3796 0.2186
2.3587 0.0126
2.6298 0.0127
1.0000

2052 mmHg
Ki=Pi/Pt yi =Ki xi
3.7121 0.0020
1.8461 0.9428
0.5524 0.0034
0.1074 0.0519
1.0000

2052 mmHg
Ki=Pi/Pt xi =yi/Ki
10.4838 0.0001
7.4094 0.0689
2.6268 0.0023
0.5197 0.9287
1.0000
xi b
0.00054 LK
0.51068 HK
0.00000
0.00000
0.00612
0.48267
1.0000
K
Q=mCpdT
60339.36
399253.93
2728.81
2887.49
4230.75
692799.08
1162239.42
K
Q=mCpdT
24874.64
1682.81
1122.10
1178.88
28858.43

K
Q=mCpdT
645.61
422259.71
4503.20
739100.30
1166508.83
760 mmHg
Ki=Pi/Pt yi =Ki xi
4.7815 0.0026
1.8612 0.9505
0.4895 0.0030
0.0911 0.0440
1.0000

760 mmHg
Ki=Pi/Pt xi =yi/Ki
14.5841 0.0000
8.2263 0.0621
2.6212 0.0023
0.5159 0.9356
1.0000

760 mmHg
Ki=Pi/Pt yi =Ki xi
3.0051 0.0031
1.0054 0.9948
0.2430 0.0021
0.0434 0.0000
1.0000

760 mmHg
Ki=Pi/Pt xi =yi/Ki
3.0494 0.0003
1.0250 0.9654
0.2484 0.0343
0.0444 0.0211
1.0000

760 mmHg
Ki=Pi/Pt yi =Ki xi
14.3970 0.0152
4.9098 0.0175
0.9718 0.9674
1.0000
760 mmHg
Ki=Pi/Pt xi =yi/Ki
14.7178 0.0001
5.0324 0.0007
0.9962 0.9992
1.0000
K
K
Q=mCpdT
406.08
267874.75
2918.11
472246.45
743445.38

K
Q=mCpdT
282.8143
187143.2662
1482.4541
331.2426
189239.7771

K
K
Q=mCpdT
639.06
1866.15
1103349.35
1105854.56
2.2 atm
1672 mmHg
Ki=Pi/Pt yi =Ki xi
0.9747 0.8325
0.2924 0.0243
2.1345 0.0633
2.4005 0.0800
1.0000

1672 mmHg
Ki=Pi/Pt yi =Ki xi
2.3282 0.0164
2.6120 0.0120
1.0777 0.9707
0.3340 0.0293
1.0000

1672 mmHg
Ki=Pi/Pt xi = yi/Ki
0.3808 0.0435
0.9494 0.4236
1.0907 0.5329
1.0000

1672 mmHg
Ki=Pi/Pt yi =Ki xi
0.3711 0.0061
0.9285 0.3734
1.0674 0.6205
1.0000

K
Q=mCpdT
20120.64
1363.26
906.35
951.26
23341.50

K
Q=mCpdT
1.5664
49.1490
66.0854
116.80

K
Q=mCpdT
227.4212
138.9358
22365.6449
1515.7919
24247.7937
Data kapsitas panas gas :
Cp = A +BT + C T2 + DT3
Keterangan :
Cp = Kapasitas Panas (kJ/kmol K)
T = Suhu, K

CpdT = A (T -298) + B/2 (T2-2982) + C/3 (T3 - 2983) + D/4 (T4 - 2984)
komponen A B C D
C2H4O2 42.381 0.57084 -0.0019727 2.8945E-06
CH3OH 40.152 0.31046 -1.029E-03 1.460E-06
C2 H 7 N 36.962 0.95817 -3.585E-03 5.399E-06
C3 H 9 N 47.96 0.7302 -0.0028388 4.6585E-06
H 2O 92.05 -4.00E-02 -2.11E-04 5.35E-07
C3H7NO 63.727 0.60708 -1.62E-03 1.86E-06

komponen TC (K) TBP HV (J/mol) DHF (Kj/mol) DGF (Kj/mol) TBP


CH3OH 512.6 64.6 35278 -201.3 -162.62 337.75
H 2O 647.13 100 40683 -242 -228.77 373.15
C2 H 7 N 437.65 6.8 26502 -18.81 68.04 280.03
C3 H 9 N 433.25 2.4 24116 -23.86 98.98 276.02
C2H4O2 487.2 31.7 28219 -350.02 -297.39 304.9
C3H7NO 647 153 39410 -191.7 -88.41 426.15

ln Pi = A -B/(C+T), mmHg VICOSITAS CAIRAN


komponen A B C komponen A
CH3OH 18.5875 3626.55 -34.29 C2H4O2 -8.0637
H 2O 18.3036 3816.44 -46.13 CH3OH -9.0562
C2 H 7 N 16.2653 2358.77 -35.13 C2 H 7 N -11.5558
C3 H 9 N 16.0499 2230.51 -39.15 C3 H 9 N -3.9726
C2H4O2 16.5104 2590.87 -42.6 H 2O -10.2158
C3H7NO 15.770 3147.7 -81.342 C3H7NO -5.329

DENSITAS
komponen A B n Tc
C2H4O2 0.34143 0.25838 0.27680 487.20
CH3OH 0.27197 0.27192 0.23310 512.58
C2 H 7 N 0.24110 0.26785 0.24800 437.65
C3 H 9 N 0.23283 0.25703 0.26870 433.25
H 2O 0.34710 0.27400 0.28571 647.13
C3H7NO 0.27376 0.23013 0.27630 647.00
(A*(1-(T/TC)^N))*1000

hv1*((tc-t)/(tc-tb))^0.38

(A*(B^(-((1-T/TC)^N)))
10^(A+B/T+C*T+D*T^2)
A *(T -298) + B/2 *(T^2-298^2) + C/3 *(T^3 - 298^3) + D/4* (T^4 - 298^4)

a-(b/(t+c))

B C D
1.01E+03 2.09E-02 -2.30E-05
1.25E+03 2.24E-02 -2.35E-05
1.21E+03 3.50E-02 -4.13E-05
4.42E+02 1.07E-02 -1.61E-05
1.79E+03 1.77E-02 -1.26E-05
8.95E+02 1.06E-02 -1.01E-05
REAKTOR (R-01)

# Menghitung Tebal dinding Reaktor:


Dirancang menggunakan Carbon steel
Menentukan tebal shell :

P.r
ts= +C
( f . E0,6 . P)
Dalam hubungan ini :
ts = tebal shell
P = tekanan dalam vessel = 3.4000 atm
= 49.9800 psi
r = Jari-jari dalam vessel = 1.5333 m 120.7350
= 60.3675 in
= 5.0306 f
E = effisiensi penggelasan = 0.8500
C = faktor korosi = 0.1250 in
f = tegangan yang diijinkan
Coulson hal 254 diperoleh allowable stress 100N/mm 2
= 14507.772 psia
ts = 0.37027 in
digunakan tebal standar 3/8 in

# Menghitung ukuran Head :


Direncanakan bentuk head torispherical, bahan carbon steel
OD = ID + 2ts
= 121.4850 in = 126 in
Dari tabel 5.7. Hal 91 Brownell, untuk OD = 126 in, ts 3/8 in
icr = 7.625 in
r= 120 in 166

w=
1
4
= 1.7418
3+( )
r
icr

P .r . W
th = +C
2. f . E0,2 . P
= 0.5487 in
digunakan tebal standar 1 in

# Menghitung tinggi head

OD

icr b
OA

B A
r
sf
OD

icr b

OA
B A
r

sf
ID t
a

C
ID
a=
2
= 62.625 in

ID
AB= icr
2

= 55 in
BC = r irc
= 112.375 in
AC = (BC2- AB2)1/2
= 97.9956 in
b = r AC
= 68.0044 in
untuk tebal shell 3/8 in diambil sf = 3 in
tinggi head = th + b + Sf
= 74.0044 in = 1.8797 m 74.004425
diambil tinggi ruang kosong 0,3 m
jadi tinggi reaktor = 2x tinggi ruang kosong + 2 x tinggi head
= 4.3594 m 171.6308

# Menghitung Volume Reaktor

Volume Head
= p/4.(IDs3)
= 799.5132 f3
= 22.6397 m3

Volume Shell
= p/4.(ODs2).Ls
= 24.9253 m3

Volume Reaktor
= V shell + ( 2.V head)
= 70.2047 m3
= 18,546.1111 gal

# Menghitung tebal isolasi


Asumsi-asumsi yang diambil :
1. Suhu di dalam reaktor = 383.15 K= 110 o
C= 230 oF
2. Suhu udara luar 32C

R1 Q1

R2 Q2

R3

TW

Q3

T1 T2 T3

Keterangan :
R1 = jari-jari dalam reaktor
R2 = jari-jari luar reaktor
R3 = jari-jari penyekat
Tw = suhu udara
Q1 = Q2 = Q3
Q1 = laju panas yang ditransfer dari T2 ke TW
Q2 = laju panas yang ditransfer dari T2 ke T3
Q3 = laju panas yang ditransfer dari T3 ke TW

Bahan Isolasi adalah asbeston dengan konduktivitas


ka = 0.12 Btu / j,fF (Kern,1988)
Bahan dinding carbon steel dengan sifat fisis:
kb = 30 Btu / j,fF (Kern,1988)
Untuk menghitung tebal isolasi
Tw = 32 oC = 89.6 oF
L= 4.3594 m = 14.3026 f
R1 = 42 in = 3.5 f
R2 = 41.625 in = 3.47 f
T1 = Tout
T1 > T2 > Tw
Jika tanpa isolasi :
T2 > Tw
Qkonveksi = h A (T1 - Tw)

T 1T 2
Q konduksi =
Ln (R 2 /R1 )
2 x x kb x L
Dalam keadaan steady state
Qkonveksi = Qkonduksi = Q

T2 - Tw = Qkonveksi
hA

Q konduksi
T1 - T2 =
r2
ln
r1
2 x x kb x L

r2
T1 - Tw =
Q ( 1
+
ln
r1
hA 2 x x kb x L
)
T 1 T w
Q= r2

( 1
+
ln
r1
hA 2 x x kb x L
)
Q= 230 -89.6
0.0003711121 + 3.3283817E-06

Q = 374959.48844658 btu/jam

Dipasang isolasi
T3 = Tw
Q = Qkonduksi

Q =
T 1 T w
r2 r3

( ln
r1
2 x x kb x L
+
ln
r2
2 x x ka x L
)
374959.488 = 140.4
3.328E-06 + ln r3 -1.252763
10.778415 10.778415

1.24800829 + 34788 ln r3 -43581.12 = 140.4


-43579.868 + 34788 ln r3 = 140.4

ln r3 = 43720.268
34787.998
ln r3 = 1.256763
r3 = 3.514028
Tebal isolasi = 0.0140 f
= 0.4276 cm
PERANCANGAN MENARA DISTILASI-01

Kode : MD-01
Fungsi : Untuk memisahkan dimethylformamide dari campuran yang keluar dari reaktor
Jenis : Sieve Plate Tray
Neraca massa :
Umpan
Komponen kg/jm fraksi BM kmol fraksi
C2H4O2 362.9448 0.0582 60.053 6.0437 0.0505
CH3OH 1862.6578 0.2986 32.042 58.1318 0.4856
C2H7N 9.3633 0.0015 45.084 0.2077 0.0017
C3H9N 13.7982 0.0022 59.111 0.2334 0.0020
H2O 12.4184 0.0020 18.015 0.6893 0.0058
C3H7NO 3975.9054 0.6375 73.095 54.3937 0.4544
6237.0878 1.0000 119.6996 1.0000
Atas
Komponen kg/jm fraksi BM kmol fraksi
C2H4O2 359.3153 0.8958 60.053 5.9833 0.8541
CH3OH 18.6266 0.0464 32.042 0.5813 0.0830
C2H7N 9.3633 0.0233 45.084 0.2077 0.0296
C3H9N 13.7982 0.0344 59.111 0.2334 0.0333
401.1034 1.0000 7.0057 1.0000

Bawah
Komponen kg/jm fraksi BM kmol fraksi
C2H4O2 3.6294 0.0006 60.053 0.0604 0.0005
CH3OH 1844.0312 0.3160 32.042 57.5504 0.5107
H2O 12.4184 0.0021 18.015 0.6893 0.0061
C3H7NO 3975.9054 0.6813 73.095 54.3937 0.4827
5835.9844 1.0000 112.6939 1.0000

Neraca massa total


Output
Komponen Input
Atas Bawah
C2H4O2 362.9448 359.3153 3.6294
CH3OH 1862.6578 18.6266 1844.0312
C2H7N 9.3633 9.3633
C3H9N 13.7982 13.7982
H2O 12.4184 12.4184
C3H7NO 3975.9054 3975.9054
401.1034 5835.9844
Total 6237.0878 6237.0878
Umpan T= 379.54 K P= 2052.0 mmhg
Bubble point : = 106.39 C
Komponen xi A B C ln Pi Pi Ki = Pi/Pt yi =ki.xi
C2H4O2 0.0505 16.5104 2590.87 -42.6 8.8210 6775.0410 3.3017 0.1667
CH3OH 0.4856 18.5875 3626.55 -34.29 8.0834 3240.1911 1.5790 0.7669
C2H7N 0.0017 16.2653 2358.77 -35.13 9.4166 12290.5138 5.9895 0.0104
C3H9N 0.0020 16.0499 2230.51 -39.15 9.4971 13321.0721 6.4918 0.0127
H2O 0.0058 18.3036 3816.44 -46.13 6.8569 950.4444 0.4632 0.0027
C3H7NO 0.4544 15.77 3147.7 -81.342 5.2143 183.8793 0.0896 0.0407
1.0000 1.0000

Hasil Atas :
Bubble point : T= 333.4883 K P= 2052.0 mmhg
= 60.3383 C
Komponen xi A B C ln Pi Pi Ki = Pi/Pt yi =ki.xi
C2H4O2 0.8541 16.5104 2590.87 -42.6 7.6036 2005.4980 0.9773 0.8347
CH3OH 0.0830 18.5875 3626.55 -34.29 6.4666 643.2984 0.3135 0.0260
C2H7N 0.0296 16.2653 2358.77 -35.13 8.3595 4270.4303 2.0811 0.0617
C3H9N 0.0333 16.0499 2230.51 -39.15 8.4719 4778.3524 2.3286 0.0776
1.0000 1.0000
Hasil Bawah :
Bubble point : T= 384.75 K P= 2052 mmhg
= 111.75 C
Komponen xi A B C ln Pi Pi Ki = Pi/Pt yi =ki.xi
C2H4O2 0.0005 16.5104 2590.87 -42.6 8.9382 7617.2768 3.7121 0.0020
CH3OH 0.5107 18.5875 3626.55 -34.29 8.2397 3788.2416 1.8461 0.9428
H2O 0.0061 18.3036 3816.44 -46.13 7.0332 1133.6253 0.5524 0.0034
C3H7NO 0.4827 15.77 3147.7 -81.342 5.3957 220.4497 0.1074 0.0519
1.0000 1.0000

Bubble point 379.54 333.49 384.75

Menentukan komponen kunci atas (LK) dan bawah (HK)


LK C2H4O2
HK CH3OH
Umpan dalam keadaan bubble point, dimana q = 1
Menghitung rata-rata :
Ki
i
K komponenberat
Komponen Ki atas Ki bawah atas bawah i
C2H4O2 0.9773 3.7121 3.1175 2.0108 2.5641
CH3OH 0.3135 1.8461 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000
C2H7N 2.0811 6.6383 3.3192
C3H9N 2.3286 7.4279 3.7139
H2O 0.5524 0.2992 0.1496
C3H7NO 0.1074 0.0582 0.0291

Selanjutnya dengan cara trial&error dicari (Konstanta Underwood)


(i x i, F )
1 q (Coulson & Richardson's, hal.465)
(i )
Umpan cair jenuh, q = 1
Komponen Fraksi Umpan i i. Xif i - i i.xid/(a-i)
C2H4O2 0.0505 2.5641 0.1295 0.3317 0.3903
CH3OH 0.4856 1.0000 0.4856 -1.2324 -0.3941
C2H7N 0.0017 3.3192 0.0058 1.0867 0.0053
C3H9N 0.0020 3.7139 0.0072 1.4815 0.0049
H2O 0.0058 0.1496 0.0009 -2.0828 -0.0004
C3H7NO 0.4544 0.0291 0.0132 -2.2033 -0.0060
0.0000
Trial = 2.2324

Menentukan Rmin :
i x i, D
Rm 1
i
Menghitung Refluks Ratio (Coulson & Richardson's, hal 470)
Komponen Fraksi atas i i. Xid i - i Rmin + 1
C2H4O2 0.8541 2.5641 2.1899 0.3317 6.6017
CH3OH 0.0830 1.0000 0.0830 -1.2324 -0.0673
C2H7N 0.0296 3.3192 0.0984 1.0867 0.0905
C3H9N 0.0333 3.7139 0.1237 1.4815 0.0835
1.0000 6.7084

Rmin + 1 = 6.7084
Rmin = 5.7084
Roperasi = 5.7084 x 1.3
= 7.4210
Rmin/Rmin+1 = 0.8509
Rop/Rop+1 = 0.8812
*) Menentukan jumlah plate
a. Menghitung Plate Minimum dengan Metode Fenske Equetion

Nm=
log
[ ][ ]
x LK
x HK d
x HK
x LK b (Coulson & Richardsons,hal 469)
log LK
XLK distilat = 0.8541
XHK distilat = 0.0830
XLK bottom = 0.0005
XHK bottom = 0.5107
LK
= 2.5641
sehingga:
Nm = 9.7600

b.Menentukan Jumlah Plate ideal :


(R-Rm)/(R+1) = 0.2034 > 0.125

2 3
SSm RRm RRm RRm
( S+1 )
=0,62570,9868
R +1
+0,5160
R+1(0,1738 )
R +1 ( ) ( )
S = N = Jumlah plate teoritis
Sm = Nm = 9.7600 0.4448979

S Sm
0.4449
S 1
S-Sm = 0.4449 (S+1)

0.5551 S = 10.2049
S = 18.3838
S = N = 20 stage
*) Menghitung viskositas campuran
Log = A + B/T + CT + DT2
T = 379.54 K
Komponen A B C D , cp fr.umpan .x
C2H4O2 -8.0637 1.01E+03 2.09E-02 -2.30E-05 0.1662 0.0505 0.00839
CH3OH -9.0562 1.25E+03 2.24E-02 -2.35E-05 0.2254 0.4856 0.10945
C2H7N -11.5558 1.21E+03 3.50E-02 -4.13E-05 0.0955 0.0017 0.00017
C3H9N -3.9726 4.42E+02 1.07E-02 -1.61E-05 0.0819 0.0020 0.00016
H2O -10.2158 1.7925E+03 1.7730E-02 -1.2631E-05 0.2611 0.0058 0.00150
C3H7NO -5.3292 8.95E+02 1.06E-02 -1.01E-05 0.3842 0.4544 0.17458
1.0000 0.2943
(Carl L Yaws, 1999)
*) Menghitung efisiensi
= 0.2943
(LK) = 2.5641
x= 0.7545
dari fig 11.13 coulson hal 492
= 57.00 %
*) Menghitung plate aktual
N
N act = (Coulson, 1993 : 489)
Eo
= 33.3333 = 34 stage

Menghitung plate atas dan bawah :

[( )( )( )]
2
x f , HK x b , LK
log [ ]
Nr
Ns
=0, 206 log
B
D x f , LK x d , HK
(Coulson & Richardson's, hal 471)

dimana :
data : Nr = jumlah stages atas (rectifying)
B = 112.6939 kmol Ns = jumlah stages bawah (stripping)
D = 7.0057 kmol B = laju alir Bottom
xf,HK = 0.4856 D = laju alir distilat
xf,LK = 0.0505 xf,HK = consentrasi umpan untuk heavy key
xb,LK = 0.0005 xf,LK = consentrasi umpan untuk light key
xd,HK = 0.0830 xb,LK = consentrasi bottom untuk light key
log(Nr/Ns) = -0.45105 xd,HK = consentrasi distilat untuk heavyt key
Nr/Ns = 0.3540
Nr+Ns = 19 , Karena termasuk reboiler maka Nr + Ns = N - 1
Ns = 14.0329 (bawah)
Nr = 4.9671 (atas)
jumlah plate seksi stripping (bawah) = 24.6192 buah 25 buah
jumlah plate seksi enriching (atas) = 8.7142 buah 9 buah
total plate aktual = 34 buah
*) Menentukan dimensi kolom
Kondisi Atas Menara
Menghitung densitas pada kondisi operasi puncak menara bubble point
Kondisi operasi puncak P = 2.7 atm;T = 333.49 K 2.7000 atm
Density = A. B (1-T/Tc) ^ n
T= 60.49 C 333.49 K
Komponen A B n Tc , kg/m3
C2H4O2 0.34143 0.25838 0.27680 487.20 912.8126
CH3OH 0.27197 0.27192 0.23310 512.58 753.5882 (A*(B^(-((1-T/TC)^N)))
C2H7N 0.24110 0.26785 0.24800 437.65 606.6586
C3H9N 0.23283 0.25703 0.26870 433.25 581.6777
2854.7370

Komponen fraksi atas BM BM . x (kg/m3) .x


C2H4O2 0.8541 60.053 51.2887 912.8126 779.5948
CH3OH 0.0830 32.042 2.6588 753.5882 62.5308
C2H7N 0.0296 45.084 1.3365 606.6586 17.9845
C3H9N 0.0333 59.111 1.9696 581.6777 19.3813
1.0000 57.2536 879.4913

BM camp. = 57.2536
cairan = 879.4913 kg/m3
Menghitung uap :
BMxP
RxT
BMxP
gas = , R = 82.06 atm.L/gmol.K
RxT
= 154.5847
27366.0495
= 0.0056 kg/dm3
= 5.6488 kg/m3
= 0.3526 lb/f3

*) Menghitung Flv
L = Rop x D
V = (Rop+ 1)xD
Rop = 7.4210
D = 7.0057 kmol
L = 51.9894 kmol
= 0.8268 kg/dt
V= 58.9951 kmol
= 0.9382 kg/dt

F LV =

FLV = 0.0706
L
V V
L (Coulson and Richardson, hal 509)

*) Menghitung tegangan muka ( )


Menghitung tegangan muka pada kondisi puncak menara bubble point
= A.(1-T/Tc) ^ n T= 333.49 K
Komponen fraksi atas A Tc n , dynes/cm , N/m ,x N/m
C2H4O2 0.8541 43.997 487.200 0.453 26.0897 0.0261 0.02228
CH3OH 0.0830 52.723 512.580 0.377 35.4674 0.0355 0.00294
C2H7N 0.0296 41.070 437.650 0.424 22.3458 0.0223 0.00066
C3H9N 0.0333 34.600 433.250 0.384 19.6866 0.0197 0.00066
1.0000 0.02654

*) Menghitung kecepatan flooding(Uf)


Dari fig 11,27 Coulson and Richardson hal 509
FLV = 0.0706
Menggunakan plate spacing 0,45 m
K1 = 0.082
0,2

K 1 =K '
=
( )
0,02
0.0868

Uf = K1
=
L V
V
1.0793 m/dt
( Coulson and Richardson, hal 509)

Dirancang flooding maximum 60 % (Coulson and Richardson hal 509)


Uv = 1.0793 x 60 %
= 0.6476 m/dt

*) Menghitung luas area bebas untuk aliran uap (An)


Q
An=
UV
Dalam hubungan ini :
An = Luas permukaan aktif
Q = Laju alir volumetrik
v
Q=

v
Q=

= 0.1661 m3/dt
An = 0.2565 m2
AT = AD + An
Dimana :
AT = Luas permukaan total
AD = Luas permukaan down comer,12%
AT = AD + An
AT = 0,12AT + 0.2565
AT = 0.2915

D=
=
4 . AT

0.6093 m
= 23.9898 in

*) Menentukan luas down comer


Luas down comer sebesar 12 % dari luas penampang kolom :
AD = 0,12 AT
= 0.0350 m2

Kondisi Bawah Menara


Menghitung densitas pada kondisi operasi bawah menara bubble point
Kondisi operasi bawah P = 2.7 atm;T = 384.75 K
Density = A. B (1-T/Tc) ^ n
T= 111.75 C 384.75 K
Komponen A B n Tc , kg/m3
C2H4O2 0.34143 0.25838 0.27680 487.20 822.2644
CH3OH 0.27197 0.27192 0.23310 512.58 697.7074
H2O 0.34710 0.27400 0.28571 647.13 943.7915
C3H7NO 0.27376 0.23013 0.27630 647.00 860.0148
3323.7781

Komponen fraksi bawah BM BM . x (kg/m3) .x


C2H4O2 0.0005 60.053 0.0322 822.2644 0.4410
CH3OH 0.5107 32.042 16.3632 697.7074 356.3048
H2O 0.0061 18.015 0.1102 943.7915 5.7731
C3H7NO 0.4827 73.095 35.2806 860.0148 415.1011
1.0000 51.7862 777.6199

BM camp = 51.7862
cairan = 777.6199 kg/m3
Menghitung uap :

gas = BMxP , R = 82.06 atm.cm3/gmol.K


RxT
= 139.8227
31572.9420
= 0.0044 kg/dm3
= 4.4286 kg/m3
= 0.2765 lb/f3

*) Menghitung Flv
F= 119.6996 kmol
D= 7.0057 kmol
B= 112.6939 kmol
Rop = 7.4210
L = F + (R x D)
V = L+B
L= 171.6890 kmol
= 2.4698 kg/dt
V= 284.3829 kmol
= 4.0909 kg/dt

F LV =
FLV = 0.0456

L V
V L
(Coulson and Richardson, hal 510)

*) Menghitung tegangan muka (s)


Menghitung tegangan muka pada kondisi dasar menara bubble point
= A.(1-T/Tc) ^ n T= 384.75 K
Komponen fraksi bawah A Tc n , dynes/cm , N/m ,x N/m
C2H4O2 0.0005 43.997 487.200 0.453 21.7093 0.0217 0.00001
CH3OH 0.5107 52.723 512.580 0.377 31.2331 0.0312 0.01595
H2O 0.0061 52.053 647.130 0.321 38.9576 0.0390 0.00024
C3H7NO 0.4827 59.355 647.000 0.381 42.0756 0.0421 0.02031
1.0000 0.03651

*) Menghitung kecepatan flooding (Uf)


Dari fig 11,27 Coulson and Richardson hal 509
FLV = 0.0456
Menggunakan plate spacing 0,45 m
K1 = 0.079
0,2

K 1 =K '
=
0, 02( )
0.0891 0.1156

Uf = K1
=
L V ( Coulson and Richardson, hal 509)
V
1.17737 m/dt
Dirancang flooding maximum 60 % (Coulson and Richardson hal 509)
Uv = 1.1774 x 60%
= 0.7064 m/dt

*) Menghitung luas area bebas untuk aliran uap (An)


Q
An=
UV
Dalam hubungan ini :
An = Luas permukaan aktif
Q = Laju alir volumetrik

v
Q=
=
0.9237 m3/dt
An = 1.3076 m2
AT = AD + An
Dimana :
AT = Luas permukaan total
AD = Luas permukaan down comer,12%
AT = AD+An
AT = 0,12AT + 1.3076
AT = 1.4860

=
D=
4 . AT

1.3758 m
= 54.1670 in
*) Menentukan luas down comer
Luas down comer sebesar 12 % dari luas penampang kolom :
AD = 0,12 AT
= 0.1783 m2
*) Menentukan tebal shell (ts)
Dirancang menggunakan stainless steel
Menentukan tebal shell :

P .r
ts= +C (Pers. 13.1, Brownell & young, 1959; hal 254)
( f . E0,6. P)
Dalam hubungan ini :
ts = tebal shell
P = tekanan dalam vessel = 43.7 psia (1 atm) ====>>> Over design tekanan operasi = 1.1 P operasi (1.1-1.2)
r = Jari-jari dalam menara = 27.0835 in
E = effisiensi penggelasan = 0.85
C = faktor korosi = 0.125 in
f = Allowable stress, = 100 N/mm2 (Table 7.6 Caulson hal. 254) = 14507.7720 psia
Sehingga :
ts = 0.2211 in
maka digunakan tebal shell standar = 4/16 in ===> tabel 5.6 (Brownell, 1959 : 88)
*) Menentukan tebal head (th)
Direncanakan bentuk head torispherical, bahan carbon steel
OD = ID + 2ts
= 54.6670 in
Dari tabel 5-7 Brownell hal 90, untuk OD
OD standart = 48 in
ts = 4/16 in
icr = 3 in
r= 48 in

1
w= 3+
4
r
( )
icr
= 1.7500
Sehingga :
P .r . W (Pers. 7.77, Brownell & young, 1959; hal 138)
th = +C
2. f . E0,2 . P ID = OD standart - (2*ts)
= 0.2738 in
maka digunakan tebal head (th) standar = 5/16 in a= ID (jari-jari dalam shell)
*) Menghitung tinggi head 2
= 23.75 in

ID
AB = - icr
2
= 20.7500 in
BC = r irc
= 45.0000 in
AC = (BC2- AB2)1/2
= 39.9304 in
b = r AC
= 8.0696 in
keterangan :
ID = diameter dalam head
OD = diameter luar head
t = tebal head
r = jari-jari dish
icr = jari-jari dalam sudut dish
b = tinggi head
sf = straight flange
untuk th = 5/16 in pada tabel 5.6 Brownell & young, hal 88 diperoleh sf = 1 1/2 - 3
diambil sf = 2
tinggi haed =th + b + sf = 10.3821 in
= 0.2637 m

*) Menghitung tinggi MD
H =OA(top)+ OA(bottom) + (n-1) x t + tinggi ruang kosong
H = tinggi menara
OA = tinggi head
n = jumlah tray
t = tray spacing : 0,45 m : 17.7165 in
tinggi ruang kosong diambil : 16 in
H= 637.4099 in
= 16.1902 m
Tinggi Stripping :
451.5789 in
11.4701 m

*) Mengecek weeping
Diameter (Dc) = 1.3758 m
Luas area (AT) = 1.4860 m2
Downcomer area (Ad) = 0.1783 m2
Net area (An) = AT -Ad = 1.3076 m2
Active area (Aa) = AT2Ad = = 1.1293 m2
Hole Area(Ah) = 10 % Aa = 0.1129 m2
Menentukan weir length (Iw) : ( Dari fig.11.31, hal 514, Coulson & Rhicardson)
Diketahui :

Ad
= 0.12 m diperoleh Iw/Dc = 0.76
AT
Maka besarnya weir length = 0,76 x Dc
= 0.76 x 1.3758
Iw = 1.0456 m

Diambil weir height = 50 mm


Diameter hole = 5 mm
Plate thickness = 5 mm (Coulson, 1993 : 523)
Kecepatan maksimum laju alir cairan = 4.0909 kg/dt
Minimal kecepatan cairan (Lw) = 70% turn-down = 0.7 x 4.0909 kg/dt
= 2.8636 kg/dt
2
Maximum how = 750
[ ]
Lw
L Ad
2
3 = 56.4547

Minimum how = 750


[ ]
Lw
L lw
3
= 17.3608

Laju minimum = ho + how = 50 + 17.3608


= 67.3608 mm liquid
Dari fig 11,30 coulson hal 512, diperoleh K 2 = 30.6

uh =
[ K 2 0, 90 ( 25 , 4 d h ) ]
1
( v ) 2

uh =
[ K 2 0, 90 ( 25 , 4 d h ) ]
1
( v ) 2

= 5.8163 m3/dt
minimal kecepatan gas aktual = kecepatan minimum gas
Ah
= 0,7 x 0.9237
0.1129
= 5.7257 m3/dt

*) Menghitung Pressure drop plate


Pt = 9.81 x 10-3 ht. L
Pt = Total pressure drop plate (Pa = N/m2)
ht = Total pressure drop plate, mm Liquid
ht = hd + (hw + how) + hr
hd = Dry plate drop

hd = 51
[ ]
uh V
Co L
, Ah/Ap Ah/Aa = 10 shg diperoleh Co = 0.84 dari Fig. 11.34 (Coulson, 1993 : 517)

= 2.0111 mm liquid
3
hr = 12. 5 x 10
L
= 16.0747 mm liquid
ht = 85.4466 mm liquid
Pt = 651.8255 Pa
= 0.6518 kPa
= 0.0064 atm

KESIMPULAN :
Jenis = Sieve Plate Tray Kondisi atas =
Bahan = Stainless steel FLV = 0.0706
Tinggi MD-01 = 16.1902 m Uf = 1.0793 m/dt
Jumlah plate minimum = 9.7600 stage An = 0.2565 m2
Jumlah plate ideal = 20 stage AD = 0.0350 m2
Jumlah plate aktual = 34 stage Kondisi bawah =
Seksi stripping (bawah) = 25 buah FLV = 0.0456
Seksi enriching (atas) = 9 buah Uf = 1.17737 m/dt
Diameter atas = 0.6093 m An = 1.3076 m2
Diameter bawah = = 1.3758 m AD = 0.1783 m2
Diambil Diameter MD-01 = 0.9926 m
Pt = 0.0064 atm
Umpan masuk = tray nomer : 24
637.4099
23.9898
54.1670
Ant A Ant B Ant C
C2H4O2 16.5104 2590.87 -42.6
CH3OH 18.5875 3626.55 -34.29
C2H7N 16.2653 2358.77 -35.13
C3H9N 16.0499 2230.51 -39.15
H2O 18.3036 3816.44 -46.13
C3H7NO 15.77 3147.7 -81.342

Dew point : T= 325.59 P= 1 atm


= 52.59 C
Komponen yi A B C
C2H4O2 0.8541 16.5104 2590.87 -42.6
CH3OH 0.0830 18.5875 3626.55 -34.29
C2H7N 0.0296 16.2653 2358.77 -35.13
C3H9N 0.0333 16.0499 2230.51 -39.15
1.0000

ln Pi Pi Ki = Pi/Pt xi =yi/ki
7.3550 2.0579 2.0579 0.4150
6.1379 0.6093 0.6093 0.1362
8.1444 4.5318 4.5318 0.0065
8.2629 5.1015 5.1015 0.0065
0.5643

Dew point : T= 402.61 P= 1 atm


= 129.61 C
Komponen yi A B C
C2H4O2 0.0005 16.5104 2590.87 -42.6
CH3OH 0.5107 18.5875 3626.55 -34.29
H2O 0.0061 18.3036 3816.44 -46.13
C3H7NO 0.4827 15.77 3147.7 -81.342
1.0000

ln Pi Pi Ki = Pi/Pt xi =yi/ki
9.3137 14.5904 14.5904 0.0000
8.7412 8.2311 8.2311 0.0620
7.5976 2.6229 2.6229 0.0023
5.9722 0.5163 0.5163 0.9349
0.9993
STRIPPER (St-01)

1. Fungsi : Memurnikan campuran methylformate dari impuritasnya untuk di recycle ke reaktor


2. Asumsi :
1. Kondisi operasi adiabatic
2. Tidak terjadi reaksi kimia selama operasi
3. Kondisi gas ideal

Jenis : Menara bahan isian (packed towers).


Arah aliran : counter current (lawan arah)

3. Kondisi operasi :
P= 2.2 atm = 1672 mmHg
T= 53.7167 oC = 326.8667 K

G2
Gs
Y2
y2

L2
Ls
X2
x2

G1
Gs
L1
Y1
Ls
y1
X1
x1

Umpan masuk
komponen kg %berat BM kmol %mol TD, oC
C2H4O2 359.3153 0.8958 60.053 5.9833 0.8541 31.7
CH3OH 18.6266 0.0464 32.042 0.5813 0.0830 64.6
C2H7N 9.3633 0.0233 45.084 0.2077 0.0296 6.9
C3H9N 13.7982 0.0344 59.111 0.2334 0.0333 2.87
Total 401.1034 1.0000 7.0057 1.0000
Atas :
komponen kg %berat BM kmol %mol
C2H4O2 0.3592 0.0186 60.053 0.0060 0.0166
C2H7N 6.5526 0.3390 45.084 0.1453 0.4022
C3H9N 12.4184 0.6424 59.111 0.2101 0.5813
19.3302 1.0000 0.3614 1.0000

bawah :
komponen kg %berat BM kmol %mol
C2H7N 2.8107 0.0074 0.0623 0.0094
C3H9N 1.3798 0.0036 0.0233 0.0035
C2H4O2 358.9561 0.9402 60.053 5.9773 0.8996
CH3OH 18.6266 0.0488 32.042 0.5813 0.0875
381.7732 1.0000 6.6443 1.0000

a. Kondisi oprasi Umpan (bubble point)


T = 326.8667 K P = 2.2 atm
53.7167 C 128.6900 F 1672 mmHg
komponen %mol A B C ln Pi Pi Ki=Pi/Pt yi =Ki xi
C2H4O2 0.8541 16.5104 2590.87 -42.6 7.3962 1629.7408 0.9747 0.8325
CH3OH 0.0830 18.5875 3626.55 -34.29 6.1923 488.9633 0.2924 0.0243
C2H7N 0.0296 16.2653 2358.77 -35.13 8.1800 3568.9583 2.1345 0.0633
C3H9N 0.0333 16.0499 2230.51 -39.15 8.2974 4013.6117 2.4005 0.0800
Total 1.0000 1.0000

b. Kondisi oprasi Atas (dew point)


T = 300.2949498854 K P = 2.2 atm
27.1449 C 80.86090979 F 1672 mmHg
komponen %mol A B C ln Pi Pi Ki=Pi/Pt xi =yi/Ki
C2H4O2 0.0166 16.5104 2590.87 -42.6 6.4564 636.7523 0.3808 0.0435
C2H7N 0.4022 16.2653 2358.77 -35.13 7.3698 1587.3451 0.9494 0.4236
C3H9N 0.5813 16.0499 2230.51 -39.15 7.5086 1823.7100 1.0907 0.5329
Total 1.0000 1.0000
c. Kondisi oprasi Bawah (bubble point)
T = 329.1064 K P = 2.2 atm
55.9564 C 132.7216084 F 1672 mmHg
komponen %mol A B C ln Pi Pi Ki=Pi/Pt yi =Ki xi
C2H7N 0.0094 16.2653 2358.77 -35.13 8.2416 3795.7225 2.2702 0.0213
C3H9N 0.0035 16.0499 2230.51 -39.15 8.3573 4261.3060 2.5486 0.0090
C2H4O2 0.8996 16.5104 2590.87 -42.6 7.4674 1750.0984 1.0467 0.9416
CH3OH 0.0875 18.5875 3626.55 -34.29 6.2865 537.2462 0.3213 0.0281
Total 1.0000 1.0000

1. Menghitung densitas, dan kecepatan laju alir volumetrik

Density = A. B (1-T/Tc) ^ n T = 326.8667 K


komponen A B n Tc (kg/m3)
C2H4O2 0.34143 0.25838 0.27680 487.20 923.41456743
CH3OH 0.27197 0.27192 0.23310 512.58 760.14390109
C2H7N 0.24110 0.26785 0.24800 437.65 615.3421648
C3H9N 0.23283 0.25703 0.26870 433.25 591.02860332

Log = A+B/T+CT+CT2 T = 326.8667 K


komponen A B C D , cp
C2H4O2 -8.0637 1.01E+03 2.09E-02 -2.30E-05 2.55E-01
CH3OH -9.0562 1.25E+03 2.24E-02 -2.35E-05 3.82E-01
C2H7N -11.5558 1.21E+03 3.50E-02 -4.13E-05 1.54E-01
C3H9N -3.9726 4.42E+02 1.07E-02 -1.61E-05 1.38E-01

Menghitung Densitas dan viskositas umpan :


Komponen %mol BM BM.(x) , kg/m3 .x .x
C2H4O2 0.8541 60.053 51.2887 923.4146 788.6495 0.2552 0.2179
CH3OH 0.0830 32.042 2.6588 760.1439 63.0747 0.3822 0.0317
C2H7N 0.0296 45.084 1.3365 615.3422 18.2419 0.1536 0.0046
C3H9N 0.0333 59.111 1.9696 591.0286 19.6928 0.1380 0.0046
Total 1.0000 57.2536 889.6590 0.2588

Menghitung beban panas stripper :


Dari Neraca panas :
9596.15 Kj = 9095.36387 Btu
Mencari jumlah steam yang dibutuhkan :
Kecepatan gas (V) :
= 19.3302 kg/jam
= 0.00537 kg/dt
= 0.3614 kmol/jam
= 0.0001 kmol/dt

Kecepatan cairan (L) :


= 381.7732 kg/jam
= 0.10605 kg/dt
= 6.6443 kmol/jam
= 0.0018456 kmol/dt

BM rata-rata 57.2536
rata-rata :
= 889.6590 kg/m3
= 55.53774 lb/f3

BM P
gas=
RT

= 57.2536 x 2.2
82.63 x 326.8667
= 0.00466 kg/dm3
= 4.6636 kg/m3
= 0.2911 lb/f3
= 0.25878 cP
= 0.0002 lb/f dt

Menghitung liquid vapour factor


0,5
L g
Flv =
V L ( )
= 0.10605 4.6636 . 0,5
0.00537 889.6590
= 1.42993

Dari fig 367, Brown, hal 362 diperoleh :


2
G g a
L0,2
L gc ( )
3
= 0.01

Dengan menggunakan rashing ring 1 untuk packed tower diperoleh :

a = 185(Brown, hal 362)


3
gc = 4,1698 ,108 lb,f/lbf ,j2

Maka : 0 .5

[ ]
gc . L
0,19 x
Gf = g.
( a )
3
0,2

= 1034.3159 lb/jam. f2
Untuk flooding 60 %
G = 0,6 x 1034.3159 lb/jam.f2
= 827.4527 lb/jam.f2
= 0.22985 lb/detik. f2
= 1.1220 kg/dt m2
Laju alir massa :
= 401.1034 kg/jam
= 0.11142 kg/dt
Laju umpan
Luas area =
G'
= 0.11142
1.1220
= 0.09930 m2 V = 0.6008349185 m3

A = 2
D
4
D = 0.3557 m
= 14.00254 in

Menghitung tinggi packing


Z = NtoL. HtoL (Treyball hal 308)
Dimana : X1
1 + X1
dX
NtoL (jumlah transfer unit) = + 0,5 ln 1 +X
X 2 X X 2

HtoL (tinggi transfer unit) = L L L


= =
F OL a Kxa ( 1x ) M K L ac ( 1 x ) M
3) Menghitung harga NtoL
Persamaan garis setimbang, (Treybal hal 287) :

y P C3H9N x
1+ y
=
P
t
1+ x( )
Pt y
x

=
P C3H9N
( )
1+ y
( 1+ x )

Pt = 2.2 atm
= 222926 N/m2
Po C3H9N = 4013.6117 mmHg
=
535014.4372 N/m2
P
y
pt

x (Fraksi mol umpan C3H9N)
P* = P x
= 222926 x 0.0333
= 7427.8 N/m 2

Y
=
1+Y 7427.8 X

222926 1+ X
Y
1+Y
X
= 0.0333
1+ X
X
Y* = 0.0333 (1+Y*)
1 X

[ ]
0.0333 X X
1 = 0.0333
1 X
1+X
0,0333 X
1+ X
Y* =

[ 1
0,0333 X
1+ X ]
X
1+ X

Y

P o Treybal hal 287
( 1+ Y ) = Pt

X
Y
= 7427.8
( )
1+ X




222926 1+ Y


Y
X* = 0.0333 ( 1+ Y )
( 1+ X )

0 . 0333 X
1+ X
Y* =
[ 1
0 . 0333 X
1+ X ]
Fraksi mol cair :
Mol solut keluar = 0.0035
x 1=
Mol cairan

Mol solut umpan


x 2=
Mol cairan
Mol solut umpan = 0.0333
x 2=
Mol cairan
x1 x1
X 1= X 2=
1x 1 1 x 1
= 0.0035 = 0.0333
0.9965 0.9667
= 0.0035 = 0.0345

Menghitung X dan Y : 0.002210178


y x
Y= ; X= (Hal 283, Treybal)
1 y 1x
X Y* X* 1/X-X* Simp's rule
0.0035 0.0025963 0.0019 621.09 1 621.09
0.0057 0.0042214 0.0031 381.77 4 1527.06
0.0079 0.0058447 0.0043 275.58 2 551.15
0.0102 0.0074661 0.0055 215.60 4 862.42
0.0124 0.0090856 0.0067 177.07 2 354.14
0.0146 0.0107033 0.0079 150.22 4 600.89
0.0168 0.0123190 0.0091 130.44 2 260.89
0.0190 0.0139330 0.0103 115.27 4 461.07
0.0212 0.0155450 0.0115 103.25 2 206.51
0.0234 0.0171552 0.0127 93.51 4 374.03
0.0256 0.0187635 0.0139 85.44 2 170.89
0.0278 0.0203699 0.0151 78.66 4 314.64
0.0300 0.0219746 0.0163 72.87 2 145.75
0.0323 0.0235773 0.0175 67.88 4 271.52
0.0345 0.0251782 0.0187 63.53 1 63.53
6785.58

Dengan menggunakan metode Simpsons, maka :


x1

dX
X X
=
X
3
6785.5791
x2
= 0.0022 6785.5791
3
= 4.99911
X1
1 + X1
NtoL = dX
X X
+ 0,5 ln
1 + X2
X2

= 4.99911 , + 0,5 ln 1 + 0.00353


1 + 0.03447
= 2.15831
3) Menghitung HtoL
Tinggi HtoL untuk menara isian 1 ft = 0.3048 m
Z = NtoL. HtoL

Tinggi packing :
= 2.15831 + 0.3048
= 2.46311 m 96.9728009
Menentukan tebal shell (ts)
Dirancang menggunakan Carbon steel
Menentukan tebal shell :
P .r
ts= +C
( f . E0,6 . P)
Dalam hubungan ini :
ts = tebal shell
P = tekanan dalam vessel = 32.34 psi
r = Jari-jari dalam vessel = 14.003 in
E = effisiensi pengelasan = 0.85
C = faktor korosi = 0.125 in
f =Allowable stress, = 130 N/mm (Table 7.6 Coulson hal. 254)
2

f = tegangan yang diijinkan = 18859.173 psia


ts = 0.15328 in
digunakan tebal standar 3/16 in 0.1875

Menentukan tebal head(th)


Direncanakan bentuk head torispherical, bahan carbon steel
OD = ID + 2ts
= 14.3775 in = 22 in
Dari tabel 5-7 Brownell,untuk OD = 22 in, ts=5/8 in
icr = 1.125 in
r= 20 in

w=
1
4( )
3+
r
icr
= 1.8041
P .r . W
th = +C
2. f . E0,2 . P
= 0.1614 in
digunakan tebal standar 5/8 in
Menghitung tinggi head
OD

b
OA

icr
B A
sf

ID t
a

ID
a=
2
= 10.8125 in
ID
AB= icr
2
= 9.6875 in
BC = r irc
= 18.875 in
AC = (BC2- AB2)1/2
= 16.1993 in
b = r AC
= 3.8007 in
untuk tebal shell 1 in diambil sf = 2in
tinggi head = th + b + Sf
= 6.0507 in
= 0.15369 m
Tinggi ruang puncak = 0,4 m
Tinggi ruang bawah = 0,6 m
inggi Stripper = Tinggi packing + (2x tinggi head) + Tinggi ruang kosong
= 2.46311 +2 x 0.15369 + (0,4 + 0,6 )
= 3.77048 m
148.4442396
PERANCANGAN MENARA DISTILASI-02

Kode : MD-02
Fungsi : Untuk memurnikan produk yang keluar dari MD-01 agar sesuai dengan spesifikasi produk
Jenis : Sieve plat tray
Neraca massa :
Umpan
Komponen kg/jm fraksi BM kmol fraksi
C2H4O2 3.6294 0.0006 60.053 0.0604 0.0005
CH3OH 1844.0312 0.3160 32.042 57.5504 0.5107
H2O 12.4184 0.0021 18.015 0.6893 0.0061
C3H7NO 3975.9054 0.6813 73.095 54.3937 0.4827
5835.9844 1.0000 112.6939 1.0000
Atas
Komponen kg/jm fraksi BM kmol fraksi
C2H4O2 3.6294 0.0020 60.053 0.0604 0.0010
CH3OH 1842.1872 0.9911 32.042 57.4929 0.9895
H2O 8.9192 0.0048 18.015 0.4951 0.0085
C3H7NO 3.9759 0.0021 73.095 0.0544 0.0009
1858.7117 1.0000 58.1028 1.0000
Bawah
Komponen kg/jm fraksi BM kmol fraksi
CH3OH 1.8440 0.0005 32.042 0.0576 0.0011
H2O 3.4992 0.0009 18.015 0.1942 0.0036
C3H7NO 3971.9295 0.9987 73.095 54.3393 0.9954
3977.2727 1.0000 54.5911 1.0000
Neraca massa total
Komponen Input Output
Atas Bawah
C2H4O2 3.6294 3.6294
CH3OH 1844.0312 1842.1872 1.8440
H2O 12.4184 8.9192 3.4992
C3H7NO 3975.9054 3.9759 3971.9295
1858.7117 3977.2727
Total 5835.9844 5835.9844

Umpan T= 354.29 K P= 760 mmHg


Bubble point : = 81.14 C 1 atm
Komponen xi A B C ln Pi
C2H4O2 0.0005 16.5104 2590.87 -42.6 8.1981
CH3OH 0.5107 18.5875 3626.55 -34.29 7.2545
H2O 0.0061 18.3036 3816.44 -46.13 5.9190
C3H7NO 0.4827 15.77 3147.7 -81.342 4.2378
1.0000

Hasil Atas :
Bubble point : T= 337.80 K P= 760 mmHg
= 64.80 C
Komponen xi A B C ln Pi
C2H4O2 0.0010 16.5104 2590.87 -42.6 7.7336
CH3OH 0.9895 18.5875 3626.55 -34.29 6.6386
H2O 0.0085 18.3036 3816.44 -46.13 5.2186
C3H7NO 0.0009 15.77 3147.7 -81.342 3.4960
1.0000

Hasil Bawah T= 424.78 K P= 760 mmHg


Bubble point : = 151.78 C
Komponen xi A B C ln Pi
CH3OH 0.0011 18.5875 3626.55 -34.29 9.3003
H2O 0.0036 18.3036 3816.44 -46.13 8.2245
C3H7NO 0.9954 15.77 3147.7 -81.342 6.6047
1.0000

Bubble point 354.2898 337.7954 424.7805

Menentukan komponen kunci atas (LK) dan bawah (HK)


LK CH3OH
HK C3H7NO
Umpan dalam keadaan bubble point, dimana q = 1
Menghitung rata-rata :
Ki
i
K komponen berat

Komponen Ki atas Ki bawah atas bawah i


C2H4O2 3.0050 69.2392 34.6196
CH3OH 1.0053 14.3970 23.1636 14.8142 18.9889
H2O 0.2430 4.9098 5.5989 5.0520 5.3255
C3H7NO 0.0434 0.9718 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000

Selanjutnya dengan cara trial&error dicari (Konstanta Underwood)


(Coulson & Richardson's, hal.465)

Umpan cair jenuh, q = 1


q = 1.8389
komponen frak ump ai ai.xi ai - q
( ix i )
( i )

C2H4O2 0.0005 34.6196 0.0186 32.7807 0.0006


CH3OH 0.5107 18.9889 9.6972 17.1500 0.5654
H2O 0.0061 5.3255 0.0326 3.4866 0.0093
C3H7NO 0.4827 1.0000 0.4827 -0.8389 -0.5753
1.0000 0.0000

Menentukan Rmin :

i x i, d
=R m+1
i
Menghitung Refluks Ratio (Coulson & Richardson's, hal 470)
Komponen Fraksi atas i i. Xid i - i Rmin + 1
C2H4O2 0.0010 34.6196 0.0360 32.7807 0.0011
CH3OH 0.9895 18.9889 18.7896 17.1500 1.0956
H2O 0.0085 5.3255 0.0454 3.4866 0.0130
C3H7NO 0.0009 1.0000 9.4E-04 -0.8389 -0.0011
1.0000 1.1086
Rmin + 1 = 1.1086
Rmin = 0.1086
Roperasi = 0.1086 x 1.3
= 0.1412
Rmin/Rmin+1 = 0.0980
Rop/Rop+1 = 0.1237

*) Menentukan jumlah plate


a. Menghitung Plate Minimum dengan Metode Fenske Equetion

Nm=
log
[ x LK
x HK ][
d
x HK
x LK ] b

log LK
Nm=
log
[ x LK
x HK ][
d
x HK
x LK ] b
(Coulson & Richardsons,hal 469)
log LK

XLK distilat = 0.9895


XHK distilat = 0.0009
XLK bottom = 0.0011
XHK bottom = 0.9954
LK = 18.9889
sehingga:
Nm = 4.6923

b.Menentukan Jumlah Plate ideal :


(R-Rm)/(R+1) = 0.0285 < 0.125

S - Sm R - Rm R - Rm
S +1
= 0.5039-0.5968
R+ 1 (
- 0.0908 Log
R+1) ( )
S=N= Jumlah plate teoritis
Sm = Nm = 4.6923

SSm
( S+1
S-Sm =
= ) 0.6271

0.6271 (S+1)
0.3729 S = 9.3846
S = 25.1661905
S = N = 25 stage

*) Menghitung viskositas campuran


Log = A + B/T + CT + DT2
T = 354.29 K
Komponen A B C D , cp
C2H4O2 -8.0637 1.01E+03 2.09E-02 -2.30E-05 0.2041
CH3OH -9.0562 1.25E+03 2.24E-02 -2.35E-05 0.2880
H2O -10.2158 1.7925E+03 1.7730E-02 -1.2631E-05 0.3465
C3H7NO -5.3292 8.95E+02 1.06E-02 -1.01E-05 0.4710

*) Menghitung efisiensi
Eo=1761 , 1 log ( F,avg )
= 43 %
*) Menghitung plate aktual
N
N act =
Eo
N
N act = (Coulson, 1993 : 489)
Eo
= 55.9286
= 56 stage
Menghitung plate atas dan bawah :
dimana :

[( )( )( ) ]
2
x f , HK x b , LK
Nr
[ ] B Nr = jumlah stages atas (rectifying)
log =0, 206 log Ns = jumlah stages bawah (stripping)
Ns D x f , LK x d , HK B = laju alir Bottom
D = laju alir distilat
(Coulson & Richardson's, hal 471) xf,HK = consentrasi umpan untuk heavy
xf,LK = consentrasi umpan untuk light k
data : xb,LK = consentrasi bottom untuk light
B = 54.5911 kmol xd,HK = consentrasi distilat untuk heavy
D = 58.1028 kmol
xf,HK = 0.4827
xf,LK = 0.5107
xb,LK = 0.0011
xd,HK = 0.9954
log(Nr/Ns) = -1.23635
Nr/Ns = 0.0580
Nr+Ns = 24 , Karena termasuk reboiler maka Nr + Ns = N - 1
Ns = 22.6837 (bawah)
Nr = 1.3163 (atas)
jumlah plate seksi stripping (bawah) = 52.8611 buah 53
jumlah plate seksi enriching (atas) = 3.0675 buah 3
total plate aktual = 56 buah
*) Menentukan dimensi kolom
Kondisi Atas Menara
Menghitung densitas pada kondisi operasi puncak menara bubble point
Kondisi operasi puncak P = 1 atm;T = 337.80 K
Density = A. B (1-T/Tc) ^ n
T= 64.80 C 337.80
Komponen A B n Tc , kg/m3
C2H4O2 0.34143 0.25838 0.27680 487.20 905.8056
CH3OH 0.27197 0.27192 0.23310 512.58 749.2549
H2O 0.34710 0.27400 0.28571 647.13 990.3758
C3H7NO 0.27376 0.23013 0.2763 647 907.0988
3552.5350

Komponen fraksi atas BM BM . x (kg/m3) .x


C2H4O2 0.0010 60.053 0.0625 905.8056 0.9422
CH3OH 0.9895 32.042 31.7056 749.2549 741.3896
H2O 0.0085 18.015 0.1535 990.3758 8.4390
C3H7NO 0.0009 73.095 0.0684 907.0988 0.8492
1.0000 31.9900 751.6201

BM camp. = 31.9900
cairan = 751.6201 kg/m3
Menghitung uap :

gas =
BMxP , R = 82.06 atm.L/gmol.K
RxT
= 31.9900
27719.4944
= 0.0012 kg/dm3
= 1.1541 kg/m3
= 0.0720 lb/f3

*) Menghitung Flv
L = Rop x D
V = (Rop+ 1)xD
Rop = 0.1412
D = 58.1028 kmol
L = 8.2030 kmol
= 0.0729 kg/dt
V= 66.3058 kmol
= 0.5892 kg/dt

F LV =
L
V
FLV = 0.0121
V
L (Coulson and Richardson, hal 478)
0.00

*) Menghitung tegangan muka ( )


Menghitung tegangan muka pada kondisi puncak menara bubble point
= A.(1-T/Tc) ^ n T= 337.80 K
Komponen fraksi atas A Tc n , dynes/cm
C2H4O2 0.0010 43.997 487.20 0.453 25.7560
CH3OH 0.9895 52.723 512.58 0.377 35.1434
H2O 0.0085 52.053 647.13 0.321 41.0719
C3H7NO 0.0009 59.355 647.00 0.381 44.8009
1.0000

*) Menghitung kecepatan flooding(Uf)


Dari fig 11,27 Coulson and Richardson hal 509
FLV = 0.0121
Menggunakan plate spacing 0,25 m
K1 = 0.065
0,2

K 1 =K ' ( )
0, 02
= 0.0728

Uf = K1
L V
V
( Coulson and Richardson, hal 509)

= 1.8559 m/dt
Dirancang flooding maximum 85 % (Coulson and Richardson hal 509)
Uv = 1.8559 x 60 %
= 1.5775 m/dt

*) Menghitung luas area bebas untuk aliran uap (An)


Q
An =
UV
Dalam hubungan ini :
An = Luas permukaan aktif
Q = Laju alir volumetrik
v
Q=

= 0.5105 m3/dt
An = 0.3236 m2
AT = AD + An
Dimana :
AT = Luas permukaan total
AD = Luas permukaan down comer,12%
AT = AD + An
AT = 0.12AT + 0.3236
AT = 0.3678

D=
=
4 . AT

0.6845 m
= 26.9478 in

*) Menentukan luas down comer


Luas down comer sebesar 12 % dari luas penampang kolom :
AD = 0,12 AT
= 0.0441 m2

Kondisi Bawah Menara


Menghitung densitas pada kondisi operasi bawah menara bubble point
Kondisi operasi bawah P = 1 atm;T = 424.78 K
Density = A. B (1-T/Tc) ^ n
T= 151.78 C 424.78
Komponen A B n Tc , kg/m3
CH3OH 0.27197 0.27192 0.23310 512.58 644.7234
H2O 0.34710 0.27400 0.28571 647.13 901.1755
C3H7NO 0.27376 0.23013 0.2763 647 817.0897
2362.9886

Komponen fraksi bawah BM BM . x (kg/m3) .x


CH3OH 0.0011 32.042 0.0338 644.7234 0.6797
H2O 0.0036 18.015 0.0641 901.1755 3.2064
C3H7NO 0.9954 73.095 72.7579 817.0897 813.3211
1.0000 72.8557 817.2072

BM camp = 72.8557
cairan = 817.2072 kg/m3
Menghitung uap :

BMxP
gas = , R = 82.06 atm.cm3/gmol.K
RxT
= 72.8557
34857.4902
= 0.0021 kg/dm3
= 2.0901 kg/m3
= 0.1305 lb/f3

*) Menghitung Flv
F= 112.6939 kmol
D= 58.1028 kmol
B= 54.5911 kmol
Rop = 0.1412
L = F + (R x D)
V = L+B
L= 120.8969 kmol
= 2.4467 kg/dt
V= 175.4879 kmol
= 3.5515 kg/dt

F LV =
L
V
FLV = 0.0348
V
L
(Coulson and Richardson, hal 478)

*) Menghitung tegangan muka (s)


Menghitung tegangan muka pada kondisi dasar menara bubble point
= A.(1-T/Tc) ^ n T= 424.78 K
Komponen fraksi bawah A Tc n , dynes/cm
CH3OH 0.0011 52.723 512.58 0.377 27.1092
H2O 0.0036 52.053 647.13 0.321 36.9416
C3H7NO 0.9954 59.355 647.00 0.381 39.5027
1.0000

*) Menghitung kecepatan flooding (Uf)


Dari fig 11,27 Coulson and Richardson hal 509
FLV = 0.0348
Menggunakan plate spacing 0,25 m
K1 = 0.07
. 0,2

K 1= K ' ( 0, 02 )
= 0.0802 0.1156

Uf = K1
L V
V
( Coulson and Richardson, hal 509)

= 1.5838 m/dt
Dirancang flooding maximum 60 % (Coulson and Richardson hal 509)
Uv = 1.5838 x 60%
= 1.3462 m/dt

*) Menghitung luas area bebas untuk aliran uap (An)


Q
An =
UV
Dalam hubungan ini :
An = Luas permukaan aktif
Q = Laju alir volumetrik

v
Q=

= 1.6992 m3/dt
An = 1.2622 m2
AT = AD + An
Dimana :
AT = Luas permukaan total
AD = Luas permukaan down comer,12%
AT = AD+An
AT = 0,12AT + 1.2622
AT = 1.4343

D=

=
4 . AT

1.3517 m
= 53.2174 in
*) Menentukan luas down comer
Luas down comer sebesar 12 % dari luas penampang kolom :
AD = 0,12 AT
= 0.1721 m2
*) Menentukan tebal shell (ts)
Dirancang menggunakan stainless steel
Menentukan tebal shell :

P.r
ts= +C (Pers. 13.1, Brownell & young, 1959; hal 254)
( f . E0,6 . P)
Dalam hubungan ini :
ts = tebal shell
P = tekanan dalam vessel = 16.2 psia (1 atm) ====>>> Over design tekanan operasi = 1.1 Poperasi (1
r = Jari-jari dalam menara = 26.6087 in
E = effisiensi penggelasan = 0.85
C = faktor korosi = 0.125 in
f = Allowable stress, = 100 N/mm2 (Table 7.6 Caulson hal. 254) =
Sehingga :
ts = 0.1599 in
maka digunakan tebal shell standar = 3/16 in 0.1875
*) Menentukan tebal head (th)
Direncanakan bentuk head torispherical, bahan carbon steel
OD = ID + 2ts
= 53.59240767 in
Dari tabel 5-7 Brownell,
OD standart = 54 in
ts = 3/16 in
icr = 3 1/4 in
r= 54 in

w=
1
4( )
3+
r
icr
= 1.7690
Sehingga :
P .r . W
th = +C (Pers. 7.77, Brownell & young, 1959; hal 138)
2. f . E0,2 . P
= 0.1876 in
maka digunakan tebal head (th) standar = 1/4 in
*) Menghitung tinggi head
ID = OD standart - (2*ts)

a = ID
2
= 26.75
AB = ID - icr
2
= 23 1/2
BC = r irc
= 50 3/4
AC = (BC2- AB2)1/2
= 44.9812
b= r AC
= 9.0188
keterangan :
ID = diameter dalam head
OD = diameter luar head
t = tebal head
r = jari-jari dish
icr = jari-jari dalam sudut dish
b = tinggi head
sf = straight flange

untuk th = 1/4 in pada tabel 5.6 Brownell & young, hal 88 diperoleh sf = 1 1/2 - 2 1/2
diambil sf = 2
tinggi haed =th + b + sf = 11.2688 in
= 0.2862 m

*) Menghitung tinggi MD
H =(OA*2) + (n-1) x t + tinggi ruang kosong
H = tinggi menara
OA = tinggi head
n = jumlah tray
t = tray spacing : 0,25 m : 9.8425 in
tinggi ruang kosong diambil : 16 in
H= 595.8761 in
= 15.1353 m
Tinggi Stripping :
539.0798 in
13.6926 m

*) Mengecek weeping
Diameter (Dc) = 1.3517 m
Luas area (AT) = 1.4343 m2
Downcomer area (Ad) = 0.1721 m2
Net area (An) = AT -Ad = 1.2622 m2
Active area (Aa) = AT2Ad = = 1.0901 m2
Hole Area(Ah) = 10 % Aa = 0.1090 m2
Menentukan weir length (Iw) : ( Dari fig.11.31, hal 514, Coulson & Rhicardson)
Diketahui :

Ad
= 0.12 m diperoleh Iw/Dc = 0.7600
AT
Maka besarny0,76 x Dc
= 0.7600 x 1.3517
Iw = 1.0273 m

Diambil weir height = 50 mm


Diameter hole = 5 mm
Plate thickness = 5 mm hal 523 Coulson Richardson
Kecepatan maksimum laju alir cairan = 3.5515 kg/dt
Minimal kecepatan cairan (Lw) = 70% turn-down = 0.7 x 3.5515
= 2.4860 kg/dt
2
Maximum how = 750
[ ]
Lw
L Ad
2
3 = 50.8894

Minimum how = 750


Lw
[ ]
L lw
3
= 15.4660

Laju minimum = ho + how = 50 + 15.4660


= 65.4660 mm liquid
Dari fig 11,30 coulson hal 512, diperoleh K 2 = 30.5

uh =
[ K 2 0, 90 ( 25 , 4 d h ) ]
1
( v ) 2

= 8.3972 m3/dt
minimal kecepatan gas aktual = kecepatan minimum gas
Ah
= 0,7 x 1.6992
0.1090
= 10.9114 m3/dt

*) Menghitung Pressure drop plate


Pt = 9.81 x 10-3 ht. L
Pt = Total pressure drop plate (Pa = N/m2)
ht = Total pressure drop plate, mm Liquid
ht = hd + (hw + how) + hr
hd = Dry plate drop

[ ]
hd = 51 uh V
Co L
, Ah/Ap Ah/Aa = 10 shg diperoleh Co = 0.84

= 1.3040 mm liquid
3
12.5 x10
L
3
hr = 12.5 x10
L
= 15.2960 mm liquid
ht = 82.0659 mm liquid
Pt = 657.9062 Pa
= 0.6579 kPa
= 0.0065 atm

KESIMPULAN :
Jenis = Sieve Plate Tray Kondisi atas =
Bahan = Stainless steel FLV =
Tinggi MD-01 = 15.1353 m Uf =
Jumlah plate minimum = 4.6923 stage An =
Jumlah plate ideal = 25 stage AD =
Jumlah plate aktual = 56 stage Kondisi bawah =
Seksi stripping (bawah) = 53 buah FLV =
Seksi enriching (atas) = 3 buah Uf =
Diameter atas = 0.6845 m An =
Diameter bawah = = 1.3517 m AD =
Diambil Diameter MD-01 = 1.0181 m
Pt = 0.0065 atm
Umpan masuk = tray nomer : 53

26.9478
53.2174
595.8761
02

sesuai dengan spesifikasi produk


Pi Ki = Pi/Pt yi =ki.xi
3633.9081 4.7815 0.0026
1414.4876 1.8612 0.9505
372.0339 0.4895 0.0030
69.2523 0.0911 0.0440
1.0000

Pi Ki = Pi/Pt yi =ki.xi
2283.8200 3.0050 0.0031
764.0403 1.0053 0.9948
184.6770 0.2430 0.0021
32.9845 0.0434 0.0000
1.0000

Pi Ki = Pi/Pt yi =ki.xi
10941.6834 14.3970 0.0152
3731.4184 4.9098 0.0175
738.5952 0.9718 0.9674
1.0000
hardsons,hal 469)

fr.umpan .x
0.0005 0.000109471
0.5107 0.147074517
0.0061 0.002119565
0.4827 0.22732271
1.0000 0.376626263
(Carl L Yaws, 1999)
r = jumlah stages atas (rectifying)
s = jumlah stages bawah (stripping)
= laju alir Bottom
= laju alir distilat
f,HK = consentrasi umpan untuk heavy key
f,LK = consentrasi umpan untuk light key
b,LK = consentrasi bottom untuk light key
d,HK = consentrasi distilat untuk heavyt key

buah
buah

K
, N/m .x N/m
0.0258 2.679089E-05
0.0351 0.0348
0.0411 0.0003
0.0448008711 4.194089E-05
0.0352
K
, N/m .x N/m
0.0271 2.857877E-05
0.0369 0.0001
0.0395 0.0393
0.0395
sign tekanan operasi = 1.1 Poperasi (1.1-1.2)

14507.7720 psia

, 1959; hal 138)

OD standart - (2*ts)

(jari-jari dalam shell)

in
in

in

in

in

son & Rhicardson)


n Richardson

kg/dt

dari Fig. 11.34 (Coulson, 1993 : 517)


ondisi atas =
0.0121
1.5775 m/dt
0.3236 m2
0.0441 m2
ondisi bawah =
0.0348
1.5838 m/dt
1.2622 m2
0.1721 m2
Dew point T = 390.19 K P = 1
= 117.19 C
Komponen yi A B C
CH3COOH 0.1532 16.808 3405.57 -56.34
C4H9OH 0.6927 17.216 3137.02 -94.43
H2O 0.0912 18.3036 3816.44 -46.13
CH3COOC4 0.063 16.1836 3151.09 -69.15
1

ln Pi Pi Ki = Pi/Pt xi =yi/ki
6.607 0.974 0.974 0.1573
6.6093 0.9762 0.9762 0.7095
7.2111 1.7822 1.7822 0.0512
6.3683 0.7672 0.7672 0.0821
1.0001
Dew point T = 405.25 K P = 1
= 132.25 C
Komponen yi A B C
CH3COOH 0.0076 16.808 3405.57 -56.34
C4H9OH 0.0077 17.216 3137.02 -94.43
H2O 0.0064 18.3036 3816.44 -46.13
CH3COOC4 0.9782 16.1836 3151.09 -69.15
1

ln Pi Pi Ki = Pi/Pt xi =yi/ki
7.0474 1.513 1.2609 0.0061
7.1233 1.6323 1.3603 0.0057
7.6764 2.8381 2.3651 0.0027
6.8082 1.1911 0.9926 0.9856
1
atm
atm
TANGKI PENYIMPAN DIMETHYLAMINE

Fungsi : Untuk menyimpan dimethylamine selama 30 hari


Tujuan perancangan :
a Menentukan jenis tangki
b Menentukan bahan konstruksi yang digunakan
c Menentukan dimensi tangki : Volume, Tinggi, tebal dinding, dan head tangki

T-01

1. Menentukan tipe tangki


Dalam perancangan ini dipilih tipe tangki Horisontal Cylindrical, dengan head berbentuk elliptical dished head
# Tangki mampu menampung dalam kapasitas yang besar
# Kondisi operasi pada tekanan tinggi.
# Lebih stabil untuk bahan yang bersifat more volatile

2. Menentukan Bahan konstruksi


Bahan konstruksi yang dipilih adalah Carbon steel dengan pertimbangan :
# Bahan yang akan disimpan tidak korosif
# Biaya lebih murah

3. Kapasitas propylene yang akan disimpan :


Kemurnian dimethylamine yang disimpan :

komponen kg %berat BM
C2H7N 2458.8369 0.9900 45.084
C3H9N 12.4184 0.0050 59.111
H2O 12.4184 0.0050 18.015
Total 2483.6736 1.0000

Penyimpanan cukup untuk memenuhi kebutuhan bahan baku selama :

1 bulan = 30 hari = 720 jam


komponen kg %berat BM kmol %mol
C2H7N 2458.8369 0.9900 45.084 54.5390 0.9838
C3H9N 12.4184 0.0050 59.111 0.2101 0.0038
H2O 12.4184 0.0050 18.015 0.6893 0.0124
Total 2483.6736 1.0000 55.4384 1.0000
Jumlah Dimethylamine yang harus disimpan untuk persediaan selama 30 hari adalah :
M = 1,788,245.0104 kg = 3,942,339.0882 lb

4. Menentukan kondisi operasi penyimpanan


a. Menghitung densitas campuran
Density = A. B (1-T/Tc) ^ n T = 305.15 K
= 32 C
komponen %mol A B n Tc
C2H7N 0.9838 0.24110 0.26785 0.24800 437.65
C3H9N 0.0038 0.23283 0.25703 0.26870 433.25
H2O 0.0124 0.34710 0.27400 0.28571 647.13
Total 1.0000

campuran = 646.7067 kg/m3


= 0.6467 kg/L
= 40.3712 lb/f3

b. Suhu dan tekanan


Diinginkan suhu penyimpanan dibawah suhu bubble point pada tekanan tertentu.
Diiginkan penyimpanan pada suhu 32 oC

Komponen kmol/jam Fraksi mol kg/m3 x. TBP (K)


C2H7N 54.5390 0.9838 642.0787 631.6618 279.95
C3H9N 0.2101 0.0038 619.8902 2.3491 275.55
H2O 0.6893 0.0124 1021.0367 12.6958 373.15
Total 55.4384 646.7067
Karena titik didihnya di bawah suhu lingkungan, sehingga bahan tersebut bersifat volatil
Tangki yang digunakan adalah tangki bertekanan dengan kondisi :

T = 305.15 K
= 32 C
Komponen Fraksi mol A B C Ln P
C2H7N 0.9838 16.2653 2358.77 -35.13 7.5298
C3H9N 0.0038 16.0499 2230.51 -39.15 7.6645
H2O 0.0124 18.3036 3816.44 -46.13 3.5694
Total 1.0000

P = 1840.9608 mmHg
2.4223 atm

c. Volume campuran dan volume perancangan


Diperoleh volume campuran sebesar = 97,652.2025 f3
= 2,765,156.3173 L
= 2,765.1563 m3
Direncanakan ditampung dalam 5 tangki = 553.0313 m3
= 19,541.7408 f3
Over design = 20 %
Volume perancangan = 23,450.0889 f3 = 4,157.1117 bbl =
= 663.6375 m 3

5. Dimensi tangki

a. Menentukan diameter tangki


*) diambil trial L/D optimum = 6
D = (12V / 19 phi) ^ 1/3
D= 5.1107 m 201.2068 in 17.2791
L= 30.6639 m 1,207.2406 in 103.6747

Persamaan yang digunakan :


p.d
t= +c Persamaan 4-28 Brownell
4. f
t = tebal shell, in
d = inside diameter, in
p = internal pressure, psi = 35.61 psia
f = allowable working stress, psi
c = corrosion allowance, in
Bahan yang dipilih adalah : Carbon steel SA 285 grade B
Allowable stress ( f ) = 12500 psi (Table 13.1 Brownell hal. 251
Corrossion Allowance ( C ) = 0.125 in
Efisiensi pengelasan = 0.85
Tekanan = 2.4223 atm = 35.61

ts = 0.4622 in ts < 2 in memenuhi untuk L/D = 6


ts = 0.5 in (1/2in)

b. Menghitung ukuran Head:


rc
W 1 3

4 icr

p.rc.W
th C
2.f.E - 0,2.P

OD = 2 x r + 2 x ts
OD = 202.2068 in 5.14 m
Diambil OD standart Brownell, hal 91 204.0000 in
Diperoleh :
ts = 0.500 in
r= 170 in
icr = 12.25 in

W= 1.6813 in
th = 0.6041 in
Dipakai plat dengan tebal standart = 0.6250 in = 5/8 in
Dari tabel 5-8 Brownell & young, untuk th = 5/8 in, diambil sf standart = 2
O D

ic r b
O A
B A

sf
r
ID

t
a

ID = 100.6034 in
a
2
AB
ID
icr
= 88.3534 in
2

BC r - icr = 157.7500 in

AC BC 2
AB 2 = 130.6857 in

b r - AC = 39.3143 in

OA = th + b + sf
OA = 41.9393 in
1.0653 m
Panjang tangki total = panjang tangki + 2 tinggi head
= 32.7944 m

Tangki Dimethylamine
Kode : T - 01
Fungsi : Untuk menyimpan Dimethylamine selama 30 hari
Tipe : horizontal cylindrical vessel
Jumlah : 5 buah
Kondisi operasi : T = 32 oC
P = 2.4223 atm
Bahan konstruksi : Carbon Steel SA-240 grade B
Dimensi : Diameter = 5.1107 m
Panjang = 32.7944 m
Tebal shell = 0.5 in
Tebal head = 0.6250 in
Kapasitas = 23,450.0889 f3
= 663.6375 m3

6. Menghitung diameter pipa pengisian :


Di opt : 3,9 Qf0,45 r0,13 (pers 4.5 Peters, hal. 381)
Keterangan :
Diopt = diameter dalam optimum, in
Qf = laju alir volumetrik, f3/dt
r = densitas cairan, lb/f3
Qf = 2483.6736 kg/jam x 2,204616 lb/kg x 1 jam / 3600 dt
40.3712 lb/f3
= 0.03767 f3/dt
Dopt = 1.4424 in

Digunakan pipa standar :


Digunakan pipa standart (tabel.11, Kern)
D nominal = 1 1/2 in
ID = 1.610 in
OD = 1.9 in
Schedule = 40

Menghitung diameter pipa pengeluaran :


Di opt : 3,9 Qf0,45 r0,13 (pers 4.5 Peters, hal. 381)
Direncanakan waktu pengisian 60 menit
Volume
Qf =
Waktu pengisian
Volume 1 tangki = 19541.7408 f3

Qf = 5.42826 f3/dt
Dopt = 13.5037

Digunakan pipa standar :


Digunakan pipa standart (tabel.11, Kern)
D nominal = 16 in
ID = 15.25 in
OD = 16 in
Schedule = 30
al dished head

kg / 30 hari
1770362.5603
8941.2251
8941.2251
1788245.0104
, kg/m3 .x
642.0787 631.6618
619.8902 2.3491
1021.0367 12.6958
646.7066614743

TBP (oC) TBP camp (oC)


6.8 6.6897
2.4 0.0091
100 1.2434
7.9422

P Pi.xi
1862.6619 1832.4425
2131.3781 8.0769
35.4970 0.4414
1840.9608
175,430.1151 galon

f
f

able 13.1 Brownell hal. 251)

psi

emenuhi untuk L/D = 6


in
TANGKI PENYIMPAN METHYLFORMATE

Fungsi : Untuk menyimpan bahan baku Methylformate selama 1 Minggu


Tujuan perancangan :
1) Memilih tipe tangki
2) Memilih bahan konstruksi
3) Menghitung dimensi tangki, meliputi : volume, tinggi, dimensi, tebal dinding dan head tangki.
Memilih tipe tangki :
Tipe tangki yang dipilih adalah silinder tegak lurus berbentuk conical, dengan pertimbangan :
1) Kondisi operasi tangki pada tekanan 1 atm
2) Kondisi operasi tangki pada suhu kamar 32 oC
3) Cairan disimpan pada kondisi cair-dingin
4) Konstruksi sederhana, sehingga lebih ekonomis
Memilih bahan konstruksi
Bahan konstruksi yang dipilih adalah Carbon steel SA-283 grade C dengan pertimbangan :
1) Bahan yang akan disimpan tidak korosif
2) Biaya lebih murah

Kapasitas dimethylamine yang akan disimpan :


Kemurnian dimethylamine yang disimpan :

komponen kg %berat BM kmol %mol


C2H4O2 3270.4918 0.9700 60.053 54.4601 0.9452
CH3OH 101.1492 0.0300 32.042 3.1568 0.0548
3371.6410 1.0000 57.6169 1.0000

Penyimpanan cukup untuk memenuhi kebutuhan bahan baku selama :


1 bulan = 7 hari = 168 jam
komponen kg %berat BM kmol %mol
C2H4O2 3270.4918 0.9700 60.053 54.4601 0.9452
CH3OH 101.1492 0.0300 32.042 3.1568 0.0548
Total 3371.6410 1.0000 57.6169 1.0000

Jumlah Methylformate yang harus disimpan untuk persediaan selama 7 hari adalah :
M= 566,435.6906 kg = 1,248,755.9316 lb

Menentukan kondisi operasi penyimpanan


a. Menghitung densitas campuran
Density = A. B (1-T/Tc) ^ n T = 305.15 K
= 32 C
komponen %mol A B n Tc
C2H4O2 0.9452 0.34143 0.25838 0.27680 487.20
CH3OH 0.0548 0.27197 0.27192 0.23310 512.58
Total 1.0000

campuran = 1,291.8067 kg/m3


= 1.2918 kg/L
= 80.6422 lb/f3

b. Suhu dan tekanan


Diinginkan suhu penyimpanan dibawah suhu bubble point pada tekanan tertentu.
Diiginkan penyimpanan pada suhu 32 oC

komponen kmol %mol kg/m3 x. TBP (K)


C2H4O2 54.4601 0.9452 1321.4258 1249.0262 304.85
CH3OH 3.1568 0.0548 780.8224 42.7805 337.75
Total 57.6169 1.0000 1291.8067

Berdasarkan titik didihnya >32 oC bahan tersebut bersifat tidak volatil


Maka tangki yang digunakan adalah tangki atmosferis
Tekanan = 1 atm
Suhu = 32 o
C

Menghitung volume tangki


Menghitung banyaknya methylformate selama = 7 hari
= 3371.64 kg/j x 24 jam/hari x 7
= 566435.6906 kg
Over design = 20%
Volume tangki = 1.2 Vf
Vf = m

= 438.4833245173 m3
V = 526.1799894208 m3
= 18581.888472398 f3 < 71534 f3 Termasuk jenis small tank
139011.10766201 gal
Dimensi tangki
Menghitung tinggi dan diameter
Untuk large tank (H=D) maka digunakan persamaan:

D=

3 4 V

D= 28.7127 f = 344.5519 in = 8.7516
H= 28.7127 f = 344.5519 in = 8.7516

Menghitung tebal plat shell


Tinggi shell = 28.7127 f
Untuk lebar plat plat 6 f, jumlah courses = 4.7854 course
Untuk lebar plat 8 f, jumlah courses = 3.5891 course
Maka dipilih lebar 6 f dengan jumlah courses 5, karena sisa pahan paling sedikit
Untuk menghitung tebal shell digunakan persamaan:

. (H 1). D
t s,min= +c
2. .
Densitas cairan = 1,291.8067 kg/m3 = 80.6422 lb/f3
Efisiensi pengelasan = 85%
Faktor korosi = 0.125
tegangan yang diijinkan = 12650 psi (Table 13.1 Brownell hal. 251)
ts min = 0.0089725282 (H-1) + 0.125

Tebal shell course 1, H = 28.7126579615


ts min = 0.3736526047 in Dirancang = 7/16
Tebal shell course 2, H = 22.7126579615
ts min = 0.3198174356 in Dirancang = 3/ 8
Tebal shell course 3, H = 16.7126579615
ts min = 0.2659822664 in Dirancang = 5/16
Tebal shell course 4, H = 10.7126579615
ts min = 0.2121470973 in Dirancang = 1/ 4
Tebal sheel course 5, H = 4.7126579615
ts min = 0.1583119282 in Dirancang = 3/16

Menghitung tebal plat bottom


Dengan teori membran

.( H ). D
t b,min = +c
2. .
tb min = 0.3826251329 in Dirancang = 7/16

Menghitung tebal plat roof


Misal dengan persamaan empiris oleh API - ASME

P. Di
t b,min = +c
2 . S . E . cos
misal = 20o
cos = 0.93969
tb min = 0.1420502437 in Dirancang = 3/16

Menghitung diameter pipa pengeluaran dan pengisian


Menghitung diameter pipa pengeluaran

Di opt =
3,9 . Qf0,45 0,13 ( Pers. 4.5 peters, hal. 381 )
Dimana :
Di opt = diameter dalam optimumm, in
Qf = laju alir volumetrik, f3/dt
= densitas cairan, lb/f3
Qf = 0.0256041083 f3/dt
Di opt = 1.3263466004 in
Maka digunakan pipa standart : (Brownell, hal 387)
D nominal = 1 1/2 in
ID = 1.337 in
OD = 1.5 in
Sch = 40 in

Menghitung diameter pipa pengisian

Di opt = 0,45 0,13


3,9 . Qf
Menghitung kecepatan laju alir cairan :
Qf = volume
waktu pengisian
Volume tangki = 18581.8884724 f3

Lama waktu pengisian = 120 menit


Qf = 2.5808178434 f3/dt
Di opt = 10.5732497855 in
Maka digunakan pipa standart :
D nominal = 18 in
ID = 15.25 in
OD = 18 in
Sch = 120 in

Kesimpulan
Jenis = tangki atmosferis
Bahan = Carbon stell SA-283 grade C
Tekanan = 1 atm
Suhu = 32 o
C
Jumlah = 1 buah
Lama penyimpanan = 7 hari
Diameter = 8.7516 m
Tinggi = 8.7516 m
Tebal shell Course 1 = 7/16 in
Course 2 = 6/16 in
Course 3 = 5/16 in
Course 4 = 4/16 in
Course 5 = 3/16 in
Tebal Bottom = 7/16 in
Tebal roof = 3/16 in
ing dan head tangki.

kg / 7 hari
549442.6198
16993.0707
566435.6906

, kg/m3 .x
1321.4258 1249.0262
780.8224 42.7805
1291.8067

TBP (oC) TBP camp (oC)


31.7 29.9632
64.6 3.5394
33.5026

hari

m
m
3/16,1/4,5/16,3/8,7/16,1/2,9/16,5/8,3/4,7/8,
1,1 1/8,1 1/4,1 3/8,1 /1/2,1 5/8,1 3/4,2

in

in

in

in

in

in

in
TANGKI PENYIMPAN DIMETHYLFORMAMIDE

Fungsi : Untuk menyimpan produk Dimethylformamide selama 7 Hari


Tujuan perancangan :
1) Memilih tipe tangki
2) Memilih bahan konstruksi
3) Menghitung dimensi tangki, meliputi : volume, tinggi, dimensi, tebal dinding dan head tangki.
Memilih tipe tangki :
Tipe tangki yang dipilih adalah silinder tegak lurus berbentuk conical, dengan pertimbangan :
1) Kondisi operasi tangki pada tekanan 1 atm
2) Kondisi operasi tangki pada suhu kamar 32 oC
3) Cairan disimpan pada kondisi cair-dingin
4) Konstruksi sederhana, sehingga lebih ekonomis
Memilih bahan konstruksi
Bahan konstruksi yang dipilih adalah Carbon steel SA-283 grade C dengan pertimbangan :
1) Bahan yang akan disimpan tidak korosif
2) Biaya lebih murah

Kapasitas dimethylformamide yang akan disimpan :


Kemurnian dimethylformamide yang disimpan :
komponen kg %berat BM kmol %mol
CH3OH 1.8440 0.0005 32.042 0.0576 0.0011
H2O 3.4992 0.0009 18.015 0.1942 0.0036
C3H7NO 3971.9295 0.9987 73.095 54.3393 0.9954
Total 3977.2727 1.0000 54.5911 1.0000

Penyimpanan cukup untuk menyimpan produk selama 7 Hari :


7 hari = 168 jam
komponen kg %berat BM kmol %mol
CH3OH 1.8440 0.0005 32.042 0.0576 0.0011
H2O 3.4992 0.0009 18.015 0.1942 0.0036
C3H7NO 3971.9295 0.9987 73.095 54.3393 0.9954
Total 3977.2727 1.0000 54.5911 1.0000

Jumlah Dimethylformamide yang harus disimpan untuk persediaan selama 7 hari adalah :
M= 668,181.8138 kg = 1,473,063.9633 lb

Menentukan kondisi operasi penyimpanan


a. Menghitung densitas campuran
Density = A. B (1-T/Tc) ^ n T = 305.15 K
= 32 C
komponen %mol A B n Tc
CH3OH 0.0011 0.27197 0.27192 0.23310 512.58
H2O 0.0036 0.34710 0.27400 0.28571 647.13
C3H7NO 0.9954 0.27376 0.23013 0.27630 647.00
Total 1.0000

campuran = 938.3065 kg/m3 35614.22


= 0.9383 kg/L 35614220
= 58.5746 lb/f3 37955849.579

b. Suhu dan tekanan


Diinginkan suhu penyimpanan dibawah suhu bubble point pada tekanan tertentu.
Diiginkan penyimpanan pada suhu 32 oC

komponen kmol %mol kg/m3 x. TBP (K)


CH3OH 0.0576 0.0011 780.8224 0.82315069 337.75
H2O 0.1942 0.0036 1021.0367 3.63291516 373.15
C3H7NO 54.3393 0.9954 938.1776 933.850424 426.15
Total 54.5911 1.0000 938.30649

Berdasarkan titik didihnya >32 oC bahan tersebut bersifat tidak volatil


Maka tangki yang digunakan adalah tangki atmosferis
Tekanan = 1 atm
Suhu = 32 o
C

Menghitung volume tangki


Menghitung banyaknya dimethylformamide selama = 7 hari
= 3977.27 kg/j x 24 jam/hari x 7
= 668181.8138 kg
Over design = 20%
Volume tangki = 1.2 Vf
Vf = m

= 712.1146669817 m3
V = 854.537600378 m3
= 30177.73899607 f3 < 71534 f3 Termasuk jenis small tank
225759.6654296
Dimensi tangki
Menghitung tinggi dan diameter
Untuk large tank (H=D) maka digunakan persamaan:

D=

3 4V

D= 33.7498888667 f = 404.9986664 in = 10.286966127
H= 33.7498888667 f = 404.9986664 in = 10.286966127
Menghitung tebal plat shell
Tinggi shell = 33.7498888667 f
Untuk lebar plat plat 6 f, jumlah courses = 5.6249814778 course
Untuk lebar plat 8 f, jumlah courses = 4.2187361083 course
Maka dipilih lebar 8 f dengan jumlah courses 4, karena sisa pahan paling sedikit
Untuk menghitung tebal shell digunakan persamaan:

. (H 1) . D
t s,min= +c
2. .
Densitas cairan = 938.3065 kg/m3 = 58.5746 lb/f3
Efisiensi pengelasan = 85%
Faktor korosi = 0.125
tegangan yang diijinkan = 12650 psi (Table 13.1 Brownell hal. 251)
ts min = 0.007660568 (H-1) + 0.125

Tebal shell course 1, H = 33.7499


ts min = 0.3759 in Dirancang = 5/ 8
Tebal shell course 2, H = 25.7499
ts min = 0.3146 in Dirancang = 1/ 2
Tebal shell course 3, H = 17.7499
ts min = 0.2533 in Dirancang = 5/16
Tebal shell course 4, H = 9.7499
ts min = 0.1920 in Dirancang = 1/ 4

Menghitung tebal plat bottom


Dengan teori membran

.( H ). D
t b,min= +c
2. .
tb min = 0.3835433193 in Dirancang = 5/ 8

Menghitung tebal plat roof


Misal dengan persamaan empiris oleh API - ASME

P. Di
t b,min = +c
2 . S . E . cos
misal = 20o
cos = 0.93969
tb min = 0.1450414685 in Dirancang = 3/16

Menghitung diameter pipa pengeluaran dan pengisian


Menghitung diameter pipa pengeluaran

Di opt = 0,45 0,13 ( Pers. 4.5 peters, hal. 381 )


3,9 . Qf
3,9 . Qf0,45 0,13
Dimana :
Di opt = diameter dalam optimumm, in
Qf = laju alir volumetrik, f3/dt
= densitas cairan, lb/f3
Qf = 0.0415821082 f3/dt
Di opt = 1.582613061 in
Maka digunakan pipa standart : (Brownell, hal 387)
D nominal = 1 1/2 in
ID = 1.61 in
OD = 1.9 in
Sch = 40 in

Menghitung diameter pipa pengisian

Di opt =
3,9 . Qf0,45 0,13
Menghitung kecepatan laju alir cairan :
Qf = volume
waktu pengisian
Volume tangki = 30177.738996068 f3

Lama waktu pengisian = 180 menit


Qf = 2.7942350922 f /dt 3

Di opt = 10.5119949273 in
Maka digunakan pipa standart :
D nominal = 22 in
ID = 21.25 in
OD = 22 in
Sch = 10 in

Kesimpulan
Jenis = tangki atmosferis
Bahan = Carbon stell SA-283 grade C
Tekanan = 1 atm
Suhu = 32 o
C
Jumlah = 1 buah
Lama penyimpanan = 7 hari
Diameter = 10.2870 m
Tinggi = 10.2870 m
Tebal shell Course 1 = 5/8 in
Course 2 = 1/2 in
Course 3 = 1/3 in
Course 4 = 1/4 in
Tebal Bottom = 5/ 8 in
Tebal roof = 3/16 in

Menghitung diameter pipa pengisian :


Di opt : 3,9 Qf0,45 r0,13 (pers 4.5 Peters, hal. 381)
Keterangan :
Diopt = diameter dalam optimum, in
Qf = laju alir volumetrik, f3/dt
r = densitas cairan, lb/f3
Qf = 3977.2727 kg/jam x 2,204616 lb/kg x 1 jam / 3600 dt
58.5746 lb/f3
= 0.04158 f3/dt
Dopt = 1.5826 in

Digunakan pipa standar :


Digunakan pipa standart (tabel.11, Kern)
D nominal = 1 1/2 in
ID = 1.610 in
OD = 1.9 in
Schedule = 40

Menghitung diameter pipa pengeluaran :


Di opt : 3,9 Qf0,45 r0,13 (pers 4.5 Peters, hal. 381)
Direncanakan waktu pengisian 150 menit
Volume
Qf =
Waktu pengisian
Volume 1 tangki = 30177.7390 f3

Qf = 3.35308 f3/dt
Dopt = 11.4108

Digunakan pipa standar :


Digunakan pipa standart (tabel.11, Kern)
D nominal = 24 in
ID = 23.25 in
OD = 24 in
Schedule = 20
g dan head tangki.

kg / 30 hari
309.7972
587.8669
667284.1496
668181.8138

, kg/m3 .x
780.8224 0.8232
1021.0367 3.6329
938.1776 933.8504
938.3065

L 766784.84

TBP (oC) TBP camp (oC)


64.6 0.0681
100 0.3558
153 152.2943
152.7182

hari

m
m
ell hal. 251) 3/16,1/4,5/16,3/8,7/16,1/2,9/16,5/8,3/4,7/8,
1,1 1/8,1 1/4,1 3/8,1 /1/2,1 5/8,1 3/4,2

in

in

in

in

in

in
TANGKI PENYIMPAN METHANOL

Fungsi : Untuk menyimpan produk Methanol selama 7 Hari


Tujuan perancangan :
1) Memilih tipe tangki
2) Memilih bahan konstruksi
3) Menghitung dimensi tangki, meliputi : volume, tinggi, dimensi, tebal dinding dan head tangki.
Memilih tipe tangki :
Tipe tangki yang dipilih adalah silinder tegak lurus berbentuk conical, dengan pertimbangan :
1) Kondisi operasi tangki pada tekanan 1 atm
2) Kondisi operasi tangki pada suhu kamar 32 oC
3) Cairan disimpan pada kondisi cair-dingin
4) Konstruksi sederhana, sehingga lebih ekonomis
Memilih bahan konstruksi
Bahan konstruksi yang dipilih adalah Carbon steel SA-283 grade C dengan pertimbangan :
1) Bahan yang akan disimpan tidak korosif
2) Biaya lebih murah

Kapasitas dimethylformamide yang akan disimpan :


Kemurnian dimethylformamide yang disimpan :
komponen kg %berat BM kmol %mol
C2H4O2 3.6294 0.0020 60.053 0.0604 0.0010
CH3OH 1842.1872 0.9911 32.042 57.4929 0.9895
H2O 8.9192 0.0048 18.015 0.4951 0.0085
C3H7NO 3.9759 0.0021 73.095 0.0544 0.0009
Total 1858.7117 1.0000 58.1028 1.0000

Penyimpanan cukup untuk menyimpan produk selama 7 Hari :


7 hari = 168 jam
komponen kg %berat BM kmol %mol
C2H4O2 3.6294 0.0020 60.053 0.0604 0.0010
CH3OH 1842.1872 0.9911 32.042 57.4929 0.9895
H2O 8.9192 0.0048 18.015 0.4951 0.0085
C3H7NO 3.9759 0.0021 73.095 0.0544 0.0009
Total 1858.7117 1.0000 58.1028 1.0000

Jumlah Methanol yang harus disimpan untuk persediaan selama 7 hari adalah :
M= 312,263.5678 kg 688,411.7455 lb

Menentukan kondisi operasi penyimpanan


a. Menghitung densitas campuran
Density = A. B (1-T/Tc) ^ n T = 305.15 K
= 32 C
komponen %mol A B n Tc
C2H4O2 0.0010 0.34143 0.25838 0.27680 487.20
CH3OH 0.9895 0.27197 0.27192 0.23310 512.58
H2O 0.0085 0.34710 0.27400 0.28571 647.13
C3H7NO 0.0009 0.27376 0.23013 0.27630 647.00
Total 1.0000

campuran = 783.1997 kg/m3


= 0.7832 kg/L
= 48.8919 lb/f3

b. Suhu dan tekanan


Diinginkan suhu penyimpanan dibawah suhu bubble point pada tekanan tertentu.
Diiginkan penyimpanan pada suhu 32 oC

komponen kmol %mol kg/m3 x. TBP (K)


C2H4O2 0.0604 0.0010 956.8852 0.9953 304.9
CH3OH 57.4929 0.9895 780.8224 772.6258 337.75
H2O 0.4951 0.0085 1021.0367 8.7003 373.15
C3H7NO 0.0544 0.0009 938.1776 0.8783 426.15
Total 58.1028 1.0000 783.1997

Berdasarkan titik didihnya >32 oC bahan tersebut bersifat tidak volatil


Maka tangki yang digunakan adalah tangki atmosferis
Tekanan = 1 atm
Suhu = 32 o
C

Menghitung volume tangki


Menghitung banyaknya methanol selama = 7 hari
= 1858.71 kg/j x 24 jam/hari x 7
= 312263.5678 kg
Over design = 20%
Volume tangki = 1.2 Vf
Vf = m

= 398.7023473016 m3
V = 478.4428167619 m3
= 16896.0645411 f3 < 71534 f3 Termasuk jenis small tank
126399.458832
Dimensi tangki
Menghitung tinggi dan diameter
Untuk large tank (H=3/8D) maka digunakan persamaan:
D=

3 4 V

D= 27.81668042 f = 333.80016504 in = 8.47852419


H= 27.81668042 f = 333.80016504 in = 8.47852419

Menghitung tebal plat shell


Tinggi shell = 27.81668042 f
Untuk lebar plat plat 6 f, jumlah courses = 4.6361 course
Untuk lebar plat 8 f, jumlah courses = 3.4771 course
Maka dipilih lebar 8 f dengan jumlah courses 3, karena sisa pahan paling sedikit
Untuk menghitung tebal shell digunakan persamaan:

. (H 1). D
t s,min= +c
2. .
Densitas cairan = 783.1997 kg/m3 = 48.8919 lb/f3
Efisiensi pengelasan = 85%
Faktor korosi = 0.125
tegangan yang diijinkan = 12650 psi (Table 13.1 Brownell hal. 251)
ts min = 0.0052701349 (H-1) + 0.125

Tebal shell course 1, H = 27.81668042


ts min = 0.2663275232 in Dirancang = 7/16
Tebal shell course 2, H = 19.81668042
ts min = 0.2241664441 in Dirancang = 5/16
Tebal shell course 3, H = 11.81668042
ts min = 0.1820053649 in Dirancang = 1/ 4

Menghitung tebal plat bottom


Dengan teori membran

.( H ). D
t b,min= +c
2. .
tb min = 0.2715976581 in Dirancang = 7/16

Menghitung tebal plat roof


Misal dengan persamaan empiris oleh API - ASME

P. Di
t b,min = +c
2 . S . E . cos
misal = 20o
cos = 0.93969
tb min = 0.1415181914 in Dirancang = 3/16

Menghitung diameter pipa pengeluaran dan pengisian


Menghitung diameter pipa pengeluaran

Di opt = 0,45 0,13 ( Pers. 4.5 peters, hal. 381 )


3,9 . Qf
Dimana :
Di opt = diameter dalam optimumm, in
Qf = laju alir volumetrik, f3/dt
= densitas cairan, lb/f3
Qf = 0.0232812003 f3/dt
Di opt = 1.1907424814 in
Maka digunakan pipa standart : (Brownell, hal 387)
D nominal = 1 1/4 in
ID = 1.278 in
OD = 1.66 in
Sch = 40 in

Menghitung diameter pipa pengisian

Di opt = 0,45 0,13


3,9 . Qf
Menghitung kecepatan laju alir cairan :
Qf = volume
waktu pengisian
Volume tangki = 16896.064541 f3

Lama waktu pengisian = 180 menit


Qf = 1.5644504205 f3/dt
Di opt = 7.90912146 in
Maka digunakan pipa standart :
D nominal = 16 in
ID = 15.25 in
OD = 16 in
Sch = 40 in

Kesimpulan
Jenis = tangki atmosferis
Bahan = Carbon stell SA-283 grade C
Tekanan = 1 atm
Suhu = 32 o
C
Jumlah = 1 buah
Lama penyimpanan = 7 hari
Diameter = 8.4785 m
Tinggi = 8.4785 m
Tebal shell Course 1 = 4/9 in
Course 2 = 1/3 in
Course 3 = 1/4 in
Tebal Bottom = 7/16 in
Tebal roof = 3/16 in

Menghitung diameter pipa pengisian :


Di opt : 3,9 Qf0,45 r0,13 (pers 4.5 Peters, hal. 381)
Keterangan :
Diopt = diameter dalam optimum, in
Qf = laju alir volumetrik, f3/dt
r = densitas cairan, lb/f3
Qf = 1858.7117 kg/jam x 2,204616 lb/kg x 1 jam / 3600 dt
48.8919 lb/f3
= 0.02328 f3/dt
Dopt = 1.1907 in

Digunakan pipa standar :


Digunakan pipa standart (tabel.11, Kern)
D nominal = 1 1/4 in
ID = 1.380 in
OD = 1.66 in
Schedule = 40

Menghitung diameter pipa pengeluaran :


Di opt : 3,9 Qf0,45 r0,13 (pers 4.5 Peters, hal. 381)
Direncanakan waktu pengisian 150 menit
Volume
Qf =
Waktu pengisian
Volume 1 tangki = 16896.0645 f3

Qf = 1.87734 f3/dt
Dopt = 8.5854

Digunakan pipa standar :


Digunakan pipa standart (tabel.11, Kern)
D nominal = 18 in
ID = 17.25 in
OD = 18 in
Schedule = 20
dinding dan head tangki.

kg / 7 hari
609.7472
309487.4495
1498.4189
667.9521
312263.5678
, kg/m3 .x
956.8852 0.9953
780.8224 772.6258
1021.0367 8.7003
938.1776 0.8783
783.1997

TBP (oC) TBP camp (oC)


31.75 0.0330
64.6 63.9219
100 0.8521
153 0.1432
64.9502

hari
m
m

wnell hal. 251)

in

in

in

in

in
Condensor (Cd-01)

Kode : Cd-01
Fungsi : mengkondensasikan produk atas MD-01
Jenis : Double pipe
NP Total di Sekitar MD-01
Masuk, kJ/Jam Keluar, kJ/Jam
Komponen
Umpan Distilat Bottom
C2H4O2 60339.3595 24874.6389 645.6115
CH3OH 399253.9322 1682.8079 422259.7095
C2H7N 2728.8095 1122.1020
C3H9N 2887.4882 1178.8835
H2O 4230.7510 4503.1997
C3H7NO 692799.0809 739100.3043
sub total 1162239.4212 28858.4323 1166508.8251
Beban Kondensor 69974.4649
Panas Reboiler 103102.3011
Total 1265341.7223 1265341.7223

Beban panas = 69974.4649 kJ/jam


Air pendingin masuk pada T = 29 C dan keluar pada T = 40 C
Tin = 302 K
Tout = 313.15 K
Cp air = 1Kkal/kg.K = 4.184 kJ/kg.K
Maka kebutuhan air pendingin :
Q = m x CpDT
m= Q
Cp.(Tout-Tin)
m= 69974.4649
4.184*(313-298)
= 1520.3908 kg/jam

Komponen kg/jm fraksi BM kmol


C2H4O2 359.3153 0.8958 60.053 5.9833
CH3OH 18.6266 0.0464 32.042 0.5813
C2H7N 9.3633 0.0233 45.084 0.2077
C3H9N 13.7982 0.0344 59.111 0.2334
Total 401.1034 1.0000 7.0057

Perancangan alat Condenser


Fluida panas :
Suhu masuk : 60.34 C 140.61
Suhu keluar : 60.34 C 140.61
Massa masuk : 401.1034 kg/jam
: 884.2668 lb/jam
Fluida dingin :
Kebutuhan air : 1520.3908 kg/jam
: 3351.8315 lb/jam
Beban panas (Q) : 69974.4649 kJ/jam
: 66326.5070 btu/jam
Suhu air masuk : 84.2 F
Suhu air keluar : 104 F

Menentukan spesifikasi Alat


Fluida panas (F) Fluida dingin (F) T, F
140.61 Higher temp 104 36.61
140.61 Lower temp 84.2 56.41

t 2 - t 1
TLMTD = = 45.80 o
F
t 2
ln
( t 1 )
tavg = ta = t 1+ t2
= 94.1 o
F Tav =
2

Menghitung densitas
Density = A. B (1-T/Tc) ^ n
* Fluida Panas
T = 60.34 oC = 333.34 K
Komponen fraksi A B n
C2H4O2 0.8541 0.34143 0.25838 0.27680
CH3OH 0.0830 0.27197 0.27192 0.23310
C2H7N 0.0296 0.24110 0.26785 0.24800
C3H9N 0.0333 0.23283 0.25703 0.26870
Total 1.0000

Viskositas :
Log = A + B/T + CT + DT2
T= 333.34 K
Komponen A B C D
C2H4O2 -8.0637 1.01E+03 2.09E-02 -2.30E-05
CH3OH -9.0562 1.25E+03 2.24E-02 -2.35E-05
C2H7N -11.5558 1.21E+03 3.50E-02 -4.13E-05
C3H9N -3.9726 4.42E+02 1.07E-02 -1.61E-05
Total

Fluida Dingin T= 307.65 K


Komponen A B C D
H2O -10.2158 1.79E+03 1.77E-02 -1.26E-05

T = 307.65 K
Komponen A B n Tc
H2O 0.34710 0.27400 0.28571 647.13

Untuk exchanger fluida panas light organic dan water fluida dingin
UD = 75-150 Btu/f2.oF.jam (tabel 8. Kern, 1965 : 840)
diambil harga UD = 80 Btu/f2.oF.jam

A = Q = 66326.5070 = 18.1031
U D T LMTD 3663.8232111956

karena A < 200 f2 maka digunakan jenis Double pipe

Spesifikasi dirancang (reff : Kern hal 103):


a) Annulus : (IPS : 3 in)
OD : 3.50 in ( tabel 11 Kern hal 844)
ID : 3.068 in
b) Inner pipe : (IPS2 in)
OD : 2.38 in
ID : 2.067 in
c) Luas penampang: 18.1031 f2
d) Panjang pipa : 12 f

Fluida dingin :water, inner pipe Fluida panas : Light organic, anulus
Menghitung flow area Menghitung flow area
D= 2.067 D2 =
12
= 0.1723 f =
ap = 3,14 D2/4 = 0.023291 f2 D1 =
Gp = w/ap = 3351.8315 lb/jam
0.023291 f2 =
= 143911.0233 lb/jam f2
= 0.7409 cP aa =
= 1.7930 lb/f jam =
De =
Reynolds =
DG p = 24788.673755553 lb/jam.f Ga = w/aa =
Re p =
1.7930 lb/jam.f
= 13825.5615 =
jH = 52 fig.24 (Kern, 1969 : 834) T =
At = 94.10 o
F =
c= 1.0000 Btu/lb.oF (fig.2 Kern, hal 804) =
k= 0.3680 (Tabel 4 Kern hal.800) Reynolds
DG p =
1/3 Re p =
c.
( )k
= 1.70
1/3
c.
( )
k
1/3 0.14
=
jH =
k c.
hi = jH . .
D k
.( )( )
.
t =
c=
= 188.3358 Btu/jam f F
2o
k=
hio = hi x ID/OD 1/3
c.
= 163.5672 Btu/jam f F
2o

( )k
=

k c
ho= jH
De k( )
=

Clean overall coefficient, Uc:

hio .ho
Uc= = 132.3281 Btu/jam f2 oF
hio +ho
Design overall coefficient,Ud :
Dari tabel 11 Kern untuk 2 in IDS standar pipe = 0,622 f 2/f (eksternal surface per foot length)
Surface actual = 24 x 0.622
= 14.9280
UD = Q =
66326.5070 =
A . T 14.9280 45.7978

UC UD
Dirt factor : Rd = 0.0028 jam f2F/Btu
UC . UD

692.8651 h outside 163.5672


Uc = 132.3281 Btu/jam f2 oF
UD = 97.0155 Btu/jam f2 oF
Rd = 0.0028 jam f2F/Btu

Pressure drop :
Rep = 13825.5615 De ' =
f = 0,0035 + 0.264 Rep =
13825.5615 0, 42 f = 0,0035 +
=
( 0.00831
)
s= 1.00000 =
( )0
= 62.5000 lb/f3 s=
=
4 fG 2
a L = 0.0147 f
Pp= 2
2
4 fG a L
=
2 g D Pa=
2 g2 D
PP = 0.0147 x 62.5000 V=
144 F1 =
= 0.0064 psi Pa =

=
fraksi
0.8541
0.0830
0.0296
0.0333
1.0000

F
F
T 1+ T2
= 140.61 o
F
2

Tc , kg/m3 .x (lb/f3)
487.20 913.0550 48.6596
512.58 753.7381 3.9027
437.65 606.8584 1.1226
433.25 581.8928 1.2098
54.8948

fraksi umpan , Cp x
0.8541 0.2418 0.2065
0.0830 0.3565 0.0296
0.0296 0.1461 0.0043
0.0333 0.1299 0.0043
1.0000 0.2448

, Cp
0.7409
, kg/m3 .x (lb/f3)
1018.7323 63.5689

f2

l 11 Kern hal 844)

panas : Light organic, anulus


hitung flow area
3.068
12
0.2557 f
2.38
12
0.1983 f

3,14(D22-D12)/4
0.0204 f
(D22-D12)/D1
0.1312 f
884.2668 lb/jam
0.0204 f2
43276.348058255 lb/jam f2
140.61 o
F
0.2448 cP
0.5923 lb/jam.f

5679.602465837 lb/jam.f
0.5923 lb/jam.f
9588.390797088
39 (fig.24)
140.61 o
F
0.9800 Btu/lb.oF (fig.2 Kern, hal 804)
0.2840 (Tabel 4 Kern)

1.27
1 0, 14
k c
ho= jH
De k ( )( ) 3
w
692.8651 Btu/jam f2 oF 6.469038681

l surface per foot length)

97.0155 Btu/jam f2 oF

0.0573 f
4188.7610
0.264
4188.7610
( 0.01145
)0, 42
0.94000
58.7500 lb/f3 (tabel 6.hal 808)

0.0062 f
0.2046 fps
0.0020 f
0.00817 x 58.7500
144.00
0.0033 psi
komponen (kg/m3) , x BM BM.x
C2H4O2 913.0550 48.6596 60.053 51.2887
CH3OH 753.7381 3.9027 32.042 2.6588
C2H7N 606.8584 1.1226 45.084 1.3365
C3H9N 581.8928 1.2098 59.111 1.9696
Total 54.8948 5.9648
Condensor (Cd-02)

Kode : Cd-02
Fungsi : mengkondensasikan produk atas MD-02
Jenis : Double pipe
NP Total di Sekitar MD-02
Masuk, kJ/Jam Keluar, kJ/Jam
Komponen
Umpan Distilat Bottom
C2H4O2 406.0770 282.8143
CH3OH 267,874.7499 187,143.2662 639.0646
H2O 2,918.1087 1,482.4541 1,866.1500
C3H7NO 472,246.4464 331.2426 1,103,349.3458
sub total 743,445.3819 189,239.7771 1,105,854.5603
Beban Kondensor 442,825.8092
Panas Reboiler 994,474.7647
Total 1,737,920.1467 1,737,920.1467

Beban panas = 442825.8092 kJ/jam


Air pendingin masuk pada T = 29 C dan keluar pada T = 40 C
Tin = 302 K
Tout = 313.15 K
Cp air = 1Kkal/kg.K = 4.184 kJ/kg.K
Maka kebutuhan air pendingin :
Q = m x CpDT
m= Q
Cp.(Tout-Tin)
m= 442825.8092
4.184*(313-298)
= 9621.6280 kg/jam

Komponen kg/jm fraksi BM kmol


C2H4O2 3.6294 0.0020 60.053 0.0604
CH3OH 1842.1872 0.9911 32.042 57.4929
H 2O 8.9192 0.0048 18.015 0.4951
C3H7NO 3.9759 0.0021 73.095 0.0544
Total 1858.7117 1.0000 58.1028

Perancangan alat Condenser


Fluida panas :
Suhu masuk : 64.80 C 148.63
Suhu keluar : 64.80 C 148.63
Massa masuk : 1858.7117 kg/jam
: 4097.6890 lb/jam
Fluida dingin :
Kebutuhan air : 9621.6280 kg/jam
: 21211.7020 lb/jam
Beban panas (Q) : 442825.8092 kJ/jam
: 419740.1035 btu/jam
Suhu air masuk : 84.2 F
Suhu air keluar : 104 F

Menentukan spesifikasi Alat


Fluida panas (F) Fluida dingin (F) T, F
148.63 Higher temp 104 44.63
148.63 Lower temp 84.2 64.43

t 2 - t 1
TLMTD = = 53.93 o
F
t 2
ln
( t 1 )
tavg = ta = t 1+ t2
= 94.1 o
F Tav =
2
Menghitung densitas
Density = A. B (1-T/Tc) ^ n
* Fluida Panas
T = 64.80 oC = 337.80 K
Komponen fraksi A B n
C2H4O2 0.0010 0.34143 0.25838 0.27680
CH3OH 0.9895 0.27197 0.27192 0.23310
H 2O 0.0085 0.27400 0.28571 647.13
C3H7NO 0.0009 0.23013 0.27630 647.00
Total 1.0000

Viskositas :
Log = A + B/T + CT + DT2
T= 337.80 K
Komponen A B C D
C2H4O2 -8.0637 1.01E+03 2.09E-02 -2.30E-05
CH3OH -9.0562 1.25E+03 2.24E-02 -2.35E-05
H 2O -10.2158 1.79E+03 1.77E-02 -1.26E-05
C3H7NO -5.329 8.95E+02 1.06E-02 -1.01E-05
Total

Fluida Dingin T= 307.65 K


Komponen A B C D
H 2O -10.2158 1.79E+03 1.77E-02 -1.26E-05

T = 307.65 K
Komponen A B n Tc
H2O 0.34710 0.27400 0.28571 647.13

Untuk exchanger fluida panas methanol dan water fluida dingin


UD = 250-500 Btu/f2.oF.jam (tabel 8. Kern, 1965 : 840)
diambil harga UD = 250 Btu/f2.oF.jam

A = Q = 442825.8092 = 32.8461
U D T LMTD 13481.8366898306

karena A < 200 f2 maka digunakan jenis Double pipe

Spesifikasi dirancang (reff : Kern hal 103):


a) Annulus : (IPS : 2 in)
OD : 2.38 in ( tabel 11 Kern hal 844)
ID : 2.067 in
b) Inner pipe : (IPS 1 1/4 in)
OD : 1.66 in
ID : 1.38 in
c) Luas penampang: 32.8461 f2
d) Panjang pipa : 15 f

Fluida dingin :water, inner pipe Fluida panas : Methanol, anulus


Menghitung flow area Menghitung flow area
D= 1.38 D2 =
12
= 0.1150 f =
ap = 3,14 D /4 =
2
0.010382 f2 D1 =
Gp = w/ap = 21211.7020 lb/jam
0.010382 f2 =
= 2043196.7097 lb/jam f 2

= 0.7409 cP aa =
= 1.7930 lb/f jam =
De =
Reynolds =
DG p = 234967.621613047 lb/jam.f Ga = w/aa =
Re p =
1.7930 lb/jam.f
= 131050.1460 =
jH = 249 fig.24 (Kern, 1969 : 834) T =
At = 94.10 o
F =
c= 1.0000 Btu/lb. F (fig.2 Kern, hal 804)
o
=
k= 0.3680 (Tabel 4 Kern) Reynolds
DG p =
1/3 Re p =
c.
( )
k
= 1.70

1 /3 0 .14

=
jH =
k c.
hi = jH . .
D k ( )( ) .
.
t =
c=
= 1350.7974 Btu/jam f F 2o
k=
hio = hi x ID/OD 1/3
c.
= 1122.9521 Btu/jam f F 2o

( )k
=

k c
1

ho= jH
De k ( )( 3
w
=

Clean overall coefficient, Uc:

hio .ho =
Uc= 728.7035 Btu/jam f2 oF
hio +ho
Design overall coefficient,Ud :
Dari tabel 11 Kern hal 844 untuk 1 1/4 in IDS standar pipe = 0,435 f 2/f (eksternal surface per foot length
Surface actual = 30 x 0.435
= 13.0500
UD = Q =
442825.8092 =
A . T 13.0500 53.9273

UC UD
Dirt factor : Rd = = 0.0026 jam f2F/Btu
UC . UD

2075.5916 h outside 1122.9521


Uc = 728.7035 Btu/jam f2 oF
UD = 251.6943 Btu/jam f2 oF
Rd = 0.0026 jam f2F/Btu
Pressure drop :
Rep = 131050.1460 De ' =
f = 0,0035 + 0.264 Rep =
131050.1460 0, 42 f = 0,0035 +
(= 0.00537
) 0, 42
s= 1.00000
(
=
)
= 62.5000 lb/f3 s=
=
4 fG 2
a L = 3.5829 f
Pp= 2
4 fG 2a L
=
2 g D Pa=
2 g2 D
PP = 3.5829 x 62.5000 V=
144 F1 =
= 1.5551 psi Pa =

=
fraksi
0.0010
0.9895
0.0085
0.0009
1.0000

F
F
T 1+ T 2
= 148.63 o
F
2

Tc , kg/m3 .x (lb/f3)
487.20 905.8056 0.0588
512.58 749.2549 46.2627
437.65 274.0000 0.1457
433.25 230.1300 0.0134
46.4806

fraksi umpan , Cp x
0.0010 0.2332 0.0002
0.9895 0.3402 0.3366
0.0085 0.4350 0.0037
0.0009 0.5463 0.0005
1.0000 0.3411

, Cp
0.7409

, kg/m3 .x (lb/f3)
1018.7323 63.5689

f2

11 Kern hal 844)

panas : Methanol, anulus


itung flow area
2.067
12
0.1723 f
1.66
12
0.1383 f

3,14(D22-D12)/4
0.0083 f
(D22-D12)/D1
0.0761 f
4097.6890 lb/jam
0.0083 f2
495539.2089 lb/jam f2
148.63 o
F
0.3411 cP
0.8255 lb/jam.f

37734.83811 lb/jam.f
0.8255 lb/jam.f
45713.17262
150 fig.24 (Kern, 1969 : 834)
148.63 o
F
0.8000 Btu/lb.oF (fig.2 Kern, hal 804)
0.5300 (Tabel 4 Kern)

1.08
1 0,14
k c
ho= jH
De k ( )( ) 3
w
2075.5916 Btu/jam f2 oF 1.84757

/f (eksternal surface per foot length)

251.6943 Btu/jam f2 oF
0.0339 f
20360.5759
0.264
20360.5759 0, 42
( 0.00759
)
0.82000 (tabel 6.kern hal 808)
51.2500 lb/f 3

1.5019 f

2.6858 fps
0.3360 f
1.83796 x 51.2500
144.00
0.6541 psi
Accumulator (Acc-01)

Fungsi : Menampung sementara kondensat dari MD-01


Jenis : Horisontal drum
Kondisi operasi :
1) Tekanan = 2.7 atm
2) Suhu = 60.34 C
= 333.49 K
Neraca massa :
Komponen kg/jm fraksi BM kmol fraksi
C2H4O2 359.3153 0.8958 60.053 5.9833 0.8541
CH3OH 18.6266 0.0464 32.042 0.5813 0.0830
C2H7N 9.3633 0.0233 45.084 0.2077 0.0296
C3H9N 13.7982 0.0344 59.111 0.2334 0.0333
Total 401.1034 1.0000 7.0057 1.0000

Menghitung densitas
Density = A. B (1-T/Tc) ^ n
T = 60.34 oC = 333.34 K
Komponen fraksi A B n Tc , kg/m3 .x (kg/m3)
C2H4O2 0.8541 0.34143 0.25838 0.27680 487.20 913.0550 779.8018
CH3OH 0.0830 0.27197 0.27192 0.23310 512.58 753.7381 62.5432
C2H7N 0.0296 0.24110 0.26785 0.24800 437.65 606.8584 17.9904
C3H9N 0.0333 0.23283 0.25703 0.26870 433.25 581.8928 19.3884
Total 1.0000 879.7239

BM campuran = 57.2536
cairan = 879.7239 kg/m3

*) Menghitung volume tangki


Dirancang waktu tinggal = 10 menit = 0.1667 jam
volume = 401.1034 kg/jam x 0.1667 jam
879.7239 kg/m3
= 0.0760 m3
over design = 20%
V = 1,2 x 0.0760 m3
= 0.0912 m3

Dirancang L/D = 2
Volume tangki = Vshell + 2 Vhead
2
4
. D . L+ 2 D3
24 ( )
2 3
VT =
4
. D . L+ 2 D
24
( )
VT = . D2 . L+ . D3
4 12
2
. D .2 D+ .D3
VT = 4 12
2 3 3
VT = .D + .D
4 12
VT 7 3
= .D
12
1/3
Diameter : D=
[ (12.V T ) / ( 7 ) ]
= 0.3679 m = 14.4832 in
Panjang : L = 2.D
L= 0.7357 m = 28.9664 in

*) Menentukan tebal shell (ts)


Dirancang menggunakan carbon steel
P.r
ts = +C (Brownell, hal 140)
(f .E0,6. P)
Dalam hubungan ini :
ts = tebal shell
P = tekanan dalam vessel = 39.7 psia
r = Jari-jari = .Diameter = 0,5 x 14.4832
= 7.2416 in

E = effisiensi penggelasan = 0.85


C = faktor korosi = 0.125 in
f = Allowable stress, = 100 N/mm2 (Table 7.6 Caulson hal. 254)
= 14507.7720 psia
sehingga : ts = 0.1484 in
digunakan tebal standar 3/16 in
Jadi diameter luar accumulator :
OD = ID + 2ts
OD = 14.8582 in
= 0.3774 m

*) Menentukan tebal head (th)


Dari tabel 5-7 Brownell, w= 1
4 ( )
3+
r
icr
untuk OD = 14.8582 in
1
4( )
3+
r
icr
ts = 3/16 in = 1.7500 in
OD standar 18 in
P .r .w
icr = 1 1/8 in th = +C
r= 18 in (2. f . E0,2 .P )
th = 0.1757 in
digunakan tebal standar 3/16 in
untuk th = 3/16 in pada tabel 5.6 Brownell & young, hal 88 diperoleh sf = 1 1/2 - 22
OD
D = OD standart - (2*ts)
a = ID
icr b 2
OA

B A = 8.8125 in
r ID
sf

AB = - icr
ID t
2
a = 7.6875 in
BC = r irc
= 16.8750 in
C AC = (BC2- AB2)1/2
Tinggi head th + b + Sf = 15.0222 in
= 5.1653 in b = r AC
= 0.1312 m = 2.9778 in
jadi panjang accumulator :
= 2 x tinggi head + L
= 0.2624 + 0.7357
= 0.9981 m
BM BM x
60.053 51.2887
32.042 2.6588
45.084 1.3365
59.111 1.9696
57.2536
Accumulator (Acc-02)

Fungsi : Menampung sementara kondensat dari MD-01


Jenis : Horisontal drum
Kondisi operasi :
1) Tekanan = 1.0 atm
2) Suhu = 64.80 C
= 337.95 K
Neraca massa :
Komponen kg/jm fraksi BM kmol fraksi
C2H4O2 3.6294 0.0020 60.053 0.0604 0.0010
CH3OH 1842.1872 0.9911 32.042 57.4929 0.9895
H 2O 8.9192 0.0048 18.015 0.4951 0.0085
C3H7NO 3.9759 0.0021 73.095 0.0544 0.0009
Total 1858.7117 1.0000 58.1028 1.0000

Menghitung densitas
Density = A. B (1-T/Tc) ^ n
T = 64.80 oC = 337.95 K
Komponen fraksi A B n Tc , kg/m3
C2H4O2 0.0010 0.34143 0.25838 0.27680 487.20 905.5599
CH3OH 0.9895 0.27197 0.27192 0.23310 512.58 749.1029
H 2O 0.0085 0.24110 0.26785 0.24800 437.65 600.6499
C3H7NO 0.0009 0.23283 0.25703 0.26870 433.25 575.2129
Total 1.0000

BM campuran = 31.9900
cairan = 747.8379 kg/m3

*) Menghitung volume tangki


Dirancang waktu tinggal = 10 menit = 0.1667 jam
volume = 1858.7117 kg/jam x 0.1667 jam
747.8379 kg/m3
= 0.4142 m3
over design = 20%
V = 1,2 x 0.4142 m3
= 0.4971 m3

Dirancang L/D = 2
Volume tangki = Vshell + 2 Vhead
2
4
. D . L+ 2 D3
24 ( )
2 3
VT =
4 ( )
. D . L+ 2 D
24
VT = . D2 . L+ . D3
4 12
2
. D .2 D+ .D3
VT = 4 12
2 3 3
VT = .D + .D
4 12
VT 7 3
= .D
12
1/3
Diameter : D=
[(12.V T ) / ( 7 ) ]
= 0.6474 m = 25.4896 in
Panjang : L = 2.D
L= 1.2949 m = 50.9791 in

*) Menentukan tebal shell (ts)


Dirancang menggunakan carbon steel
P.r
ts = +C (Brownell, hal 140)
(f .E0,6. P)
Dalam hubungan ini :
ts = tebal shell
P = tekanan dalam vessel = 14.7 psia
r = Jari-jari = .Diameter = 0,5 x 25.4896
= 12.7448 in

E = effisiensi penggelasan = 0.85


C = faktor korosi = 0.125 in
f = Allowable stress, = 100 N/mm2 (Table 7.6 Caulson hal. 254)
= 14507.7720 psia
sehingga : ts = 0.1402 in
digunakan tebal standar 3/16 in
Jadi diameter luar accumulator :
OD = ID + 2ts
OD = 25.8646 in
= 0.6570 m

*) Menentukan tebal head (th)


Dari tabel 5-7 Brownell, w= 1
4 ( )
3+
r
icr
untuk OD = 25.8646 in
1
4( )
3+
r
icr
ts = 3/16 in = 1.7108 in
OD standar = 26 in
P .r .w
icr = 1 5/8 in th = +C
r= 24 in (2. f . E0,2.P )
th = 0.1495 in
digunakan tebal standar 3/16 in
untuk th = 3/16 in pada tabel 5.6 Brownell & young, hal 88 diperoleh sf = 1 1/2 - 2, D2
OD
D = OD standart - (2*ts)
a = ID
icr b 2
OA

B A = 12.8125
r ID
sf

AB =
ID t
2
a = 11.1875
BC = r irc
= 22.3750
C AC = (BC2- AB2)1/2
Tinggi head= th + b + Sf = 19.3773
= 6.8102 in b = r AC
= 0.1730 m = 4.6227
jadi panjang accumulator :
= 2 x tinggi head + L
= 0.3460 + 1.2949
= 1.6408 m
.x (kg/m3) BM BM x
0.9419 60.053 0.0625
741.2393 32.042 31.7056
5.1182 18.015 0.1535
0.5385 73.095 0.0684
747.8379 31.9900
OD standart - (2*ts)

in

- icr

in

in
(BC - AB )
2 2 1/2

in

in
Reboiler-01

Kode : Rb-01
Fungsi : menguapkan sebagian produk bawah MD-01
Jenis : Double pipe HE
NP Total di Sekitar MD-01
Masuk, kJ/Jam Keluar, kJ/Jam
Komponen
Umpan Distilat Bottom
C2H4O2 60339.3595 24874.6389 645.6115
CH3OH 399253.9322 1682.8079 422259.7095
C2H7N 2728.8095 1122.1020
C3H9N 2887.4882 1178.8835
H2O 4230.7510 4503.1997
C3H7NO 692799.0809 739100.3043
sub total 1162239.4212 28858.4323 1166508.8251
Beban Kondensor 69974.4649
Panas Reboiler 103102.3011
Total 1265341.7223 1265341.7223

Beban pendingin = 103102.3011 kJ/jam


Jika digunakan pemanas steam saturated :
Pada T = 160 oC = 320 oF
= 2081.3 kJ/kg (Smith-vanness, App. F)
Maka kebutuhan steam :
m= Qs-1

m= 103102.3011
2081.3
m= 49.5375 kg/jam

komponen kg %berat BM kmol


C2H4O2 3.6294 0.0006 60.053 0.0604
CH3OH 1844.0312 0.3160 32.042 57.5504
H2O 12.4184 0.0021 18.015 0.6893
C3H7NO 3975.9054 0.6813 73.095 54.3937
Total 5835.9844 1.0000 112.6939

Perancangan alat Reboiler


Fluida dingin :
Suhu masuk : 111.75 C 233.16
Suhu keluar : 121.75 C 251.16
Massa masuk : 5835.9844 kg
: 12865.9268 lb
Fluida panas : Suhu steam : 160 C 320
Kebutuhan steam: 49.5375 kg/jam
: 109.2096 lb
Beban panas (Q) : 103102.3011 kJ/jam
: 108772.9276 Btu
Menentukan spesifikasi Alat
Fluida panas (F) Fluida dingin (F) T, F
320.00 Higher temp 251.16 68.84
320.00 Lower temp 233.16 86.84

TLMTD =
t 2 - t 1
= 77.49 oF
t 2
ln
( t 1 )
t 1+ t2
tavg = ta = = 242.16 oF
2
Tav = T 1 + T 2= 320.00 oF
2

Menghitung densitas
Density = A. B (1-T/Tc) ^ n
* Fluida Panas
T = 160.00 oC = 433.00 K
Komponen A B n Tc
H2O 0.34710 0.27400 0.28571 647.13

* Fluida Dingin
T = 116.75 oC = 389.75 K
Komponen %mol A B n
C2H4O2 0.0005 0.34143 0.25838 0.27680
CH3OH 0.5107 0.27197 0.27192 0.23310
H2O 0.0061 0.34710 0.27400 0.28571
C3H7NO 0.4827 0.27376 0.23013 0.27630
Total 1.0000

Menghitung viskositas
Log = A + B/T + CT + DT2
* Fluida Panas
T = 160.00 oC = 433.00 K
Komponen A B C D
H2O -10.2158 1.7925E+03 1.7730E-02 -1.2631E-05

* Fluida Dingin
T = 116.75 oC = 389.75 K
Komponen %mol A B C
C2H4O2 0.0005 -8.0637 1.01E+03 2.09E-02
CH3OH 0.5107 -9.0562 1.25E+03 2.24E-02
H2O 0.0061 -10.2158 1.79E+03 1.77E-02
C3H7NO 0.4827 -5.329 8.95E+02 1.06E-02
Total 1.0000

Untuk exchanger fluida panas steam dan fluida dingin medium organic
UD =50 - 100 Btu/ft2.oF.jam (tabel 8. Kern)
diambil harga UD = 70 Btu/ft2.oF.jam

A = Q = 108772.9276
U D T LMTD 5424.58473722
= 20.0518 ft2

cdotL}a{ karena A < 200 f2 maka digunakan jenis Double pipe


A

tN=
Spesifikasi dirancang (reff : Kern hal 103):
a) Annulus : (IPS : 2 in)
OD : 2.38 in ( tabel 11 Kern hal 844)
ID : 2.067 in
b) Inner pipe : (IPS: 1 1/4 in)
OD : 1.66 in
ID : 1.38 in
c) Luas penampang: 20.0518 f2
d) Panjang pipa : 12 f

Fluida dingin :medium organic, inner pipe Fluida panas : steam, anulus
Menghitung flow area Menghitung flow area
D= 1.38 D2 =
12
= 0.1150 f =
ap = 3,14 D /4 =
2
0.010382 f2 D1 =
Gp = w/ap = 12865.9268 lb/jam
cdotL}a{
A 0.010382 f2 =

tN=

cdotL}a{
A

=Nt = 1239297.9749 lb/jam f2
= 0.2776 cP aa =
= 0.6717 lb/f jam =
De =
Reynolds =
DG p = 142519.267109035 lb/jam.f Ga = w/aa =
Re p =
0.6717 lb/jam.f
= 212179.6032 =
jH = 470 fig.24 (Kern, 1969 : 834) T =
At = 242.16 o
F =
c= 1.5000 Btu/lb. F (fig.2 Kern, hal 804)
o
=
k= 0.2340 (Tabel 4 Kern) Reynolds
DG p =
1/3 Re p =
c.
( )k
= 1.63

1/3 0 .14

=
jH =
k c.
Q
hi = jH . .
D k ( )( ) .
.
t =
c=
Ud= = 1555.8378 Btu/jam f F 2o
k=
AtLMTD hio = hi x ID/OD 1/3
c.
= 1293.4073 Btu/jam f F 2o

( )k
k c
=
1

hoi
Uc=
ho= jH
De k ( )( 3

h+oi =

Clean overall coefficient, Uc:


DIC'Bat
=aNst hio .ho
1414PnT Uc= = 63.7130 Btu/jam f2 oF
hio +ho
Design overall coefficient,Ud :
Dari tabel 11 Kern untuk 1 1/4 in IDS standar pipe = 0,435 f 2/f (eksternal surface per foot length)
Surface actual = 24 x 0.435
= 10.4400
UD = Q =
108772.9276 =
A . T
w 10.4400 77.4941
=Gt UC UD
at Dirt factor : Rd = 0.0029 jam f2F/Btu
UC . UD
UC UD
UC . UD

67.0141 h outside 1293.4073


Uc = 63.7130 Btu/jam f2 oF
W UD =
=Gs 53.7789 Btu/jam f2 oF
a Rd = 0.0029 jam f2F/Btu
S

Pressure drop :
Rep = 212179.6032 De ' =
f = 0,0035 + 0.264 Rep =
GIDt 212179.6032 0, 42 f = 0,0035 +
=Ret (= 0.00503
) 0, 42
s= 0.94000
(= )
2

()
1/2do
0.86P4T
24
De=
2
4 fG a L
=

=
58.7500

1.1172 f
lb/f3
=
s=

1/2do Pp= 2
2
4 fG a L =
2 g D Pa=
2 g2 D
PP = 1.1172 x 58.7500 V=
144 F1 =
= 0.4558 psi Pa =

GDes
=Res

1
c3
()k=
k

1
kc3
=jHhos
Dek )(
hoi
Uc=
h+oi
hoi
Uc=
h+oi

cUd
=Rd
Ucd

GfLn2
=Ptt10
5.2D10t

fG2(N+1)Ds
s
sP=10
5.2Ds10es
%mol
0.0005
0.5107
0.0061
0.4827
1.0000

F
F
F

, kg/m3 .x (lb/f3)
892.0189 55.6620

Tc , kg/m3 .x (lb/f3)
487.20 812.3835 0.0272
512.58 691.6485 22.0403
647.13 938.6302 0.3583
647.00 854.8083 25.7455
48.1713
, cp
0.1709

D , cp .x
-2.30E-05 0.1525 0.0001
-2.35E-05 0.2042 0.1043
-1.26E-05 0.2370 0.0015
-1.01E-05 0.3559 0.1718
0.2776

11 Kern hal 844)

panas : steam, anulus


tung flow area
2.067
12
0.1723 f
1.66
12
0.1383 f
3,14(D22-D12)/4
0.0083 f
(D22-D12)/D1
0.0761 f
109.2096 lb/jam
0.0083 f2
13206.8626513 lb/jam f2
320.00 o
F
0.1709 cP
0.4137 lb/jam.f

1005.68999399 lb/jam.f
0.4137 lb/jam.f
2431.13714254
43 (fig.24)
320.00 o
F
0.2000 Btu/lb.oF (fig.2 Kern, hal 805)
0.0143 (Tabel 4 Kern) 0.000144746

8.30
1 0, 14
k c
ho= jH
De k ( )( ) 3
w
67.0141 Btu/jam f2 oF

eksternal surface per foot length)

53.7789 Btu/jam f2 oF
0.0339 f
1082.8247
0.264
1082.8247 0, 42
( 0.01753
)
1.00000
62.5000 lb/f3 (tabel 6.hal 808)

0.0013 f

0.0587 fps
0.0002 f
0.00149 x 62.5000
144.00
0.0006 psi
Reboiler-02

Kode : Rb-02
Fungsi : menguapkan sebagian produk bawah MD-02
Jenis : Shell and Tube
NP Total di Sekitar MD-02
Masuk, kJ/Jam Keluar, kJ/Jam
Komponen
Umpan Distilat Bottom
C2H4O2 406.0770 282.8143
CH3OH 267,874.7499 187,143.2662 639.0646
H2O 2,918.1087 1,482.4541 1,866.1500
C3H7NO 472,246.4464 331.2426 1,103,349.3458
sub total 743,445.3819 189,239.7771 1,105,854.5603
Beban Kondensor 442,825.8092
Panas Reboiler 994,474.7647
Total 1,737,920.1467 1,737,920.1467

Beban pendingin = 994474.7647 kJ/jam


Jika digunakan pemanas steam saturated :
Pada T = 160 oC = 320 oF
= 2081.3 kJ/kg (Smith-vanness, App. F)
Maka kebutuhan steam :
m= Qs-1

m= 994474.7647
2081.3
m= 477.8142 kg/jam

komponen kg %berat BM kmol


CH3OH 1.8440 0.0005 32.042 0.0576
H 2O 3.4992 0.0009 18.015 0.1942
C3H7NO 3971.9295 0.9987 73.095 54.3393
Total 3977.2727 1.0000 54.5911

Perancangan alat Reboiler


Fluida dingin :
Suhu masuk : 151.78 C 305.20
Suhu keluar : 156.78 C 314.20
Massa masuk : 3977.2727 kg
: 8768.2379 lb
Fluida panas : Suhu steam : 160 C 320
Kebutuhan steam: 477.8142 kg/jam
: 1053.3823 lb
Beban panas (Q) : 994474.7647 kJ/jam
: 1049170.8768 Btu
Menentukan spesifikasi Alat
Fluida panas (F) Fluida dingin (F) T, F
320.00 Higher temp 314.20 5.80
320.00 Lower temp 305.20 14.80

TLMTD =
t 2 - t 1
= 9.60 oF
t 2
ln
( t 1 )
t 1+ t2
tavg = ta = = 309.70 oF 154.28
2
Tav = T 1 + T 2= 320.00 oF 160
2

Menghitung densitas
Density = A. B (1-T/Tc) ^ n
* Fluida Panas
T = 160.00 oC = 433.00 K
Komponen A B n Tc
H2O 0.34710 0.27400 0.28571 647.13

* Fluida Dingin
T = 154.28 oC = 427.28 K
komponen %mol A B n
CH3OH 0.0011 0.27197 0.27192 0.23310
H 2O 0.0036 0.34710 0.27400 0.28571
C3H7NO 0.9954 0.27376 0.23013 0.27630
Total 1.0000

Menghitung viskositas
Log = A + B/T + CT + DT2
* Fluida Panas
T = 160.00 oC = 433.00 K
Komponen A B C D
H2O -10.2158 1.7925E+03 1.7730E-02 -1.2631E-05

* Fluida Dingin
T = 154.28 oC = 427.28 K
komponen %mol A B C
CH3OH 0.0011 -8.0637 1.01E+03 2.09E-02
H 2O 0.0036 -10.2158 1.79E+03 1.77E-02
C3H7NO 0.9954 -5.329 8.95E+02 1.06E-02
Total 1.0000
Untuk exchanger fluida panas steam dan fluida dingin light organic
UD = 100-200 Btu/ft2.oF.jam (tabel 8. Kern, hal 808 )
diambil harga UD = 110 Btu/ft2.oF.jam

A = Q = 1049170.8768
U D T LMTD 1056.237918341
= 993.3092 ft2

karena A > 200 f2 maka digunakan jenis shell and tube HE

cdotL}a{ PERANCANGAN PIPA


A
Dari tabel 10. Kern, dipilih pipa dengan spesifikasi :
=Nt
Tube side Shell side
OD tube : 1 in ID :
ID tube : 0.87 in Baffle Space :
cdotL}a{ BWG : 16 1 1/4
A

=Nt a't : 0.594 in2

a" : 0.2618 f2/lin f
L: 20 f
Passes (n) : 2

Jumlah tube (Nt) = L a} } } {


A = 993.3092

5.236

= 189.7076

Digunakan jumlah pipa standart Nt standar


Nt = 199 buah tube (Tabel 9, Kern)

FLUIDA DINGIN (SHELL)


cdotL}a{
A Jenis Fluida = Light Organic
Letak = Shell
tN=

Menghitung Flow Area (ap)
cdotL}a{ as = ID C' B (Eq 7.1)
A
144 PT
tN=
C = clearance between tube
= Pitch - ODtube
= 1/4 in
B = baffle spacing
PT = tube pitch
as = 0.1568 f2

Menghitung Kecepatan Massa (Gs)


Gs = w / as
Gs = 55922.5469 lb/jam.f2

tavg = 154.28 o
C = 309.70 o
F

= 0.2727 Cp
Q
Ud= = 0.6598 lb/f jam
AtLMTD
1 1
De = 4 x 2 PTx 0,86PT 2 do / 4
2

1 do
2
(Pers. 7.5, Kern)
dimana, do = outside diameter of tubes, in
hQoi
Ud=Uc= De = 0.7118 in
Aht+LMTD = 0.0593 f
oi

ID C'Bat
a=Ns
Menghitung Bilangan Reynold (Re)
14t 4PTn

D .G
hoi
Res =
Uc=

h+oi Res = 5027.0395 (Turbulan)
L/D = 337.1812
jH = 42 (Fig. 28, Kern, Hal. 838)
tavg = ta = 309.7049525433 o
F
w k= 0.148 Btu/jam.f2.(oF/f) (Tabel 4, Kern)
=G=Natta't c= 0.5 (Fig. 2, Kern, Hal. 804)
ID14C'Bnat
s =a 1/3
14PT c.
( )
k
= 1.3074

1 /3 0 .14
k c.
hi = jH .
D
. (
k ) ( ) .
.
hi = 184.8267 Btu/jam f2 oF 1.3523749921
W
=Gs
a ho = hi x ID/OD
S
w ho = 160.7992 Btu/jam f2 oF
=Gt
at
Clean Overall Coefficient (Uc)
GIDt
=Ret Uc=
hio . ho

hio + ho

2 Uc = 146.2904
()
1W/2do
0.86P4Gs=T
2a4S Design Overall Coefficient (U )
De= D
1/2do 1 1
= + Rd
U D Uc
GIDt dimana:
tRe= Rd = Fouling Factor

GIDt
=Ret

Rd = 0.003 (Tabel 8, Kern, 1950, Hal 840)
1 = 0.0098
UD
2 UD = 101.6702 Btu/jam f2 oF
()
1/2do
0.86P4T
s
G24D
De=
Re= es
TOTAL SURFACE
1/2do
a" = 0.2618 f2/lin f (Tabel 10, Kern)
1
c3
()k=
k Total Surface = Nt x L x a"
= 1041.964 f2
DGp
=Repc.1/3
(k=jHh)c
UD KOREKSI
1

c.kD)(k
30.14/3 Q Btu/jam f2 oF
.hi=jH()
os U D= = 104.8635
e A . T LMTD
kD.

hoi DIRT FACTOR
GUc=hDes+
s =Reoi U -U C D = 0.0027 jam f2F/Btu
R D=
U C U D

160.7992 h outside 1621.3180


Uc = 146.2904 Btu/jam f2 oF
cUd
=Rd1/3 UD = 104.8635 Btu/jam f2 oF
c.Ucd
(k) MENGHITUNG PRESSURE DROP
RD = 0.0027 jam f2F/Btu

k1c3
=jHhos )(
Dek FLUIDA DINGIN (SHELL)
Res = 5027.0395

hoi
Uc= f = 0.0028 (Fig. 29, Kern)
h+oi

s = 1.42 (tabel 6. hal 808)

GfLn2 t = 1
t
=Pt10
5.2D10t D = 0.0593 f
cUd
dR=
Ucd n = Passes = 6
fG2Ds(N+1)
s
P=s10 r= 62.5
5.2Ds10es

Number of Crosses
N + 1 = 12.L / B
= 542.1176
Ps = f . G2 . D . (N+1)
5,22 . 1010 . D . S .t

GffGLn(N+1)D2 = 0.0640 psia


s=Pt
2s
Ps=t1010
5.25.2Dess10tD10
%mol
0.0011
0.0036
0.9954
1.0000

F
F

F
C

, kg/m3 .x (lb/f3)
892.0189 55.6620

Tc , kg/m3 .x (lb/f3)
512.58 640.9996 0.0422
647.13 898.4066 0.1995
647.00 814.3058 50.5783
50.8200

, cp
0.1709

D , cp .x
-2.30E-05 0.1080 0.0001
-1.26E-05 0.1774 0.0006
-1.01E-05 0.2732 0.2719
0.2727
21 1/4 in
5.3125 in = 0.4427 f
Triangular pitch

FLUIDA PANAS (TUBE)


Jenis Fluida = Steam
Letak = Tube

Menghitung Flow Area (ap)


a't = 0.594 in2

at = Number of Tubes x Flow Area per Tube


Number of Passes
at = (Nt . a't) / (144 . n) (Pers. 7.48)
at = 0.3913

Menghitung Kecepatan Massa (Gt)


Gt = w / at
Gt = 2692.1995 lb/jam.f2
Tavg = 160.0000 o
C = 320 o
F

= 0.1709 Cp
= 0.4137 lb/f jam

D = ID tube
D = 0.8700 in
= 0.0725 f

Menghitung Bilangan Reynold (Re)

D .G
Re=
Re =

471.8355 (Laminer)
t

L/D = 275.8621
jH = 13 (Fig. 24, Kern, Hal. 838)
tavg = ta = 320.0000 o
F
k= 0.2000 Btu/jam.f2.(oF/f)
(Tabel 4, Kern)
c= 0.0143 (Fig. 2, Kern, Hal. 805)
1/3
c.
( )
k
= 5.7739

1 /3 0 .14
k c.
hi = jH .
D
. ( ) ( )
k
.
.
hi = 207.0649 Btu/jam f2 oF

hio = hi x ID/OD
hio = 1621.3180 Btu/jam f2 oF 9
FLUIDA PANAS (TUBE)
Ret = 471.8355

f = 0.001 (Fig. 26, Kern)

s = 1

t = 1

D = 0.0725 f

n = Passes = 12

Pt = f . G2 . L . N = 0.0005 psia
5,22 . 1010 . D . s . t
Reboiler-03

Kode : Rb-01
Fungsi : menguapkan sebagian produk bawah St-01
Jenis : Double pipe HE
NP Total di Sekitar St-01
Masuk, kJ/Jam Keluar, kJ/Jam
Komponen
Umpan Distilat Bottom
C2H4O2 20120.6387 1.5664 22365.6449
CH3OH 1363.2553 1515.7919
C2H7N 906.3453 49.1490 227.4212
C3H9N 951.2566 66.0854 138.9358
sub total 23341.4959 116.8008 24247.7937
Beban Kondensor 8573.0560
Panas Reboiler 9596.1546
Total 32937.6505 32937.6505

Beban pendingin = 9596.1546 kJ/jam


Jika digunakan pemanas steam saturated :
Pada T = 160 oC = 320 oF
= 2081.3 kJ/kg (Smith-vanness, App. F)
Maka kebutuhan steam :
m= Qs-1

m= 9596.1546
2081.3
m= 4.6107 kg/jam

komponen kg %berat BM kmol


C2H7N 2.8107 0.0074 60.053 0.0468
C3H9N 1.3798 0.0036 45.084 0.0306
C2H4O2 358.9561 0.9402 60.053 5.9773
CH3OH 18.6266 0.0488 32.042 0.5813
Total 381.7732 1.0000 6.6360

Perancangan alat Reboiler


Fluida dingin :
Suhu masuk : 45.38 C 113.68
Suhu keluar : 55.38 C 131.68
Massa masuk : 381.7732 kg
: 841.6516 lb
Fluida panas : Suhu steam : 160 C 320
Kebutuhan steam: 4.6107 kg/jam
: 10.1646 lb
Beban panas (Q) : 9596.1546 kJ/jam
: 10123.9431 Btu
Menentukan spesifikasi Alat
Fluida panas (F) Fluida dingin (F) T, F
320.00 Higher temp 131.68 188.32
320.00 Lower temp 113.68 206.32

TLMTD =
t 2 - t 1
= 197.19 oF
t 2
ln
( t 1 )
t 1+ t2
tavg = ta = = 122.68 oF
2
Tav = T 1 + T 2= 320.00 oF
2

Menghitung densitas
Density = A. B (1-T/Tc) ^ n
* Fluida Panas
T = 160.00 oC = 433.00 K
Komponen A B n Tc
H2O 0.34710 0.27400 0.28571 647.13

* Fluida Dingin
T = 50.38 oC = 323.38 K
Komponen %mol A B n
C2H7N 0.0071 0.24110 0.26785 0.24800
C3H9N 0.0046 0.23283 0.25703 0.26870
C2H4O2 0.9007 0.34143 0.25838 0.27680
CH3OH 0.0876 0.27197 0.27192 0.23310
Total 1.0000

Menghitung viskositas
Log = A + B/T + CT + DT2
* Fluida Panas
T = 160.00 oC = 433.00 K
Komponen A B C D
H2O -10.2158 1.7925E+03 1.7730E-02 -1.2631E-05

* Fluida Dingin
T = 50.38 oC = 323.38 K
Komponen %mol A B C
C2H7N 0.0071 -11.5558 1.21E+03 3.50E-02
C3H9N 0.0046 -3.9726 4.42E+02 1.07E-02
C2H4O2 0.9007 -8.0637 1.01E+03 2.09E-02
CH3OH 0.0876 -9.0562 1.25E+03 2.24E-02
Total 1.0000

Untuk exchanger fluida panas steam dan fluida dingin heavy organic
UD =6 - 60 Btu/f2.oF.jam (tabel 8. Kern)
diambil harga UD = 6 Btu/f2.oF.jam

A = Q = 10123.9431
U D T LMTD 1183.116141844
= 8.5570 f2

karena A < 200 f2 maka digunakan jenis Double pipe

Spesifikasi dirancang (reff : Kern hal 103):


a) Annulus : (IPS : 2 in)
OD : 2.38 in ( tabel 11 Kern hal 844)
ID : 2.067 in
b) Inner pipe : (IPS 1 1/4 in)
OD : 1.66 in
ID : 1.38 in
c) Luas penampang: 8.5570 f2
d) Panjang pipa : 12 f

Fluida dingin :medium organic, inner pipe Fluida panas : steam, anulus
Menghitung flow area Menghitung flow area
D= 1.38 D2 =
12
= 0.1150 f =
ap = 3,14 D /4 =
2
0.010382 f2 D1 =
Gp = w/ap = 841.6516 lb/jam
0.010382 f2 =
= 81071.2808 lb/jam f 2

= 0.2733 cP aa =
= 0.6613 lb/f jam =
De =
Reynolds =
DG p = 9323.1972881786 lb/jam.f Ga = w/aa =
Re p =
0.6613 lb/jam.f
= 14099.0100 =
jH = 50 fig.24 (Kern, 1969 : 834) T =
At = 122.68 o
F =
c= 1.0000 Btu/lb.oF (fig.2 Kern, hal 804) =
k= 0.2840 (Tabel 4 Kern) Reynolds
DG p =
1/3 Re p =
c.
( )k
= 1.33

1/3 0 .14

=
jH =
k c.
hi = jH . .
D k ( )( ) .
.
t =
c=
= 163.6602 Btu/jam f F 2o
k=
hio = hi x ID/OD 1/3
c.
= 136.0549 Btu/jam f2 oF
( )k
k c
=
1

ho= jH
De k ( )( 3

=

Clean overall coefficient, Uc:

hio .ho
Uc= = 8.0523 Btu/jam f2 oF
hio +ho
Design overall coefficient,Ud :
Dari tabel 11 Kern untuk 1 1/4 in IDS standar pipe = 0,435 f 2/f (eksternal surface per foot length)
Surface actual = 24 x 0.435
= 10.4400
UD = Q =
40495.7724 =
A . T 10.4400 197.1860

UC UD
Dirt factor : Rd = 0.0029 jam f2F/Btu
UC . UD

8.5589 h outside 136.0549


Uc = 8.0523 Btu/jam f2 oF
UD = 7.8685 Btu/jam f2 oF
Rd = 0.0029 jam f2F/Btu

Pressure drop :
Rep = 14099.0100 De ' =
f = 0,0035 + 0.264 Rep =
14099.0100 0, 42 f = 0,0035 +
(= 0.00827
) 0, 42
s= 0.94000
(= )
= 58.7500 lb/f3 s=
=
4 fG 2
a L = 0.0079 f
Pp= 2
4 fG 2a L =
2 g D Pa=
2 g2 D
PP = 0.0079 x 58.7500 V=
144 F1 =
= 0.0032 psi Pa =

=
%mol
0.0071
0.0046
0.9007
0.0876
1.0000

F
F

F
, kg/m3 .x (lb/f3)
892.0189 55.6620

Tc , kg/m3 .x (lb/f3)
437.65 619.8110 0.2728
433.25 595.8450 0.1715
487.20 928.9242 52.2110
512.58 763.5501 4.1737
56.8290

, cp
0.1709

D , cp .x
-4.13E-05 0.1577 0.0011
-1.61E-05 0.1425 0.0007
-2.30E-05 0.2628 0.2367
-2.35E-05 0.3972 0.0348
0.2733

11 Kern hal 844)

panas : steam, anulus


tung flow area
2.067
12
0.1723 f
1.66
12
0.1383 f

3,14(D22-D12)/4
0.0083 f
(D22-D12)/D1
0.0761 f
10.1646 lb/jam
0.0083 f2
1229.21694817 lb/jam f2
320.00 o
F
0.1709 cP
0.4137 lb/jam.f

93.6036981573 lb/jam.f
0.4137 lb/jam.f
226.275918652
3 (fig.24)
320.00 o
F
0.8000 Btu/lb.oF (fig.2 Kern, hal 805)
0.0143 (Tabel 4 Kern)

2.85
1 0, 14
k c
ho= jH
De k ( )( ) 3
w
8.5589 Btu/jam f2 oF 5.8208826786

eksternal surface per foot length)

7.8685 Btu/jam f2 oF
0.0339 f
100.7829
0.264
100.7829 0, 42
( 0.04153
)
1.00000
62.5000 lb/f3 (tabel 6.hal 808)

0.000027 f

0.0055 fps
0.0000 f
0.00003 x 62.5000
144.00
0.000012 psi
PERANCANGAN (HE-01)

Fungsi : menaikkan suhu bahan baku Dimethylamine menuju Reaktor-01


Neraca panas :
Panas masuk : T= 305.15 K
komponen Kmol A B C
C2 H 7 N 54.5390 36.962 0.95817 -3.585E-03
C3 H 9 N 0.2101 47.96 0.7302 -0.0028388
H 2O 0.6893 92.05 -4.00E-02 -2.11E-04
Total 55.4384

Panas keluar : T= 383.15 K


komponen Kmol A B C
C2H7N 54.5390 36.962 0.95817 -3.585E-03
C3H9N 0.2101 47.96 0.7302 -0.0028388
H2O 0.6893 92.05 -4.00E-02 -2.11E-04
Total 55.4384

Beban panas = 700980.6257 Kj

Dipakai steam dengan spesifikasi sebagai berikut:


Suhu : 160 oC = 320 oF
Hev : 2081.3 kj/kg

Maka kebutuhan steam :


Q = 700980.6257
2081.3000
= 336.7994 kg/jm

Massa masuk :
Komponen Kg/jm Fraksi BM Kmol
C2 H 7 N 2458.8369 0.9900 45.084 54.5390
C3 H 9 N 12.4184 0.0050 59.111 0.2101
H 2O 12.4184 0.0050 18.015 0.6893
Total 2483.6736 1.0000 55.4384

Perancangan alat HE :
Fluida dingin :
Suhu masuk : 89.60 F
Suhu keluar : 230.00 F
Massa masuk : 2483.6736 kg
: 5475.4710 lb
Fluida panas : Suhu steam 320 F
Kebutuhan steam : 336.7994 kg
: 742.5031 lb
Beban panas (Q) : 700980.6257 Kj
: 739534.5602 Btu

"Menentukan spesifikasi alat"


Fluida panas oF Fluida dingin oF t
320 Higher temp 230.00 90.00
320 Lower temp 89.60 230.40
T12
t21 DTLMTD =
t 2 - t 1 Tav =
= 149.3605 oF
t 2

t-21
ln
( )
t 1
tav =

t2 "Viskositas dan densitas cairan


ln
1t Viskositas :
Log = A + B/T + CT + DT2
T= 344.15 K
t12 Komponen A B C D
2C H N -11.5558 1.21E+03 3.50E-02 -4.13E-05
2 7

C3 H 9 N -3.9726 4.42E+02 1.07E-02 -1.61E-05


H 2O -10.2158 1.79E+03 1.77E-02 -1.26E-05
Total

Steam T= 433.15
H 2O -10.2158 1.79E+03 1.77E-02 -1.26E-05

Densitas :
Density = A. B (1-T/Tc) ^ n T= 344.15 K
Komponen A B n Tc
C2 H 7 N 0.24110 0.26785 0.24800 437.65
C3 H 9 N 0.23283 0.25703 0.26870 433.25
H 2O 0.34710 0.27400 0.28571 647.13
Total

Steam T= 433.15
H 2O 0.34710 0.27400 0.28571 647.13

Untuk exchanger fluida panas steam dan lightorganik fluida dingin


UD =100 - 200Btu/f2.oF.jam (tabel 8. Kern, 1969 : 840)
diambil harga UD = 100 Btu/f2.oF.jam

A = Q = 739534.5602 = 49.5134
U D T LMTD 14936.0548795
Q
U D T LMTD

karena A < 200 f2 maka digunakan jenis Double pipe

Spesifikasi dirancang (reff : Kern hal 103):


cdotL}a{
A

=Nt

a) Annulus : (IPS : 3 in)
OD : 3.50 in ( tabel 11 Kern hal 844)
ID : 3.068 in
b) Inner pipe : (IPS2 in)
OD : 2.38 in
ID : 2.067 in
c) Luas penampang: 49.5134 f2
d) Panjang pipa : 12 f

Fluida dingin :light organic, inner pipe Fluida panas : steam, anulus
Menghitung flow area Menghitung flow area
D= 2.067 D2 =
12
= 0.1723 f =
DGp ap = 3,14 D2/4 = D1 =
Rep 0.023291 f2

cdotL}a{ Gp = w/ap = 5475.4710 lb/jam
A
0.023291 f2 =
=Nt
= 235089.5701 lb/jam f2
= 0.1370 cP aa =
= 0.3317 lb/f jam =
3/1
.c De =

k Reynolds =
1/3 DG p = 40494.1784420508 lb/jam.f Ga = w/aa =
.ck.c14.03/1
() .jHhik
Dk.
Re p =
0.3317 lb/jam.f
= 122096.3356 =
DGp
Rep jH = 250 fig.24 (Kern, 1969 : 834) T =

At = 159.80 o
F =
c= 0.4200 Btu/lb.oF (fig.2 Kern, hal 804) =
k= 0.3000 (Tabel 4 Kern) Reynolds
DG p=
.kc0.14/3 1/3 Re p =
().hi=jH
kD.
c.
( )
k
= 0.77
=
1 /3 0 .14 jH =
k c.
hi = jH . .
D k ( ) ( ) .
.
t =
c=
= 337.1641 Btu/jam f2 oF k=
Q
Ud= hio = hi x ID/OD 1/3
c.
AtLMTD
ioh.
Uc
hio
= 292.8228 Btu/jam f2 oF
( )k
=

k c
1
ho= jH
De k ( )( 3
1
k c
ho= jH
De k ( )( 3

hoi =
Uc=
h+oi
Q
.AT Clean overall coefficient, Uc:

hio .ho
Uc= = 220.4295 Btu/jam f2 oF
CUD hio +ho
C.UIDDC'B
a't
Na=as=t
1414nPT Design overall coefficient,Ud :
Dari tabel 11 Kern untuk 2 in IDS standar pipe = 0,622 f 2/f (eksternal surface per foot length)
Surface actual = 24 x 0.622
= 14.9280
UD = Q =
739534.5602 =
A . T 14.9280 149.3605

UC UD
Dirt factor : Rd = 0.0030 jam f2F/Btu

w UC . UD
=Gt
42,0at
()
891.6123 h outside 292.8228
Uc = 220.4295 Btu/jam f2 oF
UD = 132.6725 Btu/jam f2 oF
Rd = 0.0030 jam f2F/Btu
2
4LfG
Fpa a

2Dg2WDg
22

Gs= Pressure drop :


aS Rep = 122096.3356 De ' =
f = 0,0035 + 0.264 Rep =
122096.33560, 42 f = 0,0035 +
(= 0.00543
) 0, 42
s= 0.93000 =
( )
GIDWt
=G=Rest = 58.1250 lb/f3 s=
aS
=
4 fG 2
a L = 0.0296 f
Pp= 2
4 fG 2a L=
2 g D Pa=
2 g2 D
PP = 0.0296 x58.1250 V=
2 144 F1 =
()
1/2do
0.86P4T
24
De=
= 0.0119 psi Pa =

1/2do =
P total = 0.0141 psi
GDes
sRe=

1
c3
()k=
k

k1c3
=jHhos
Dek )(
hoi
Uc=
h+oi

cUd
=Rd
Ucd

GfLn2
t
fG=P2t(N+1)Ds10
s5.2D10
Ps=10t
5.2Dess10
e. Neraca Panas di Sekitar Heat Exchanger (HE-01)

Tabel 2.11 Neraca Panas di Sekitar Heat Exchanger (H


D Cp dT
Q =m CpdT komponen Masuk, kJ/Jam
5.399E-06 1058.1880 57712.5277 C2H7N 57712.5277
4.6585E-06 985.0209 206.9387 C3H9N 206.9387
5.35E-07 539.6455 371.9965 H2 O 371.9965
58291.4628 Sub total 58291.4628
Beban Pemanas 700980.6257
Total 759272.0886
D Cp dT
Q =m CpdT
5.399E-06 13790.562353473 752123.6678
4.6585E-06 12990.527764958 2729.1224
5.35E-07 6410.9598915304 4419.2984
759272.0886

Fraksi(x)
0.9838
0.0038
0.0124
1.0000
320 oF
159.8 oF
344.15 K

fraksi umpan , Cp x
0.9838 0.13384 0.13167
0.0038 0.11723 0.00044
0.0124 0.39670 0.00493
1.00000 0.13705

, Cp
0.17077

(kg/m3) , x BM BM.x
592.04514 582.43994 45.084 44.35257
565.96240 2.14473 59.111 0.22400
984.25501 12.23846 18.015 0.22400
596.82314 44.80057

(kg/m3)
891.85035

f2
bel 11 Kern hal 844)

da panas : steam, anulus


nghitung flow area
3.068
12
0.2557 f
2.38
12
0.1983 f

3,14(D22-D12)/4
0.0204 f
(D22-D12)/D1
0.1312 f
742.5031 lb/jam
0.0204 f2
36338.381734 lb/jam f2
320.00 o
F
0.1708 cP
0.4133 lb/jam.f

DG p 4769.0614333 lb/jam.f
p=
0.4133 lb/jam.f
11539.669875
130 (fig.24)
320.00 o
F
0.2000 Btu/lb.oF (fig.2 Kern, hal 805)
0.0143 (Tabel 4 Kern)
1/3
c.
( )
k
k c
1.79
1
0, 14
ho= jH
De k ( )( ) 3
w
1 0, 14
k c
ho= jH
De k ( )( ) 3
w
891.6123 Btu/jam f2 oF

ternal surface per foot length)

132.6725 Btu/jam f2 oF

0.0573 f
5041.1921
0.264

( 5041.1921
0, 42
0.01085
)
1.00000
62.5000 lb/f3 (tabel 6.hal 808)

4 fG 2a L 0.0037 f
a= 2
2 g D
0.1615 fps
0.0012 f
0.00489 x 62.5000
144.00
0.0021 psi
r Heat Exchanger (HE-01)

di Sekitar Heat Exchanger (HE-01)


Keluar, kJ/Jam
752123.6678
2729.1224
4419.2984
759272.0886

759272.0886
PERANCANGAN (HE-02)

Fungsi : menaikkan suhu bahan baku Methylformate dari tangki-02 menuju Reaktor-01
Neraca panas :
Panas masuk : T= 305.1500 K
komponen Kmol A B C D
C2H4O2 60.4374 42.381 0.57084 -0.0019727 2.8945E-06
CH3OH 3.7381 40.152 0.31046 -1.029E-03 1.460E-06
Total 64.1755

Panas keluar : T= 383.15 K


komponen Kmol A B C D
C2H4O2 60.4374 42.381 0.57084 -0.0019727 2.8945E-06
CH3OH 3.7381 40.152 0.31046 -1.029E-03 1.460E-06
Total 64.1755

Beban panas = 607820.5090 Kj

Dipakai steam dengan spesifikasi sebagai berikut:


Suhu : 160 oC = 320 oF
Hev : 2081.3 kj/kg

Maka kebutuhan steam :


Q = 607820.5090
2081.3000
= 292.0389 kg/jm

Massa masuk :
Komponen Kg/jm Fraksi BM Kmol Fraksi(x)
C2H4O2 3629.4479 0.9681 60.053 60.4374 0.9418
CH3OH 119.7758 0.0319 32.042 3.7381 0.0582
Total 3749.2237 1.0000 64.1755 1.0000

Perancangan alat HE :
Fluida dingin :
Suhu masuk : 89.60 F
Suhu keluar : 230.00 F
Massa masuk : 3749.2237 kg
: 8265.4844 lb
Fluida panas : Suhu steam 320 F
Kebutuhan steam : 292.0389 kg
: 643.8247 lb
Beban panas (Q) : 607820.5090 Kj
: 641250.6370 Btu

"Menentukan spesifikasi alat"


Fluida panas oF Fluida dingin oF t
320 Higher temp 230.00 90.00
320 Lower temp 89.60 230.40

DTLMTD =
t 2 - t 1 Tav =
= 149.3605 oF 320
t 2
ln
( )
t 1
tav = 159.80
344.15

"Viskositas dan densitas cairan


Viskositas :
Log = A + B/T + CT + DT2
T= 344.15 K
Komponen A B C D fraksi umpan
C2H4O2 -8.0637 1.01E+03 2.09E-02 -2.30E-05 0.9418
CH3OH -9.0562 1.25E+03 2.24E-02 -2.35E-05 0.0582
Total 1.00000

Steam T= 433.15 , Cp
H 2O -10.2158 1.79E+03 1.77E-02 -1.26E-05 0.17077

Densitas :
Density = A. B (1-T/Tc) ^ n T= 344.15 K
Komponen A B n Tc (kg/m3)
C2H4O2 0.34143 0.25838 0.27680 487.20 895.2982
CH3OH 0.27197 0.27192 0.23310 512.58 742.7568
Total

Steam T= 433.15 (kg/m3)


H 2O 0.34710 0.27400 0.28571 647.13 891.85035

Untuk exchanger fluida panas steam dan light organik fluida dingin
UD =100- 200 Btu/f2.oF.jam (tabel 8. Kern, 1969 : 840)
diambil harga UD = 175 Btu/f2.oF.jam

A = Q = 641250.6370 = 24.5332 f2
U D T LMTD 26138.0960392
Q
U D T LMTD

karena A < 200 f2 maka digunakan jenis Double pipe

Spesifikasi dirancang (reff : Kern hal 103):


a) Annulus : (IPS : 3 in)
OD : 3.50 in ( tabel 11 Kern hal 844)
ID : 3.068 in
b) Inner pipe : (IPS2 in)
OD : 2.38 in
ID : 2.067 in
c) Luas penampang: 24.5332 f2
d) Panjang pipa : 12 f

Fluida dingin :light organic, inner pipe Fluida panas : steam, anulus
Menghitung flow area Menghitung flow area
D= 2.067 D2 = 3.068
12 12
= 0.1723 f = 0.2557
ap = 3,14 D2/4 = 0.023291 f2 D1 = 2.38
Gp = w/ap = 8265.4844 lb/jam 12
0.023291 f 2
= 0.1983
= 354878.9106 lb/jam f2
= 0.2271 cP aa = 3,14(D22-D12)/4
= 0.5497 lb/f jam = 0.0204
De = (D22-D12)/D1
Reynolds = 0.1312
DG p = 61127.8923467212 lb/jam.f Ga = w/aa = 643.8247
Re p =
0.5497 lb/jam.f 0.0204
= 111212.3781 = 31509.021607
jH = 275 fig.24 (Kern, 1969 : 834) T = 320.00
At = 159.80 o
F = 0.1708
c= 1.0000 Btu/lb.oF (fig.2 Kern, hal 804) = 0.4133
k= 0.2840 (Tabel 4 Kern) Reynolds
DG p= 4135.254587
1/3 Re p =
c.
( )
k
= 1.25 0.4133
= 10006.05118

k c. 1 /3 0 .14 jH = 35
hi = jH . .
D k ( ) ( )
.
.
t =
c=
320.00
0.2000
= 565.0425 Btu/jam f2 oF k= 0.0143
hio = hi x ID/OD 1/3
c.
= 490.7323 Btu/jam f2 oF
( )k
= 1.79
1/3
c.
( )k
k c
1

ho= jH
De k ( )( 3
w
= 259.4262

Clean overall coefficient, Uc:

hio .ho
Uc= = 169.7092 Btu/jam f2 oF
hio +ho
Design overall coefficient,Ud :
Dari tabel 11 Kern untuk 2 in IDS standar pipe = 0,622 f 2/f (eksternal surface per foot length)
Surface actual = 24 x 0.622
= 14.9280
UD = Q =
641250.6370 = 115.0404
A . T 14.9280 149.3605

UC UD
Dirt factor : Rd = 0.0028 jam f2F/Btu
UC . UD

259.4262 h outside 490.7323


Uc = 169.7092 Btu/jam f2 oF
UD = 115.0404 Btu/jam f2 oF
Rd = 0.0028 jam f2F/Btu

Pressure drop :
Rep = 111212.3781 De ' = 0.0573
f = 0,0035 + 0.264 Rep = 4371.2191
111212.37810, 42 f = 0,0035 + 0.264
(= 0.00551
) 4371.2191 0, 42
s= 0.93000 =
( 0.01131
)
= 58.1250 lb/f3 s= 1.00000
= 62.5000
4 fG 2
a L = 0.0684 f
Pp= 2
2
4 fG a L= 0.0029
2 g D Pa=
2 g2 D
PP = 0.0684 x58.1250 V= 0.1400
144 F1 = 0.0009
= 0.0276 psi Pa = 0.00379
144.00
= 0.0016
P total = 0.0293 psi
e. Neraca Panas di Sekitar Heat Exchanger (HE-02)

Tabel 2.11 Neraca Panas di Sekitar Heat Exchanger (HE-02)


Cp dT
Q =m CpdT komponen Masuk, kJ/Jam Keluar, kJ/Jam
818.7579 49483.6065 C2 H 4 O 2 49483.6065 632562.5540
573.6074 2144.1948 CH3OH 2144.1948 26885.7563
51627.8013 Sub total 51627.8013 659448.3103
Beban Pemanas 607820.5090
Total 659448.3103 659448.3103
Cp dT
Q =m CpdT
10466.407033469 632562.5540
7192.3822504333 26885.7563
659448.3103
o
F
o
F
K

, Cp x
0.2215 0.20856
0.3187 0.01857
0.22713

, x BM BM.x
843.1490 60.053 56.5550
43.2640 32.042 1.8664
886.4130 58.4214
f

f
lb/jam
f2
lb/jam f2
o
F
cP
lb/jam.f

lb/jam.f
lb/jam.f

(fig.24)
o
F
Btu/lb.oF (fig.2 Kern, hal 805)
(Tabel 4 Kern)
1 0,14
k c
H
De k ( )( ) 3
w
Btu/jam f2 oF 37.905236606

er foot length)

Btu/jam f2 oF

0, 42
)

lb/f3 (tabel 6.hal 808)

fps
f
x 62.5000
psi
nger (HE-02)
PERANCANGAN (HE-02)

Fungsi : menaikkan suhu bahan baku Pentane Reaktor-01


Neraca panas :
Panas masuk : T= 351.3000 K 78.3 C
komponen Kmol A B C D
C5H10 23.9306 37.101 0.23664 0.00011834 -2.1139E-07
i-C5H10 0.2369 19.735 0.11636 5.126E-04 -5.675E-07
Total 24.1675

Panas keluar : T= 408 K 130 C


komponen Kmol A B C D
C5H10 23.9306 37.101 0.23664 0.00011834 -2.1139E-07
i-C5H10 0.2369 19.735 0.11636 0.00051261 -5.6745E-07
Total 24.1675

Beban panas = 183067.3355 Kj

Dipakai steam dengan spesifikasi sebagai berikut:


Suhu : 160 oC = 320 oF
Hev : 2081.3 kj/kg

Maka kebutuhan steam :


Q = 183067.3355
2081.3000
= 87.9582 kg/jm

Massa masuk :
Komponen Kg/jm Fraksi BM Kmol Fraksi(x)
C5H10 1678.2513 0.9902 70.13 23.9306 0.9902
i-C5H10 16.61468787 0.0098 70.13 0.2369 0.0098
Total 1694.8660 1.0000 24.1675 1.0000

Perancangan alat HE :
Fluida dingin :
Suhu masuk : 172.67 F
Suhu keluar : 274.73 F
Massa masuk : 1694.8660 kg
: 3736.4770 lb
Fluida panas : Suhu steam 320 F
Kebutuhan steam : 87.9582 kg
: 193.9113 lb
Beban panas (Q) : 183067.3355 Kj
: 193136.0389 Btu

"Menentukan spesifikasi alat"


Fluida panas oF Fluida dingin oF t
320 Higher temp 274.73 45.27
320 Lower temp 172.67 147.33

DTLMTD =
t 2 - t 1 Tav =
= 86.4893 oF 320
t 2
ln
( )
t 1
tav = 223.70
379.65

"Viskositas dan densitas cairan


Viskositas :
Log = A + B/T + CT + DT2
T= 379.65 K
Komponen A B C fraksi umpan
C5H10 -2.321 0.30131 -0.0001223 0.9902
i-C5H10 -2.903 0.2706 -0.000068331 0.0098
Total 1.00000

Steam T= 433.15 , Cp
H 2O -10.2158 1.79E+03 1.77E-02 -1.26E-05 0.17077

Densitas :
Density = A. B (1-T/Tc) ^ n T= 379.65 K
Komponen A B n Tc (kg/m3)
C5H10 0.23767 0.26648 0.2905 464.78 533.0178
i-C5H10 0.27236 0.27247 0.28571 511.76 658.6371
Total

Steam T= 433.15 (kg/m3)


H 2O 0.34710 0.27400 0.28571 647.13 891.85035

Untuk exchanger fluida panas steam dan light organik fluida dingin
UD =100- 200 Btu/f2.oF.jam (tabel 8. Kern, 1969 : 840)
diambil harga UD = 175 Btu/f2.oF.jam

A = Q = 193136.0389 = 12.7604 f2
U D T LMTD 15135.6269211

karena A < 200 f2 maka digunakan jenis Double pipe


Spesifikasi dirancang (reff : Kern hal 103):
a) Annulus : (IPS : 3 in)
OD : 3.50 in ( tabel 11 Kern hal 844)
ID : 3.068 in
b) Inner pipe : (IPS2 in)
OD : 2.38 in
ID : 2.067 in
c) Luas penampang: 12.7604 f2
d) Panjang pipa : 12 f

Fluida dingin :light organic, inner pipe Fluida panas : steam, anulus
Menghitung flow area Menghitung flow area
D= 2.067 D2 = 3.068
12 12
= 0.1723 f = 0.2557
ap = 3,14 D2/4 = 0.023291 f2 D1 = 2.38
Gp = w/ap = 3736.4770 lb/jam 12
0.023291 f 2
= 0.1983
= 160425.7952 lb/jam f2
= 0.0094 cP aa = 3,14(D22-D12)/4
= 0.0228 lb/f jam = 0.0204
De = (D22-D12)/D1
Reynolds = 0.1312
DG p
= 27633.3432229394 lb/jam.f Ga = w/aa = 193.9113
Re p =
0.0228 lb/jam.f 0.0204
= 1209612.0226 = 9490.0921304
jH = 1000 fig.24 (Kern, 1969 : 834) T = 320.00
At = 223.70 o
F = 0.1708
c= 0.6500 Btu/lb.oF (fig.2 Kern, hal 804) = 0.4133
k= 0.0740 (Tabel 4 Kern) Reynolds
DG p= 1245.4828811
1/ 3 Re p =
c.
( k
=
) 0.59 0.4133
= 3013.6875955

k c. 1/3 0.14 jH = 11
hi= jH . . .
D k .()() t =
c=
320.00
1.1000
= 251.5140 Btu/jam f2 oF k= 0.0226
hio = hi x ID/OD 1/3
c. =
= 218.4367 Btu/jam f2 oF
( )k
2.72

k c
1

ho= jH
De k ( )( 3
w
1
k c
ho= jH
De k ( )( 3
w
= 195.2724

Clean overall coefficient, Uc:

hio .ho
Uc= = 103.1030 Btu/jam f2 oF
hio +ho
Design overall coefficient,Ud :
Dari tabel 11 Kern untuk 2 in IDS standar pipe = 0,622 f 2/f (eksternal surface per foot length)
Surface actual = 24 x 0.622
= 14.9280
UD = Q =
193136.0389 = 59.8356
A . T 14.9280 86.4893

UC UD
Dirt factor : Rd = 0.0070 jam f2F/Btu
UC . UD

195.2724 h outside 218.4367


Uc = 103.1030 Btu/jam f2 oF
UD = 59.8356 Btu/jam f2 oF
Rd = 0.0070 jam f2F/Btu

Pressure drop :
Rep = 1209612.0226 De ' = 0.0573
f = 0,0035 + 0.264 Rep = 1316.5522
1209612.02260, 42 f = 0,0035 + 0.264
=
( 0.00424
) 1316.5522 0, 42
s= 0.63000 =
( 0.01643
)
= 39.3750 lb/f3 s= 0.91000
= 56.8750
4 fG 2
a L = 0.0234 f
Pp= 2
2
4 fG a L= 0.0005
2 g D Pa=
2 g2 D
PP = 0.0234 x39.3750 V= 0.0463
144 F1 = 0.0001
= 0.0064 psi Pa = 0.00056
144.00
= 0.0002
P total = 0.0066 psi
e. Neraca Panas di Sekitar Heat Exchanger (HE-0

Tabel 2.11 Neraca Panas di Sekitar Heat Exchang


E Cp dT
Q =m CpdT komponen
6.8054E-11 6391.2662 152946.6829 C2 H 4 O 2
1.705E-10 5011.9079 1187.3847 CH3OH
154134.0676 Sub total
Beban Pemanas
Total
E Cp dT
Q =m CpdT
6.8054E-11 13979.29191 334532.5085
1.7045E-10 11265.308034 2668.8946 komponen
337201.4031 C5H10
i-C5H10
Total
o
F
o
F
K

, Cp x
0.0094 0.00935
0.0090 0.00009
0.00944

, x BM BM.x
527.7927 70.13 69.4425
6.4566 70.13 0.6875
534.2493 70.1300
f
Jh

f
lb/jam
f2
lb/jam f2
o
F
cP
lb/jam.f

lb/jam.f
lb/jam.f

(fig.24)
o
F
Btu/lb.oF (fig.2 Kern, hal 805)
(Tabel 4 Kern)

1 0,14
k c
H ( )( )
De k
3
w
1 0,14
k c
H
De k ( )( ) 3
w
Btu/jam f2 oF 37.905236606

er foot length)

Btu/jam f2 oF

0, 42
)

lb/f3 (tabel 6.hal 808)

fps
f
x 56.8750

psi
Panas di Sekitar Heat Exchanger (HE-02)

1 Neraca Panas di Sekitar Heat Exchanger (HE-02)


Masuk, kJ/Jam Keluar, kJ/Jam
152946.6829 334532.5085
1187.3847 2668.8946
154134.0676 337201.4031
183067.3355
337201.4031 337201.4031

Kmol
23.9306
A
37.101
B C D E
0.23664 0.000118 -2.11E-07 6.805E-11
6391.2662
Cp dT

0.2369 19.735 0.11636 5.126E-04 ### 1.705E-10 5011.9079


24.1675 11403.1742
649.3 193.3196
649.3 172.7976

Q =m CpdT
152946.6829
1187.3847
154134.0676
PERANCANGAN (HE-03)

Fungsi : menaikkan suhu hasil bawah striper menuju reaktor


Neraca panas :
Panas masuk : T= 329.1064 K 55.9564
komponen Kmol A B C
C2H7N 0.0623 36.962 0.95817 -3.585E-03
C3H9N 0.0233 47.960 0.7302 -0.0028388
C2H4O2 5.9773 42.381 0.57084 -0.0019727
CH3OH 0.5813 40.152 0.31046 -1.029E-03
Total 6.6443

Panas keluar : T= 383.1500 K


komponen Kmol A B C
C2H7N 0.0623 36.962 0.95817 -3.585E-03
C3H9N 0.0233 47.960 0.7302 -0.0028388
C2H4O2 5.9773 42.381 0.57084 -0.0019727
CH3OH 0.5813 40.152 0.31046 -1.029E-03
Total 6.6443

Beban panas = 44336.7524 Kj

Dipakai steam dengan spesifikasi sebagai berikut:


Suhu : 160 oC = 320 oF
Hev : 2081.3 kj/kg

Maka kebutuhan steam :


Q = 44336.7524
2081.3000
= 21.3024 kg/jm

Massa masuk :
Komponen Kg/jm Fraksi BM Kmol
C2H7N 2.8107 0.0074 45.084 0.0623
C3H9N 1.3798 0.0036 59.111 0.0233
C2H4O2 358.9561 0.9402 60.053 5.9773
CH3OH 18.6266 0.0488 32.042 0.5813
Total 381.7732 1.0000 6.6443

Perancangan alat HE :
Fluida dingin :
Suhu masuk : 132.72 F
Suhu keluar : 230.00 F
Massa masuk : 381.7732 kg
: 841.6516 lb
Fluida panas : Suhu steam 320 F
Kebutuhan steam : 21.3024 kg
: 46.9630 lb
Beban panas (Q) : 44336.7524 Kj
: 46775.2738 Btu

"Menentukan spesifikasi alat"


Fluida panas oF Fluida dingin oF t
320 Higher temp 230.00 90.00
320 Lower temp 132.72 187.28

DTLMTD =
t 2 - t 1 Tav =
= 132.7513 oF
t 2
ln
( )
t 1
tav =

"Viskositas dan densitas cairan


Viskositas :
Log = A + B/T + CT + DT2
T= 356.13 K
Komponen A B C D
C2H7N -11.5558 1.21E+03 3.50E-02 -4.13E-05
C3H9N -3.9726 4.42E+02 1.07E-02 -1.61E-05
C2H4O2 -8.0637 1.01E+03 2.09E-02 -2.30E-05
CH3OH -9.0562 1.25E+03 2.24E-02 -2.35E-05
Total

Steam T= 433.15
H 2O -10.2158 1.79E+03 1.77E-02 -1.26E-05

Densitas :
Density = A. B (1-T/Tc) ^ n T= 356.13 K
Komponen A B n Tc
C2H7N 0.24110 0.26785 0.24800 437.65
C3H9N 0.23283 0.25703 0.26870 433.25
C2H4O2 0.34143 0.25838 0.27680 487.20
CH3OH 0.27197 0.27192 0.23310 512.58
Total
Steam T= 433.15
H 2O 0.34710 0.27400 0.28571 647.13

Untuk exchanger fluida panas steam dan heavy organik fluida dingin
UD =6 - 60 Btu/f2.oF.jam (tabel 8. Kern, 1969 : 840)
diambil harga UD = 10 Btu/f2.oF.jam

A = Q = 46775.2738 = 35.2353
U D T LMTD 1327.5133072442

karena A < 200 f2 maka digunakan jenis Double pipe

Spesifikasi dirancang (reff : Kern hal 103):


a) Annulus : (IPS : 2 in)
OD : 2.38 in ( tabel 11 Kern hal 844)
ID : 2.067 in
b) Inner pipe : (IPS 1 1/4 in)
OD : 1.66 in
ID : 1.38 in
c) Luas penampang: 35.2353 f2
d) Panjang pipa : 12 f

Fluida dingin :light organic, inner pipe Fluida panas : steam, anulus
Menghitung flow area Menghitung flow area
D= 1.38 D2 =
12
= 0.1150 f =
ap = 3,14 D /4 =
2
0.010382 f2 D1 =
Gp = w/ap = 841.6516 lb/jam
0.010382 f2 =
= 81071.2808 lb/jam f 2

= 0.2072 cP aa =
= 0.5014 lb/f jam =
De =
Reynolds =
DG p = 9323.1972881786 lb/jam.f Ga = w/aa =
Re p =
0.5014 lb/jam.f
= 18594.9332 =
jH = 60 T =
At = 181.36 o
F =
c= 1.1000 Btu/lb.oF (fig.2 Kern, hal 804) =
k= 0.3560 (Tabel 4 Kern) Reynolds
DG p=
1/3 Re p =
c.
( )
k
= 1.16

1 /3 0 .14

=
jH =
k c.
hi = jH . .
D k ( ) ( ) .
.
t =
c=
= 214.9188 Btu/jam f F 2o
k=
hio = hi x ID/OD 1/3
c.
= 357.3349 Btu/jam f F 2o

( )k
=

k c
1
ho= jH
De k ( ) ( 3

Clean overall coefficient, Uc:

hio .ho
Uc= = 14.0503 Btu/jam f2 oF
hio +ho
Design overall coefficient,Ud :
Dari tabel 11 Kern untuk 1 1/4 in IDS standar pipe = 0,435 f 2/f (eksternal surface per foot length)
Surface actual = 24 x 0.435
= 10.4400
UD = Q = 46775.2738 =
A . T 10.4400 132.7513

UC UD
Dirt factor : Rd = = 0.0029 jam f2F/Btu
UC . UD

14.6254 h outside 357.3349


Uc = 14.0503 Btu/jam f2 oF
UD = 13.5001 Btu/jam f2 oF
Rd = 0.0029 jam f2F/Btu

Pressure drop :
Rep = 18594.9332 De ' =
f = 0,0035 + 0.264 Rep =
0, 42
( )
18594.9332 0, 42 f = 0,0035 +
(= )
s=
0.00775
0.93000 =
( )0, 42
= 58.1250 lb/f3 s=
=
4 fG 2
a L = 0.0075 f
Pp= 2
4 fG 2a L=
2 g D Pa=
2 g 2 D
PP = 0.0075 x 58.1250 V=
144 F1 =
= 0.0030 psi Pa =

=
P total = 0.0032 psi
e. Neraca Panas di Sekitar Heat Exchanger (HE-03)

Tabel 2.11 Neraca Panas di Sekitar Heat Exchanger (HE-0


D Cp dT
Q =m CpdT komponen
C2H7N
Masuk, kJ/Jam
5.399E-06 4713.6699 293.8653 293.8653
4.6585E-06 4403.1500 102.7809 C3H9N 102.7809
2.8945E-06 3630.5035 21700.6885 C2H4O2 21700.6885
1.460E-06 2530.5217 1471.0368 CH3OH 1471.0368
23568.3715 Sub total 23568.3715
Beban Pemanas 44336.7524
Total 67905.1239
D
5.399E-06
13790.5624
Cp dT

Q =m CpdT
859.7479
4.6585E-06 12990.5278 303.2326
2.8945E-06 10466.4070 62561.0850
1.460E-06 7192.3823 4181.0584
67905.1239

Fraksi(x)
0.0094
0.0035
0.8996
0.0875
1.0000
320 oF
181.36 oF
356.13 K

fraksi umpan , Cp x
0.0094 0.1206 0.0011
0.0035 0.1043 0.0004
0.8996 0.2011 0.1809
0.0875 0.2828 0.0247
1.0000 0.2072

, Cp
0.1708

(kg/m3) , x BM BM.x
574.5303 5.3908 45.084 0.4230
547.1542 1.9222 59.111 0.2077
874.8935 787.0656 60.053 54.0245
730.1424 63.8808 32.042 2.8034
850.9464 56.8278
(kg/m3)
891.85035

f2

bel 11 Kern hal 844)

da panas : steam, anulus


nghitung flow area
2.067
12
0.1723 f
1.66
12
0.1383 f

3,14(D22-D12)/4
0.0083 f
(D22-D12)/D1
0.0761 f
46.9630 lb/jam
0.0083 f2
5679.3048599 lb/jam f2
320.00 o
F
0.1708 cP
0.4133 lb/jam.f

DG p 432.4736 lb/jam.f
p=
0.4133 lb/jam.f
1046.4539403
6 (fig.24)
320.00 o
F
0.2000 Btu/lb.oF (fig.2 Kern, hal 805)
0.0143 (Tabel 4 Kern)
1/3
c.
( )
k
k c
1.79
1
0,14
ho= jH
De k ( )( ) 3
w
14.6254 Btu/jam f2 oF 7.2327978059

ksternal surface per foot length)

13.5001 Btu/jam f2 oF

0.0339 f
466.0890
0.264

( 466.0890
0.02349
)0, 42
1.00000
62.5000 lb/f3 (tabel 6.hal 808)

4 fG 2a L 0.0003 f
a= 2
2 g D
0.0252 fps
0.0000 f
0.00036 x 62.5000
144.00
0.0002 psi
tar Heat Exchanger (HE-03)

s di Sekitar Heat Exchanger (HE-03)


Keluar, kJ/Jam
859.7479
303.2326
62561.0850
4181.0584
67905.1239

67905.1239
POMPA-01

Fungsi : Mengalirkan bahan baku dimethylamine ke dalam tangki penyimpanan.

komponen kg %berat BM kmol %mol


C2H7N 2458.8369 0.9900 45.084 54.5390 0.9838
C3H9N 12.4184 0.0050 59.111 0.2101 0.0038
H2O 12.4184 0.0050 18.015 0.6893 0.0124
Total 2483.6736 1.0000 55.4384 1.0000

Desitas bahan baku


Density = A. B (1-T/Tc) ^ n T = 305.15 K
= 32 C
komponen %mol A B n Tc , kg/m3 BM .x
C2H7N 0.9838 0.24110 0.26785 0.24800 437.65 642.0787 45.084 631.6618
C3H9N 0.0038 0.23283 0.25703 0.26870 433.25 619.8902 59.111 2.3491
H2O 0.0124 0.34710 0.27400 0.28571 647.13 1021.0367 18.015 12.6958
Total 1.0000 646.7067

Viskositas bahan baku :


T= 305.15 K
Log = A + B/T + CT + DT2
komponen A B C D , Cp x
C2H7N -11.5558 1.21E+03 3.50E-02 -4.13E-05 0.1805 0.1776
C3H9N -3.9726 4.42E+02 1.07E-02 -1.61E-05 0.1683 0.0006
H2O -10.2158 1.79E+03 1.77E-02 -1.26E-05 0.7808 0.0097
Total 0.1880
Diperoleh :
Densitas = 646.7067 kg/m3
= 40.3712 lb/f3
Viskositas = 0.1880 cP
= 0.0001 lb/f dt

Kapasitas
* Menentukan kapasitas pompa : Qf
Waktu dtk
Kapasitas tiap truk tangki = 16000 Liter
16 m3 = 565.0352 f3
Waktu pengisian selama = 15 menit 900 detik
Qf = 0.6278 f3/s
= 64.0001 m3/jam
= 234.6242 gpm
= 0.0178 m3/s
Diambil :
Over Design = 20.00%
Faktor Keamanan = 20.00%
Sehingga kapasitas pompa = 0.9041 f3/s
= 64.0001 m3/jam
= 234.6242 gpm
= 0.0178 m3/s
* Menghitung diameter optimum pipa :
(Peters, 2003 : hal 496-497)
Diopt 3,9.Qf 0,45
0,13
Keterangan :
Diopt = Diameter dalam optimum, in
Qf = laju alir volumetrik, f 3/s
= densitas cairan (lb/f3)
Dopt = 6.0276 in

Digunakan pipa standart : (Tabel 11 Kern, hal. 844)


D nominal = 8 in
ID = 7.981 in 0.6651 f
OD = 8.625 in 0.7188 f
Schedule = 40
Flow area perpipe = 50 in2 = 0.3473 f2

* Menghitung kecepatan linier fluida (v) :


Q Dimana :
v Q = laju alir volumetric, f3/s
A
A = luas penampang, f2
v= 2.6034 f/s
= 0.7935 m/s
* Menghitung bilangan Reynold :
D.v. Dimana :
N Re = densitas cairan (lb/f3)
D = OD, ( f )
v = kecepatan linier (f/s)
= viskositas (lb/f.s)
NRe = 0.6651 f x 2.6034 f/s x 40.3712 lb/f3
0.0001 lb/f s
NRe = 553377.3699 (NRe > 2100 jadi aliran turbulent)

* Neraca tenaga : ,
Tenaga mekanis teoritik dihitung dengan persamaan Bernaulli :
v 2 z.g P
.F Wf (Peters, hal 486)
2..g C gC

Dimana :
Dv = beda kecepatan linier fluida
a = Faktor koreksi terhadap tenaga kinetis, s2/lb
gc = faktor koreksi = 32,174 lb f / lbf.s2
Dz = beda elevasi
g = Konstanta kecepatan gravitasi, m/s2
= densitas fluida, lb/f3
SF = total friksi pada sistem pemipaan
.-Wf = Total head

v2
* Menghitung velocity head : Velocity head
2 .g C

Diketahui :
Gaya Gravitasi = 9.807 m/dtk
Kecepatan fluida V= 0.7935 m/s
Velocity Head V2 / 2g = 0.0321 m 1.2639
= 0.1053 f
* Menghitung static head : zg
Static head
gC
z1 = 1 f
z2 = 17.2791 f
z = z2 - z1 = 16.2791 f
= 4.9619 m

* Menghitung pressure head :


P P1 = 2 atm
Pressure head= P2 = 2 atm

Pressure Head P / g = 0m

* Menghitung Friction head :


Nre = 553377.3699
D= 8 in
Diperoleh :
/D = 0.00022 Grafik.126 Brown hal. 141 (untuk pipa commercial steel )

f= 0.016 Grafik.125 Brown hal. 140


* Menghitung panjang ekivalen
Le/D L atau Le
Komponen Jumlah f m m
Pipa Lurus Horizontal 1 16.4042 5.0000 5.0000
Vertikal 1 17.2791 5.2667 5.7667
Fitting Standar Elbow 90 3 49 14.9352 44.8056
Check Valve 1 55 16.7640 16.7640
Gate Valve 1 4.5 1.3716 1.3716
Total 73.7079
Dari Grafik. 127, Brown, 1950 : 141

Panjang Ekivalen Pipa : L + Le = 73.7079 m


= 241.8237 f
f * ( L Le ) *V 2

F
2 * g * ID (Pers. 63 Brown, Halaman 136)

Dimana:
f = Faktor friksi = 0.016
V = Kecepatan linier fluida = 2.6034 f/s
Le = Panjang ekuivalen = 241.8237 f
gc = Faktor konversi = 32,174 lb f / lbf.s2
D = Diameter dalam pipa = 0.6651 f
F = 0.0006 f.lbf/lbm
= 0.0002 m

* Menghitung Total Head


P V 2
( Ws ) z F
*g 2*g

Velocity head V 2 = 0.0321 m


2..g C
V 2
2..g C

zg
Static head = 4.9619 m 195.3493725704
g C

Pressure head P = 0m

Friction head = 0.0002 m

- Ws = 4.9942 m
= 16.3851 f

Q= 64.0001 m3/jam
Total Head = 4.9942 m 196.6207

Diperoleh jenis pompa: Centrifugal Single Stage

* Menghitung pompa teoritis


Q. Wf .
Tenaga Pompa dapat dicari dengan persamaan : BHP teoritis
550
Diketahui :
Q= 0.9041 f3/s
- Ws = 16.3851 f
= 40.3712 lb/f3
Sehingga,
BHP teoritis = 1.0873 Hp

* Menghitung Tenaga Pompa Actual


BHP teoritis = 1.0873 Hp
Kapasitas Pompa = 64.0001 m3/jam
efisiensi centrifugal pump () = 63.00% (Grafik 12-17 Peters hal. 516)
BHP actual = BHP teoritis/
= 1.7259 Hp

* Menghitung Power Motor


BHP actual = 1.7259 Hp
m= 84.00% (Grafik 12-18 Peters hal. 516)

BHP pompa
Power motor
m
Power Motor = 2.0546 Hp
= 1532.1347 watt
Standar NEMA = 2 Hp
`
* Menghitung Specific Pump Speed
N * Q 0 .5
Ns Pers 5.1, Coulson, Halaman 182
( h ) 0 . 75
N= 3500 rpm Grafik 5.6 Coulson hal. 182
Q= 234.6242 gal/min
h= 16.3851 f
Ns = 6582.9195 rpm

Menurut Coulson and Richardson (halaman 183), impeller pompa dapat dipilih berdasarkan Specific Speed-nya, jika:
1. Ns = 400 - 1000, pilih Radial Flow Impellers
2. Ns = 1000 - 7000, pilih Mixed Flow Impellers
3. Ns > 7000, pilih Axial Flow Impellers
Sehingga, untuk pompa dengan Ns = 6582.9195 rpm, digunakan pompa jenis: Mixed Flow Impellers

Spesifikasi Pompa
Jenis Centrifugal Single Stage
Impeller Mixed Flow Impellers
Driver Motor Elektrik 2 Hp
BM .x
44.3526
0.2240
0.2240
44.8006
POMPA-02

Fungsi : Mengalirkan bahan baku methylformate ke dalam tangki penyimpanan.

komponen kg %berat BM kmol %mol


C2H4O2 3270.4918 0.9700 60.053 54.4601 0.9452
CH3OH 101.1492 0.0300 32.042 3.1568 0.0548
Total 3371.6410 1.0000 57.6169 1.0000

Desitas bahan baku


Density = A. B (1-T/Tc) ^ n T = 305.15 K
= 32 C
komponen %mol A B n Tc , kg/m3 BM .x
C2H4O2 0.9452 0.34143 0.25838 0.27680 487.20 1321.4258 60.053 1249.0262
CH3OH 0.0548 0.27197 0.27192 0.23310 512.58 780.8224 32.042 42.7805
Total 1.0000 1291.8067

Viskositas bahan baku :


T= 305.15 K
Log = A + B/T + CT + DT2
komponen A B C D , Cp x
C2H4O2 -8.0637 1.01E+03 2.09E-02 -2.30E-05 0.3088 0.2918
CH3OH -9.0562 1.25E+03 2.24E-02 -2.35E-05 0.4924 0.0270
Total 0.3188
Diperoleh :
Densitas = 1,291.8067 kg/m3
= 80.6422 lb/f3
Viskositas = 0.3188 cP
= 0.0002 lb/f dt
Kapasitas
* Menentukan kapasitas pompa : Qf
Waktu dtk
Kapasitas tiap truk tangki = 16000 Liter
16 m3 = 565.0352 f3
Waktu pengisian selama = 15 menit 900 detik
Qf = 0.6278 f3/s
= 64.0001 m3/jam
= 234.6242 gpm
= 0.0178 m3/s
Diambil :
Over Design = 20.00%
Faktor Keamanan = 20.00%
Sehingga kapasitas pompa = 0.9041 f3/s
= 230.6201 m3/jam
= 845.4533 gpm
= 0.0641 m3/s
* Menghitung diameter optimum pipa :
(Peters, 2003 : hal 496-497)
Diopt 3,9.Qf 0,45
0,13
Keterangan :
Diopt = Diameter dalam optimum, in
Qf = laju alir volumetrik, f 3/s
= densitas cairan (lb/f3)
Dopt = 6.5949 in

Digunakan pipa standart (Tabel 11 Kern, hal. 844)


D nominal = 8 in
ID = 7.981 in 0.6651 f
OD = 8.625 in 0.7188 f
Schedule = 40
Flow area perpipe = 50 in2 = 0.3473 f2

* Menghitung kecepatan linier fluida (v) :


Q Dimana :
v Q = laju alir volumetric, f3/s
A
A = luas penampang, f2
v= 2.6034 f/s
= 0.7935 m/s
* Menghitung bilangan Reynold :
D.v. Dimana :
N Re = densitas cairan (lb/f3)
D = OD, ( f )
v = kecepatan linier (f/s)
= viskositas (lb/f.s)
NRe = 0.6651 f x 2.6034 f/s x 80.6422 lb/f3
0.0002 lb/f s
NRe = 651685.5586 (NRe > 2100 jadi aliran turbulent)

* Neraca tenaga : ,
Tenaga mekanis teoritik dihitung dengan persamaan Bernaulli :
v 2 z.g P
.F Wf (Peters, hal 486)
2..g C gC

Dimana :
Dv = beda kecepatan linier fluida
a = Faktor koreksi terhadap tenaga kinetis, s2/lb
gc = faktor koreksi = 32,174 lb f / lbf.s2
Dz = beda elevasi
g = Konstanta kecepatan gravitasi, m/s2
= densitas fluida, lb/f3
SF = total friksi pada sistem pemipaan
.-Wf = Total head

v2
* Menghitung velocity head : Velocity head
2 .g C

Diketahui :
Gaya Gravitasi = 9.807 m/dtk
Kecepatan fluida V= 0.7935 m/s
Velocity Head V / 2g =
2
0.0321 m
= 0.1053 f
* Menghitung static head : zg
Static head
gC
z1 = 1 f
z2 = 28.7127 f
z = z2 - z1 = 27.7127 f
= 8.4468 m

* Menghitung pressure head :


P P1 = 1 atm
Pressure head= P2 = 1 atm

Pressure Head P / g = 0m

* Menghitung Friction head :


Nre = 651685.5586
D= 8 in
Diperoleh :
/D = 0.00022 Grafik.126 Brown hal. 141 (untuk pipa commercial steel )

f= 0.014 Grafik.125 Brown hal. 140


* Menghitung panjang ekivalen
Le/D L atau Le
Komponen Jumlah f m m
Pipa Lurus Horizontal 1 16.4042 5.0000 5.0000
Vertikal 1 28.7127 8.7516 9.2516
Fitting Standar Elbow 90 3 49 14.9352 44.8056
Check Valve 1 55 16.7640 16.7640
Gate Valve 1 4.5 1.3716 1.3716
Total 77.1928
Dari Grafik. 127, Brown, 1950 : 141

Panjang Ekivalen Pipa : L + Le = 77.1928 m


= 253.2573 f
f * ( L Le ) *V 2

F
2 * g * ID (Pers. 63 Brown, Halaman 136)

Dimana:
f= Faktor friksi = 0.014
V= Kecepatan linier fluida = 2.6034 f/s
Le = Panjang ekuivalen = 253.2573 f
gc = Faktor konversi = 32,174 lb f / lbf.s2
D= Diameter dalam pipa = 0.6651 f
F = 0.0006 f.lbf/lbm
= 0.0002 m

* Menghitung Total Head


P V 2
( Ws ) z F
*g 2*g

Velocity head V 2 = 0.0321 m


2..g C

zg
Static head = 8.4468 m
g C
zg
g C

Pressure head P = 0m

Friction head = 0.0002 m

- Ws = 8.4791 m
= 27.8185 f

Q= 230.6201 m3/jam
Total Head = 8.4791 m 333.8226

Diperoleh jenis pompa: Centrifugal Single Stage

* Menghitung pompa teoritis


Q. Wf .
Tenaga Pompa dapat dicari dengan persamaan : BHP teoritis
550
Diketahui :
Q= 0.9041 f3/s
- Ws = 27.8185 f
= 80.6422 lb/f3
Sehingga,
BHP teoritis = 3.6875 Hp

* Menghitung Tenaga Pompa Actual


BHP teoritis = 3.6875 Hp
Kapasitas Pompa = 230.6201 m3/jam
efisiensi centrifugal pump () = 80.00% (Grafik 12-17 Peters hal. 516)
BHP actual = BHP teoritis/
= 4.6093 Hp

* Menghitung Power Motor


BHP actual = 4.6093 Hp
m= 83.00% (Grafik 12-18 Peters hal. 516)

BHP pompa
Power motor
m
Power Motor = 5.5534 Hp
= 4141.1926 watt
Standar NEMA = 5 Hp
`
* Menghitung Specific Pump Speed
N * Q 0 .5
Ns Pers 5.1, Coulson, Halaman 182
( h ) 0 . 75
N= 3500 rpm Grafik 5.6 Coulson hal. 182
Q= 845.4533 gal/min
h= 27.8185 f
Ns = 8401.6004 rpm

Menurut Coulson and Richardson (halaman 183), impeller pompa dapat dipilih berdasarkan Specific Speed-nya, jika:
1. Ns = 400 - 1000, pilih Radial Flow Impellers
2. Ns = 1000 - 7000, pilih Mixed Flow Impellers
3. Ns > 7000, pilih Axial Flow Impellers
Sehingga, untuk pompa dengan Ns = 8401.6004 rpm, digunakan pompa jenis: Axial Flow Impellers

Spesifikasi Pompa
Jenis Centrifugal Single Stage
Impeller Axial Flow Impellers
Driver Motor Elektrik 5 Hp
BM .x
56.7628
1.7555
58.5183
POMPA-03

Fungsi : Mengalirkan bahan baku dimethylamine ke dalam reaktor

komponen kg %berat BM kmol %mol


C2H7N 2458.8369 0.9900 45.084 54.5390 0.9838
C3H9N 12.4184 0.0050 59.111 0.2101 0.0038
H2O 12.4184 0.0050 18.015 0.6893 0.0124
Total 2483.6736 1.0000 55.4384 1.0000

Desitas bahan baku


Density = A. B (1-T/Tc) ^ n T = 305.15 K
= 32 C
komponen %mol A B n Tc , kg/m3 BM .x
C2H7N 0.9838 0.24110 0.26785 0.24800 437.65 642.0787 45.084 631.6618
C3H9N 0.0038 0.23283 0.25703 0.26870 433.25 619.8902 59.111 2.3491
H2O 0.0124 0.34710 0.27400 0.28571 647.13 1021.0367 18.015 12.6958
Total 1.0000 646.7067

Viskositas bahan baku :


T= 305.15 K
Log = A + B/T + CT + DT2
komponen A B C D , Cp x
C2H7N -11.5558 1.21E+03 3.50E-02 -4.13E-05 0.1805 0.1776
C3H9N -3.9726 4.42E+02 1.07E-02 -1.61E-05 0.1683 0.0006
H2O -10.2158 1.79E+03 1.77E-02 -1.26E-05 0.7808 0.0097
Total 0.1880
Diperoleh :
Densitas = 646.7067 kg/m3
= 40.3712 lb/f3
Viskositas = 0.1880 cP
= 0.0001 lb/f dt

Kapasitas
* Menentukan kapasitas pompaQ
: f
Waktu dtk

Kapasitas = 3.8405 m3/jam


Qf = 0.0377 f3/s
= 3.8405 m3/jam
= 14.0793 gpm
= 0.0011 m3/s
Diambil :
Over Design = 20.00%
Faktor Keamanan = 20.00%
Sehingga kapasitas pompa = 0.0543 f3/s
= 4.8586 m3/jam
= 86.9599 gpm
= 0.5497 m3/s
* Menghitung diameter optimum pipa :
(Peters, 2003 : hal 496-497)
Diopt 3,9.Qf 0,45
0,13

Keterangan :
Diopt = Diameter dalam optimum, in
Qf = laju alir volumetrik, f 3/s
= densitas cairan (lb/f3)
Dopt = 1.6996 in
Digunakan pipa standart : (Tabel 11 Kern, hal. 844)
D nominal = 2 in
ID = 2.067 in = 0.1723 f
OD = 2.38 in = 0.1983 f
Schedule = 40
Flow area perpipe = 3.35 in2 = 0.0233 f2

* Menghitung kecepatan linier fluida (v) :


Dimana :
Q
v Q = laju alir volumetric, f3/s
A
A = luas penampang, f2
v= 2.3317 f/s
= 0.7107 m/s

* Menghitung bilangan Reynold :


Dimana :
D.v. = densitas cairan (lb/f3)
N Re
D = OD, ( f )
v = kecepatan linier (f/s)
= viskositas (lb/f.s)
Nre = 0.1983 f x 2.3317 f/s x 40.3712 lb/f3
0.0001 lb/f s
NRe = 147799.6670 (Nre > 2100 jadi aliran Turbulent)

* Neraca tenaga :
Tenaga mekanis teoritik dihitung dengan persamaan Bernaulli
v 2 z.g P
.F Wf (Peters, hal 486)
2..g C gC

Dimana :
Dv = beda kecepatan linier fluida
a = Faktor koreksi terhadap tenaga kinetis, s2/lb
gc = faktor koreksi = 32,174 lb f / lbf.s2
Dz = beda elevasi
g = Konstanta kecepatan gravitasi, m/s2
= densitas fluida, lb/f3
SF = total friksi pada sistem pemipaan
.-Wf = Total head

v2
* Menghitung velocity head : Velocity head
2 .g C
Diketahui : g 9.807 m/dtk
Kecepatan fluida di ujung pipa pemasukan R-01 (Reaktor-01) V= 0.7107 m/s
Velocity Head V2 / 2g = 0.0258 m
= 0.0845 f
zg
* Menghitung static head : Static head
gC
Tinggi Fluida dalam R-01 (Reaktor-01) z1 = 17 f
Tinggi pipa pemasukan di Reaktor z2 = 14.3026 f
= 4.3594 m
z = z2 - z1 = 2.9765 f
= 0.9073 m
* Menghitung pressure head :
Tekanan dalam T-01 (Tanki Dimethylamine) P1 = 2.4223 atm
Tekanan dalam R-01 (Reaktor-01) P2 = 3.4000 atm
P HE-01 = 0.0141 psia
= 0.000957 atm
Pressure Head P / g = 0.97864 atm

* Menghitung Friction head :


Nre = 147799.6670
D= 2 in
Diperoleh :
/D = 0.0009 Grafik.126 Brown hal. 141 (untuk pipa commercial steel )

f= 0.02 Grafik.125 Brown hal. 140


* Menghitung panjang ekivalen
Le/D L atau Le
Komponen Jumlah f m m
Pipa Lurus Horizontal 1 22.9659 7.0000 7.0000
Vertikal 1 14.3026 4.3594 4.8594
Fitting Standar Elbow 90 3 12 3.6576 10.9728
Check Valve 1 15 4.5720 4.5720
Gate Valve 1 1.2 0.3658 0.3658
Total 27.7700

Dari Grafik. 127, Brown, 1950 : 141

Panjang Ekivalen Pipa : L + Le = 27.7700 m


= 91.1089 f
f * ( L Le ) *V 2
F 2 * g * ID
(Pers. 63 Brown, Halaman 136)

Dimana:
f= Faktor friksi 0.02
V= Kecepatan linier fluid 2.3317 f/s
Le = Panjang ekuivalen 91.1089 f
gc = Faktor konversi 32,174 lb f / lbf.s2
D= Diameter dalam pipa 0.1723 f
F = 0.0009 f.lbf/lbm
= 0.0003 m
* Menghitung Total Head :

P V 2
( Ws ) z F
*g 2*g
Velocity head zg / g c = 0.0258 m

Static head V2 / 2 g c = 0.9073 m

Pressure head P/g = 0.9786 m

Friction head :
f * (L+Le) * V2 / 2 * g * ID = 0.0003 m

- Ws = 1.9119 m
= 6.2727 f
Q= 4.8586 m3/jam
Total Head = 1.9 m 75.2723

Diperoleh jenis pompa: Centrifugal Single Stage

* Menghitung pompa teoritis :


Tenaga Pompa dapat dicari dengan persamaan : Q. Wf .
BHP teoritis
550
Diketahui :
Q= 0.0543 f3/s
- Ws = 6.2727 f
= 40.3712 lb/f3
Sehingga,
BHP teoritis = 0.0250 Hp

* Menghitung Tenaga Pompa Actual :


BHP teoritis = 0.0250 Hp
Kapasitas Pompa = 4.8586 m3/jam
efisiensi centrifugal pump () = 25.00% (Grafik 12-17 Peters hal. 516)
BHP actual = BHP teoritis/
= 0.0999 Hp

* Menghitung Power Motor :


BHP actual = 0.0999 Hp
m= 80.00% (Grafik 12-18 Peters hal. 516)

BHP pompa
Power motor
m
Power Motor = 0.1249 Hp
= 93.1323 watt
Standar NEMA = 1/2 Hp
`
* Menghitung Specific Pump Speed :
N * Q 0 .5
Ns Pers 5.1, Coulson, Halaman 182
( h ) 0 . 75
N= 3500 rpm Grafik 5.6 Coulson hal. 182
Q= 86.9599 gal/min
h= 6.2727 f
Ns = 8234.4946 rpm
Menurut Coulson and Richardson (halaman 183), impeller pompa dapat dipilih berdasarkan Specific Speed-nya, jika:
1. Ns = 400 - 1000, pilih Radial Flow Impellers
2. Ns = 1000 - 7000, pilih Mixed Flow Impellers
3. Ns > 7000, pilih Axial Flow Impellers
Sehingga, untuk pompa dengan Ns = 8234.4946 rpm, digunakan pompa jenis: Axial Flow Impellers

Spesifikasi Pompa
Jenis Centrifugal Single Stage
Impeller Axial Flow Impellers
Driver Motor Elektrik 1/2 Hp
BM .x
44.3526
0.2240
0.2240
44.8006
POMPA-04

Fungsi : Mengalirkan bahan baku methylformate ke dalam mixer

komponen kg %berat BM
C2H4O2 3270.4918 0.9700 60.053
CH3OH 101.1492 0.0300 32.042
3371.6410 1.0000

Desitas bahan baku


Density = A. B (1-T/Tc) ^ n T =
=
komponen %mol A B
C2H4O2 0.9452 0.24110 0.26785
CH3OH 0.0548 0.23283 0.25703
Total 1.0000

Viskositas bahan baku :


T= 305.15 K
Log = A + B/T + CT + DT2
komponen A B C
C2H4O2 -11.5558 1.21E+03 3.50E-02
CH3OH -3.9726 4.42E+02 1.07E-02
Total
Diperoleh :
Densitas = 640.8630 kg/m3
= 40.0064 lb/f3
Viskositas = 0.1799 cP
= 0.0001 lb/f dt

* Menentukan kapasitas pompa : Kapasitas


Qf
Waktu dtk

Kapasitas = 5.2611 m3/jam


Qf = 0.0516 f3/s
= 5.2611 m3/jam
= 19.2872 gpm
= 0.0015 m3/s
Diambil :
Over Design = 20.00%
Faktor Keamanan = 20.00%
Sehingga kapasitas pompa = 0.0743 f3/s
= 6.7825 m3/jam
= 161.2581 gpm
= 1.8454 m3/s
* Menghitung diameter optimum pipa :

Diopt 3,9.Qf 0,45


0,13
Keterangan :
Diopt = Diameter dalam optimum, in
Qf = laju alir volumetrik, f 3/s
= densitas cairan (lb/f3)
Dopt = 1.9558
Digunakan pipa standart :
D nominal = 2
ID = 2.067
OD = 2.38
Schedule = 40
Flow area perpipe = 3.35

* Menghitung kecepatan linier fluida (v) :


Dimana :
Q
v Q = laju alir volumetric, f3/s
A
A = luas penampang, f2
v= 3.1942 f/s
= 0.9736 m/s

* Menghitung bilangan Reynold :


Dimana :
D.v. = densitas cairan (lb/f3)
N Re
D = OD, ( f )
v = kecepatan linier (f/s)
= viskositas (lb/f.s)
Nre = 0.1983 f x 3.1942
0.0001
NRe = 209660.0260 (Nre > 2100 jadi aliran Turbulent)

* Neraca tenaga :
Tenaga mekanis teoritik dihitung dengan persamaan Bernaulli
v 2 z.g P
. F Wf
2..g C gC

Dimana :
Dv = beda kecepatan linier fluida
a = Faktor koreksi terhadap tenaga kinetis, s2/lb
gc = faktor koreksi = 32,174
Dz = beda elevasi
g = Konstanta kecepatan gravitasi, m/s2
= densitas fluida, lb/f3
SF = total friksi pada sistem pemipaan
.-Wf = Total head

v2
* Menghitung velocity head : Velocity head
2 .g C
Diketahui : g
Kecepatan fluida di ujung pipa pemasukan Mixer
Velocity Head

zg
* Menghitung static head : Static head
gC
Tinggi pipa pemasukan di mixer z1 =
Tinggi Fluida dalam Mixer z2 =
=
z = z2 - z1 =
=
* Menghitung pressure head :
Tekanan dalam T-02 (Tanki Methylformate) P1 =
Tekanan dalam Mixer P2 =

Pressure Head P / g =

* Menghitung Friction head :


Nre = 209660.0260
D= 2 in
Diperoleh :
/D = 0.0009 Grafik.126 Brown hal. 141 (untuk pipa

f= 0.02 Grafik.125 Brown hal. 140

* Menghitung panjang ekivalen


Le/D
Komponen Jumlah f
Pipa Lurus Horizontal 1 22.9659
Vertikal 1 5.8885
Fitting Standar Elbow 90 3 12
Check Valve 1 15
Gate Valve 1 1.2
Total
Panjang Ekivalen Pipa : L + Le = 25.2054
= 82.6948
f * ( L Le ) *V 2
F
2 * g * ID

Dimana:
f= Faktor friksi = 0.02
V= Kecepatan linier fluida = 3.1942
Le = Panjang ekuivalen = 82.6948
gc = Faktor konversi = 32,174
D= Diameter dalam pipa = 0.1723
F = 0.0015 f.lbf/lbm
= 0.0005 m
* Menghitung Total Head :

P V 2
( Ws ) z F
*g 2*g
Velocity head zg / g c = 0.0483 m

Static head V2 / 2 g c = 6.9568 m

Pressure head P/g = 1.2121 m

Friction head :
f * (L+Le) * V2 / 2 * g * ID = 0.0005 m

- Ws = 8.2176 m
= 26.9608 f
Q= 6.7825 m3/jam
Total Head = 8.2 m

Diperoleh jenis pompa: Centrifugal Single Stage

* Menghitung pompa teoritis :


Tenaga Pompa dapat dicari dengan persamaan : Q. Wf .
BHP teoritis
550
Diketahui :
Q= 0.0743 f3/s
- Ws = 26.9608 f
= 40.0064 lb/f3
Sehingga,
BHP teoritis = 0.1457 Hp

* Menghitung Tenaga Pompa Actual :


BHP teoritis = 0.1457 Hp
Kapasitas Pompa = 6.7825 m3/jam
efisiensi centrifugal pump () = 30.00%
BHP actual = BHP teoritis/
= 0.4858 Hp

* Menghitung Power Motor :


BHP actual = 0.4858 Hp
m= 80.00%

BHP pompa
Power motor
m
Power Motor = 0.6073 Hp
= 452.8395 watt
Standar NEMA = 1/2 Hp

* Menghitung Specific Pump Speed :


N * Q 0 .5
Ns Pers 5.1, Coulson, Halaman 182
( h ) 0 . 75
N= 3500 rpm
Q= 161.2581 gal/min
h= 26.9608 f
Ns = 3756.4643 rpm
Menurut Coulson and Richardson (halaman 183), impeller pompa dapat dipilih berdasarkan Specific Speed-
1. Ns = 400 - 1000, pilih Radial Flow Impellers
2. Ns = 1000 - 7000, pilih Mixed Flow Impellers
3. Ns > 7000, pilih Axial Flow Impellers
Sehingga, untuk pompa dengan Ns = 3756.4643 rpm, digunakan pompa jenis:

Spesifikasi Pompa
Jenis Centrifugal Single Stage
Impeller Mixed Flow Impellers
Driver Motor Elektrik 1/2
kmol %mol
54.4601 0.9452
3.1568 0.0548
57.6169 1.0000

305.15 K
32 C
n Tc , kg/m3 BM .x BM .x
0.24800 437.65 642.0787 60.053 606.8998 56.7628
0.26870 433.25 619.8902 32.042 33.9632 1.7555
640.863 58.5183

D , Cp x
-4.13E-05 0.1805 0.1707
-1.61E-05 0.1683 0.0092
0.1799
(Peters, 2003 : hal 496-497)

in
(Tabel 11 Kern, hal. 844)
in
in = 0.1723 f
in = 0.1983 f

in2 = 0.0233 f2

Q = laju alir volumetric, f3/s


A = luas penampang, f2

= densitas cairan (lb/f3)


D = OD, ( f )
= kecepatan linier (f/s)
= viskositas (lb/f.s)
f/s x 40.0064 lb/f3
lb/f s

(Peters, hal 486)


ga kinetis, s2/lb
lb f / lbf.s2

9.807 m/dtk
V= 0.9736 m/s
V2 / 2g = 0.0483 m
= 0.1586 f

29 f
5.8885 f
1.7948 m
22.8241 f
6.9568 m

1 atm
2 atm

1.21207 atm

Grafik.126 Brown hal. 141 (untuk pipa commercial steel )

Grafik.125 Brown hal. 140

Le/D L atau Le
m m
7.0000 7.0000
1.7948 2.2948
3.6576 10.9728
4.5720 4.5720
0.3658 0.3658
25.2054
Dari Grafik. 127, Brown, 1950 : 141

m
f

(Pers. 63 Brown, Halaman 136)

f/s
f
lb f / lbf.s2
f

323.5295

Q. Wf .
eoritis
550
(Grafik 12-17 Peters hal. 516)

(Grafik 12-18 Peters hal. 516)

Pers 5.1, Coulson, Halaman 182

Grafik 5.6 Coulson hal. 182

at dipilih berdasarkan Specific Speed-nya, jika:

pm, digunakan pompa jenis: Mixed Flow Impellers

Single Stage
w Impellers
Hp
POMPA-06

Fungsi : Mengalirkan hasil bawah striper menuju reaktor

komponen kg %berat BM kmol


C2H7N 2.8107 0.0074 0.0623
C3H9N 1.3798 0.0036 0.0233
C2H4O2 358.9561 0.9402 60.053 5.9773
CH3OH 18.6266 0.0488 32.042 0.5813
381.7732 1.0000 6.6443

Desitas
Density = A. B (1-T/Tc) ^ n T = 329.1064
= 55.9564
komponen %mol A B n
C2H7N 0.0094 0.24110 0.26785 0.24800
C3H9N 0.0035 0.23283 0.25703 0.26870
C2H4O2 0.8996 0.34143 0.25838 0.27680
CH3OH 0.0875 0.27197 0.27192 0.23310
Total 1.0000

Viskositas :
T= 329.1064 K
Log = A + B/T + CT + DT2
komponen A B C D
C2H7N -11.5558 1.21E+03 3.50E-02 -4.13E-05
C3H9N -3.9726 4.42E+02 1.07E-02 -1.61E-05
C2H4O2 -8.0637 1.01E+03 2.09E-02 -2.30E-05
CH3OH -9.0562 1.25E+03 2.24E-02 -2.35E-05
Total
Diperoleh :
Densitas = 901.6345 kg/m3
= 56.2853 lb/f3
Viskositas = 0.2598 cP
= 0.0002 lb/f dt

* Menentukan kapasitas pompa : Kapasitas


Qf
Waktu dtk

Kapasitas = 0.4234 m3/jam


Qf = 0.0042 f3/s
= 0.4234 m3/jam
= 1.5523 gpm
= 0.0001 m3/s
Diambil :
Over Design = 20.00%
Faktor Keamanan = 20.00%
Sehingga kapasitas pompa = 0.0060 f3/s
= 0.5111 m3/jam
= 2.3597 gpm
= 0.0006 m3/s
* Menghitung diameter optimum pipa :

Diopt 3,9.Qf 0,45 0,13



Keterangan :
Diopt = Diameter dalam optimum, in
Qf = laju alir volumetrik, f 3/s
= densitas cairan (lb/f3)
Dopt = 0.6579 in
Digunakan pipa standart :
D nominal = 3/ 4 in
ID = 0.824 in =
OD = 1.05 in =
Schedule = 40
Flow area perpipe = 0.534 in2 =

* Menghitung kecepatan linier fluida (v) :


Dimana :
Q
v Q = laju alir volumetric, f3/s
A
A = luas penampang, f2
v= 1.6128 f/s
= 0.4916 m/s

* Menghitung bilangan Reynold :


Dimana :
D.v. = densitas cairan (lb/f3)
N Re
D = OD, ( f )
v = kecepatan linier (f/s)
= viskositas (lb/f.s)
Nre = 0.0875 f x 1.6128 f/s x
0.0002 lb/f s
NRe = 45489.5800 (Nre > 2100 jadi aliran Turbulent)

* Neraca tenaga :
Tenaga mekanis teoritik dihitung dengan persamaan Bernaulli
v 2 z.g P
.F Wf
2..g C gC

Dimana :
Dv = beda kecepatan linier fluida
a = Faktor koreksi terhadap tenaga kinetis, s2/lb
gc = faktor koreksi = 32,174 lb f / lbf.s2
Dz = beda elevasi
g = Konstanta kecepatan gravitasi, m/s2
= densitas fluida, lb/f3
SF = total friksi pada sistem pemipaan
.-Wf = Total head
v2
* Menghitung velocity head : Velocity head
2 .g C
Diketahui : g = 9.807
Kecepatan fluida di ujung pipa pemasukan Reaktor V=
Velocity Head V2 / 2g =
=
zg
* Menghitung static head : Static head
gC
Tinggi Fluida dalam striper z1 = 12.3704
Tinggi pipa pemasukan di reaktor z2 = 14.3026
= 4.3594
z = z2 - z1 = 1.9322
= 0.5889
* Menghitung pressure head :
Tekanan dalam striper P1 = 2.2000
Tekanan dalam reaktor P2 = 3.4000
P HE-03 = 0.0032
= 0.0002
Pressure Head P / g = 1.2002

* Menghitung Friction head :


Nre = 45489.5800
D= 3/ 4 in
Diperoleh :
0.0009 Grafik.126 Brown hal. 141 (untuk pipa commercial ste

f= 0.022 Grafik.125 Brown hal. 140

* Menghitung panjang ekivalen


Le/D
Komponen Jumlah f m
Pipa Lurus Horizontal 1 22.9659 7.0000
Vertikal 1 14.3026 4.3594
Fitting Standar Elbow 90 3 12 3.6576
Check Valve 1 15 4.5720
Gate Valve 1 1.2 0.3658
Total

Dari Grafik. 127, Brown, 1950 : 14

Panjang Ekivalen Pipa : L + Le = 27.7700 m


= 91.1089 f
f * ( L Le ) *V 2
F 2 * g * ID
Dimana:
f= Faktor friksi = 0.022
V= Kecepatan linier fluida = 1.6128 f/s
Le = Panjang ekuivalen = 91.1089 f
gc = Faktor konversi = 32,174 lb f / lbf.s2
D= Diameter dalam pipa = 0.0687 f
F = 0.0012 f.lbf/lbm
= 0.0004 m 0.0141587389
* Menghitung Total Head :

P V 2
( Ws ) z F
*g 2*g

Velocity head zg / g c 0.0123 m

Static head V2 / 2 g c = 0.5889 m

Pressure head P/g 1.2002 m

Friction head :
f * (L+Le) * V2 / 2 * g * ID = 0.0004 m

- Ws = 1.8018 m
= 5.9115 f
Q= 0.5111 m3/jam
Total Head = 1.8 m 70.9384

Diperoleh jenis pompa: Centrifugal Single Stage


* Menghitung pompa teoritis :
Tenaga Pompa dapat dicari dengan persamaan : Q. Wf .
BHP teoritis
550
Diketahui :
Q= 0.0060 f3/s
- Ws = 5.9115 f
= 56.2853 lb/f3
Sehingga,
BHP teoritis = 0.0036 Hp

* Menghitung Tenaga Pompa Actual :


BHP teoritis = 0.0036 Hp
Kapasitas Pompa = 0.5111 m3/jam
efisiensi centrifugal pump () = 42.00%
BHP actual = BHP teoritis/
= 0.0086 Hp

* Menghitung Power Motor :


BHP actual = 0.0086 Hp
m= 80.00%

BHP pompa
Power motor
m
Power Motor = 0.0108 Hp
= 8.0306 watt
Standar NEMA = 1/2 Hp

* Menghitung Specific Pump Speed :


N * Q 0 .5
Ns Pers 5.1, Coulson, Halaman 182
( h ) 0 . 75
N= 3500 rpm
Q= 2.3597 gal/min
h= 5.9115 f
Ns = 1418.1597 rpm
Menurut Coulson and Richardson (halaman 183), impeller pompa dapat dipilih berdasarkan Specific Speed-
1. Ns = 400 - 1000, pilih Radial Flow Impellers
2. Ns = 1000 - 7000, pilih Mixed Flow Impellers
3. Ns > 7000, pilih Axial Flow Impellers
Sehingga, untuk p 1418.1597 rpm, digunakan pompa jenis:

Spesifikasi Pompa
Jenis Centrifugal Single Stage
Impeller Mixed Flow Impellers
Driver Motor Elektrik 1/2 Hp
%mol
0.0094
0.0035
0.8996
0.0875
1.0000

K
C
Tc , kg/m3 BM .x BM .x
437.65 612.4360 45.084 5.7464 0.4230
433.25 587.8979 59.111 2.0654 0.2077
487.20 919.8508 60.053 827.5098 54.0245
512.58 757.9404 32.042 66.3128 2.8034
901.6345 57.4585

, Cp x
0.1510 0.0014
0.1352 0.0005
0.2504 0.2253
0.3730 0.0326
0.2598
(Peters, 2003 : hal 496-497)

(Tabel 11 Kern, hal. 844)

0.0687 f
0.0875 f

0.0037 f2

56.2853 lb/f3
(Peters, hal 486)

m/dtk
0.4916 m/s
0.0123 m
0.0404 f

f
f
m
f
m

atm
atm
psia
atm
atm

(untuk pipa commercial steel )

L atau Le
m
7.0000
4.8594
10.9728
4.5720
0.3658
27.7700

rafik. 127, Brown, 1950 : 141

(Pers. 63 Brown, Halaman 136)


Wf .
550

(Grafik 12-17 Peters hal. 516)

(Grafik 12-18 Peters hal. 516)

Grafik 5.6 Coulson hal. 182

berdasarkan Specific Speed-nya, jika:

Mixed Flow Impellers


POMPA-07

Fungsi : Mengalirkan produk dimethylformamide dari MD-02 ke T-03

komponen kg %berat BM kmol


CH3OH 1.8440 0.0005 32.042 0.0576
H2O 3.4992 0.0009 18.015 0.1942
C3H7NO 3971.9295 0.9987 73.095 54.3393
Total 3977.2727 1.0000 54.5911

Desitas bahan baku


Density = A. B (1-T/Tc) ^ n T = 424.78
= 151.63
komponen %mol A B n
CH3OH 0.0011 0.27197 0.27192 0.23310
H2O 0.0036 0.34710 0.27400 0.28571
C3H7NO 0.9954 0.27376 0.23013 0.27630
Total 1.0000

Viskositas bahan baku :


T= 424.7805291907 K
Log = A + B/T + CT + DT2
komponen A B C D
CH3OH -9.0562 1.25E+03 2.24E-02 -2.35E-05
H2O -3.9726 4.42E+02 1.07E-02 -1.61E-05
C3H7NO -10.2158 1.79E+03 1.77E-02 -1.26E-05
Total
Diperoleh :
Densitas = 817.2072 kg/m3
= 51.0149 lb/f3
Viskositas = 0.1799 cP
= 0.0001 lb/f dt

Kapasitas
Qf
* Menentukan kapasitas pompa : Waktu dtk

Kapasitas = 4.8669 m3/jam


Qf = 0.0477 f3/s
= 4.8669 m3/jam
= 17.8421 gpm
= 0.0014 m3/s
Diambil :
Over Design = 20.00%
Faktor Keamanan = 20.00%
Sehingga kapasitas pompa = 0.0687 f3/s
= 6.2418 m3/jam
= 138.0922 gpm
= 1.3618 m3/s
* Menghitung diameter optimum pipa :

Diopt 3,9.Qf 0,45 0,13



Keterangan :
Diopt = Diameter dalam optimum, in
Qf = laju alir volumetrik, f 3/s
= densitas cairan (lb/f3)
Dopt = 1.9491 in
Digunakan pipa standart :
D nominal = 2 in
ID = 2.067 in =
OD = 2.38 in =
Schedule = 40
Flow area perpipe = 3.35 in2 =

* Menghitung kecepatan linier fluida (v) :


Dimana :
Q
v Q = laju alir volumetric, f3/s
A
A = luas penampang, f2
v= 2.9549 f/s
= 0.9007 m/s

* Menghitung bilangan Reynold :


Dimana :
D.v. = densitas cairan (lb/f3)
N Re
D = OD, ( f )
v = kecepatan linier (f/s)
= viskositas (lb/f.s)
Nre = 0.1983 f x 2.9549 f/s x
0.0001 lb/f s
NRe = 247286.8183 (Nre > 2100 jadi aliran Turbulent)

* Neraca tenaga :
Tenaga mekanis teoritik dihitung dengan persamaan Bernaulli
v 2 z.g P
.F Wf
2..g C gC
Dimana :
Dv = beda kecepatan linier fluida
a = Faktor koreksi terhadap tenaga kinetis, s2/lb
gc = faktor koreksi = 32,174 lb f / lbf.s2
Dz = beda elevasi
g = Konstanta kecepatan gravitasi, m/s2
= densitas fluida, lb/f3
SF = total friksi pada sistem pemipaan
.-Wf = Total head

v2
* Menghitung velocity head : Velocity head
2 .g C
Diketahui : g 9.807
Kecepatan fluida di ujung pipa pemasukan R-01 (Reaktor-01) V=
Velocity Head V2 / 2g =
=
zg
* Menghitung static head : Static head
gC
Tinggi Fluida dalam MD-02 z1 = 50
Tinggi pipa pemasukan T-3 z2 = 33.7499
= 10.2870
z = z2 - z1 = 15.9065
= 4.8483
* Menghitung pressure head :
Tekanan dalam MD-02 P1 = 1.0000
Tekanan dalam T-04 P2 = 1.0000
P CO-3 = 0.4187
= 0.0285
Pressure Head P / g = 0.0285

* Menghitung Friction head :


Nre = 247286.8183
D= 2 in
Diperoleh :
/D = 0.0009 Grafik.126 Brown hal. 141 (untuk pipa commercial s

f= 0.02 Grafik.125 Brown hal. 140

* Menghitung panjang ekivalen


Le/D
Komponen Jumlah f m
Pipa Lurus Horizontal 1 22.9659 7.0000
Vertikal 1 33.7499 10.2870
Fitting Standar Elbow 90 3 12 3.6576
Check Valve 1 15 4.5720
Gate Valve 1 1.2 0.3658
Total

Dari Grafik. 127, Brown, 1950 : 141

Panjang Ekivalen Pipa : L + Le = 33.6975 m


= 110.5562 f
f * ( L Le ) *V 2
F 2 * g * ID
Dimana:
f= Faktor friksi = 0.02
V= Kecepatan linier fluida = 2.9549 f/s
Le = Panjang ekuivalen = 110.5562 f
gc = Faktor konversi = 32,174 lb f / lbf.s2
D= Diameter dalam pipa = 0.1723 f
F = 0.0017 f.lbf/lbm
= 0.0005 m
* Menghitung Total Head :

P V 2
( Ws ) z F
*g 2*g

Velocity head zg / g c 0.0414 m

Static head V2 / 2 g c = 4.8483 m

Pressure head P/g = 0.0285 m

Friction head :
f * (L+Le) * V2 / 2 * g * ID = 0.0005 m

- Ws = 4.9187 m 193.6482
= 16.1374 f
Q= 6.2418 m3/jam
Total Head = 4.9 m

Diperoleh jenis pompa: Centrifugal Single Stage

* Menghitung pompa teoritis :


Tenaga Pompa dapat dicari dengan persamaan : Q. Wf .
BHP teoritis
550
Diketahui :
Q= 0.0687 f3/s
- Ws = 16.1374 f
= 51.0149 lb/f3
Sehingga,
BHP teoritis = 0.1029 Hp

* Menghitung Tenaga Pompa Actual :


BHP teoritis = 0.1029 Hp
Kapasitas Pompa = 6.2418 m3/jam
efisiensi centrifugal pump () = 38.00%
BHP actual = BHP teoritis/
= 0.2708 Hp

* Menghitung Power Motor :


BHP actual = 0.2708 Hp
m= 80.00%

BHP pompa
Power motor
m
Power Motor = 0.3385 Hp
= 252.4211 watt
Standar NEMA = 1/2 Hp

* Menghitung Specific Pump Speed :


N * Q 0 .5
Ns Pers 5.1, Coulson, Halaman 182
( h ) 0 . 75
N= 3500 rpm
Q= 138.0922 gal/min
h= 16.1374 f
Ns = 5108.3240 rpm
Menurut Coulson and Richardson (halaman 183), impeller pompa dapat dipilih berdasarkan Specific Speed-
1. Ns = 400 - 1000, pilih Radial Flow Impellers
2. Ns = 1000 - 7000, pilih Mixed Flow Impellers
3. Ns > 7000, pilih Axial Flow Impellers
Sehingga, untuk pom 5108.3240 rpm, digunakan pompa jenis:

Spesifikasi Pompa
Jenis Centrifugal Single Stage
Impeller Axial Flow Impellers
Driver Motor Elektrik 1/2 Hp
%mol
0.0011
0.0036
0.9954
1.0000

K
C
Tc , kg/m3 BM .x BM .x
512.58 644.7234 32.042 0.6797 0.0338
647.13 901.1755 18.015 3.2064 0.0641
647.00 817.0897 73.095 813.3211 72.7579
817.2072 72.8557

, Cp x
0.1436 0.0002
0.0483 0.0002
0.1804 0.1796
0.1799
(Peters, 2003 : hal 496-497)

(Tabel 11 Kern, hal. 844)

0.1723 f
0.1983 f

0.0233 f2

51.0149 lb/f3

(Peters, hal 486)


m/dtk
0.9007 m/s
0.0414 m
0.1357 f

f
f
m
f
m

atm
atm
psia
atm
atm

141 (untuk pipa commercial steel )

L atau Le
m
7.0000
10.7870
10.9728
4.5720
0.3658
33.6975

rafik. 127, Brown, 1950 : 141

(Pers. 63 Brown, Halaman 136)

( Grafik 5.6 Peters hal. 182)

Wf .
550
(Grafik 12-17 Peters hal. 516)

(Grafik 12-18 Peters hal. 516)

Grafik 5.6 Coulson hal. 182

ih berdasarkan Specific Speed-nya, jika:

Axial Flow Impellers


POMPA-08

Fungsi : Mengalirkan hasil atas MD-02 menuju T-04

komponen kg %berat BM kmol


C2H4O2 3.6294 0.0020 60.053 0.0604
CH3OH 1842.1872 0.9911 32.042 57.4929
H2O 8.9192 0.0048 18.015 0.4951
C3H7NO 3.9759 0.0021 73.095 0.0544
1858.7117 1.0000 58.1028

Desitas
Density = A. B (1-T/Tc) ^ n T = 337.7954
= 64.6454
komponen %mol A B n
C2H4O2 0.0010 0.34143 0.25838 0.27680
CH3OH 0.9895 0.27197 0.27192 0.23310
H2O 0.0085 0.34710 0.27400 0.28571
C3H7NO 0.0009 0.27376 0.23013 0.27630
Total 1.0000

Viskositas :
T= 337.7954 K
Log = A + B/T + CT + DT2
komponen A B C D
C2H4O2 -8.0637 1.01E+03 2.09E-02 -2.30E-05
CH3OH -9.0562 1.25E+03 2.24E-02 -2.35E-05
H2O -10.2158 1.79E+03 1.77E-02 -1.26E-05
C3H7NO -5.329 8.95E+02 1.06E-02 -1.01E-05
Total
Diperoleh :
Densitas = 31.9900 kg/m3
= 1.9970 lb/f3
Viskositas = 0.3411 cP
= 0.0002 lb/f dt

* Menentukan kapasitas pompa : Kapasitas


Qf
Waktu dtk

Kapasitas = 58.1028 m3/jam


Qf = 0.5700 f3/s
= 58.1029 m3/jam
= 213.0051 gpm
= 0.0161 m3/s
Diambil :
Over Design = 20.00%
Faktor Keamanan = 20.00%
Sehingga kapasitas pompa = 0.8208 f3/s
= 126.9492 m3/jam
= 49622.5203 gpm
= 102475.5574 m3/s
* Menghitung diameter optimum pipa :

Diopt 3,9.Qf 0,45 0,13



Keterangan :
Diopt = Diameter dalam optimum, in
Qf = laju alir volumetrik, f 3/s
= densitas cairan (lb/f3)
Dopt = 3.9040 in
Digunakan pipa standart :
D nominal = 4 in
ID = 4.026 in =
OD = 4.5 in =
Schedule = 40
Flow area perpipe = 12.7 in2 =

* Menghitung kecepatan linier fluida (v) :


Dimana :
Q
v Q = laju alir volumetric, f3/s
A
A = luas penampang, f2
v= 9.3053 f/s
= 2.8363 m/s

* Menghitung bilangan Reynold :


Dimana :
D.v. = densitas cairan (lb/f3)
N Re
D = OD, ( f )
v = kecepatan linier (f/s)
= viskositas (lb/f.s)
Nre = 0.3750 f x 9.3053 f/s x
0.0002 lb/f s
NRe = 30398.9245 (Nre > 2100 jadi aliran Turbulent)

* Neraca tenaga :
Tenaga mekanis teoritik dihitung dengan persamaan Bernaulli
v 2 z.g P
.F Wf
2..g C gC

Dimana :
Dv = beda kecepatan linier fluida
a = Faktor koreksi terhadap tenaga kinetis, s2/lb
gc = faktor koreksi = 32,174 lb f / lbf.s2
Dz = beda elevasi
g = Konstanta kecepatan gravitasi, m/s2
= densitas fluida, lb/f3
SF = total friksi pada sistem pemipaan
.-Wf = Total head
v2
* Menghitung velocity head : Velocity head
2 .g C
Diketahui : g = 9.807
Kecepatan fluida di ujung pipa pemasukan Reaktor V=
Velocity Head V2 / 2g =
=
zg
* Menghitung static head : Static head
gC
Tinggi Fluida dalam MD-02 z1 = 49.6563
Tinggi pipa pemasukan di T-04 z2 = 27.8167
= 8.4785
z = z2 - z1 = 21.8397
= 6.6567
* Menghitung pressure head :
Tekanan dalam MD-01 P1 = 1.0000
Tekanan dalam St P2 = 1.0000
P CO-04 = 0.6089
= 0.0414
Pressure Head P / g = 0.0414

* Menghitung Friction head :


Nre = 30398.9245
D= 4 in
Diperoleh :
/ 0.00035 Grafik.126 Brown hal. 141 (untuk pipa commercial st

f= 0.017 Grafik.125 Brown hal. 140

* Menghitung panjang ekivalen


Le/D
Komponen Jumlah f m
Pipa Lurus Horizontal 1 22.9659 7.0000
Vertikal 1 27.8167 8.4785
Fitting Standar Elbow 90 3 22 6.7056
Check Valve 1 25 7.6200
Gate Valve 1 2.4 0.7315
Total

Dari Grafik. 127, Brown, 1950 : 14

Panjang Ekivalen Pipa : L + Le = 44.4468 m


= 145.8230 f
f * ( L Le ) *V 2
F 2 * g * ID
Dimana:
f= Faktor friksi = 0.017
V= Kecepatan linier fluida = 9.3053 f/s
Le = Panjang ekuivalen = 145.8230 f
gc = Faktor konversi = 32,174 lb f / lbf.s2
D= Diameter dalam pipa = 0.3355 f
F = 0.0099 f.lbf/lbm
= 0.0030 m
* Menghitung Total Head :

P V 2
( Ws ) z F
*g 2*g

Velocity head zg / g c 0.4101 m

Static head V2 / 2 g c = 6.6567 m

Pressure head P/g 0.0414 m

Friction head :
f * (L+Le) * V2 / 2 * g * ID = 0.0030 m

- Ws = 7.1113 m
= 23.3311 f
Q= 126.9492 m3/jam
Total Head = 7.1 m 279.9733

Diperoleh jenis pompa: Centrifugal Single Stage


* Menghitung pompa teoritis :
Tenaga Pompa dapat dicari dengan persamaan : Q. Wf .
BHP teoritis
550
Diketahui :
Q= 0.8208 f3/s
- Ws = 23.3311 f
= 1.9970 lb/f3
Sehingga,
BHP teoritis = 0.0695 Hp

* Menghitung Tenaga Pompa Actual :


BHP teoritis = 0.0695 Hp
Kapasitas Pompa = 126.9492 m3/jam
efisiensi centrifugal pump () = 70.00%
BHP actual = BHP teoritis/
= 0.0993 Hp

* Menghitung Power Motor :


BHP actual = 0.0993 Hp
m= 80.00%

BHP pompa
Power motor
m
Power Motor = 0.1242 Hp
= 92.5851 watt
Standar NEMA = 1/2 Hp

* Menghitung Specific Pump Speed :


N * Q 0 .5
Ns Pers 5.1, Coulson, Halaman 182
( h ) 0 . 75
N= 3500 rpm
Q= 49622.5203 gal/min
h= 23.3311 f
Ns = 73443.9272 rpm
Menurut Coulson and Richardson (halaman 183), impeller pompa dapat dipilih berdasarkan Specific Speed-
1. Ns = 400 - 1000, pilih Radial Flow Impellers
2. Ns = 1000 - 7000, pilih Mixed Flow Impellers
3. Ns > 7000, pilih Axial Flow Impellers
Sehingga, untuk p 73443.9272 rpm, digunakan pompa jenis:

Spesifikasi Pompa
Jenis Centrifugal Single Stage
Impeller Axial Flow Impellers
Driver Motor Elektrik 1/2 Hp
%mol
0.0010
0.9895
0.0085
0.0009
1.0000

K
C
Tc , kg/m3 BM .x BM .x
487.20 905.8056 60.053 0.0625 0.0625
512.58 749.2549 32.042 31.7056 31.7056
647.13 990.3758 18.015 0.1535 0.1535
647.00 907.0988 73.095 0.0684 0.0684
31.9900 31.9900

, Cp x
0.2332 0.0002
0.3402 0.3366
0.4350 0.0037
0.5463 0.0005
0.3411
(Peters, 2003 : hal 496-497)

(Tabel 11 Kern, hal. 844)

0.3355 f
0.3750 f

0.0882 f2

1.9970 lb/f3
(Peters, hal 486)

m/dtk
2.8363 m/s
0.4101 m
1.3456 f

f
f
m
f
m

atm
atm
psia
atm
atm

(untuk pipa commercial steel )

L atau Le
m
7.0000
8.9785
20.1168
7.6200
0.7315
44.4468

rafik. 127, Brown, 1950 : 141

(Pers. 63 Brown, Halaman 136)


Wf .
550

(Grafik 12-17 Peters hal. 516)

(Grafik 12-18 Peters hal. 516)

Grafik 5.6 Coulson hal. 182

berdasarkan Specific Speed-nya, jika:

Axial Flow Impellers


POMPA-09

Fungsi : Mengalirkan produk dimethylformamide dari T-03 ke Truck pengangkut

komponen kg %berat BM kmol


CH3OH 1.8440 0.0005 32.042 0.0576
H2O 3.4992 0.0009 18.015 0.1942
C3H7NO 3971.9295 0.9987 73.095 54.3393
Total 3977.2727 1.0000 54.5911

Desitas bahan baku


Density = A. B (1-T/Tc) ^ n T = 305.15
= 32.00
komponen %mol A B n
CH3OH 0.0011 0.27197 0.27192 0.23310
H2O 0.0036 0.34710 0.27400 0.28571
C3H7NO 0.9954 0.27376 0.23013 0.27630
Total 1.0000

Viskositas bahan baku :


T= 305.15 K
Log = A + B/T + CT + DT2
komponen A B C D
CH3OH -9.0562 1.25E+03 2.24E-02 -2.35E-05
H2O -3.9726 4.42E+02 1.07E-02 -1.61E-05
C3H7NO -10.2158 1.79E+03 1.77E-02 -1.26E-05
Total
Diperoleh :
Densitas = 938.3065 kg/m3
= 58.5746 lb/f3
Viskositas = 0.7783 cP
= 0.0005 lb/f dt

Kapasitas
Qf
* Menentukan kapasitas pompa : Waktu dtk

Kapasitas = 4.2388 m3/jam


Qf = 0.0416 f3/s
= 4.2388 m3/jam
= 15.5394 gpm
= 0.0012 m3/s
Diambil :
Over Design = 20.00%
Faktor Keamanan = 20.00%
Sehingga kapasitas pompa = 0.0599 f3/s
= 5.3911 m3/jam
= 105.2603 gpm
= 0.7996 m3/s
* Menghitung diameter optimum pipa :

Diopt 3,9.Qf 0,45


0,13
Keterangan :
Diopt = Diameter dalam optimum, in
Qf = laju alir volumetrik, f 3/s
= densitas cairan (lb/f3)
Dopt = 1.8648 in
Digunakan pipa standart :
D nominal = 2 in
ID = 2.067 in =
OD = 2.38 in =
Schedule = 40
Flow area perpipe = 3.35 in2 =

* Menghitung kecepatan linier fluida (v) :


Dimana :
Q
v Q = laju alir volumetric, f3/s
A
A = luas penampang, f2
v= 2.5736 f/s
= 0.7844 m/s

* Menghitung bilangan Reynold :


Dimana :
D.v. = densitas cairan (lb/f3)
N Re
D = OD, ( f )
v = kecepatan linier (f/s)
= viskositas (lb/f.s)
Nre = 0.1983 f x 2.5736 f/s x
0.0005 lb/f s
NRe = 57162.2198 (Nre > 2100 jadi aliran Turbulent)

* Neraca tenaga :
Tenaga mekanis teoritik dihitung dengan persamaan Bernaulli
v 2 z.g P
.F Wf
2..g C gC
Dimana :
Dv = beda kecepatan linier fluida
a = Faktor koreksi terhadap tenaga kinetis, s2/lb
gc = faktor koreksi = 32,174 lb f / lbf.s2
Dz = beda elevasi
g = Konstanta kecepatan gravitasi, m/s2
= densitas fluida, lb/f3
SF = total friksi pada sistem pemipaan
.-Wf = Total head

v2
* Menghitung velocity head : Velocity head
2 .g C
Diketahui : g 9.807
Kecepatan fluida di ujung pipa pemasukan R-01 (Reaktor-01) V=
Velocity Head V2 / 2g =
=
zg
* Menghitung static head : Static head
gC
Tinggi Fluida dalam T-03 z1 = 34
Tinggi pipa pemasukan Truck z2 = 1.0000
= 0.3048
z = z2 - z1 = 32.7499
= 9.9822
* Menghitung pressure head :
Tekanan dalam T-03 P1 = 1.0000
Tekanan dalam T-04 P2 = 1.0000
Pressure Head P / g = 0.00000

* Menghitung Friction head :


Nre = 57162.2198
D= 2 in
Diperoleh :
/D = 0.0009 Grafik.126 Brown hal. 141 (untuk pipa comm

f= 0.02 Grafik.125 Brown hal. 140

* Menghitung panjang ekivalen


Le/D
Komponen Jumlah f m
Pipa Lurus Horizontal 1 16.4042 5.0000
Vertikal 1 1.0000 0.3048
Fitting Standar Elbow 90 3 12 3.6576
Check Valve 1 15 4.5720
Gate Valve 1 1.2 0.3658
Total
Dari Grafik. 127, Brown, 1950 : 1

Panjang Ekivalen Pipa : L + Le = 21.7154 m


= 71.2446 f
f * ( L Le ) *V 2
F 2 * g * ID

Dimana:
f= Faktor friksi 0.02
V= Kecepatan linier fluid 2.5736 f/s
Le = Panjang ekuivalen 71.2446 f
gc = Faktor konversi 32,174 lb f / lbf.s2
D= Diameter dalam pipa 0.1723 f
F = 0.0009 f.lbf/lbm
= 0.0003 m
* Menghitung Total Head :

P V 2
( Ws ) z F

Velocity head
* g 2 *
zg / g c
g = 0.0314 m

Static head V2 / 2 g c = 9.9822 m

Pressure head P/g = 0.0000 m

Friction head :
f * (L+Le) * V2 / 2 * g * ID = 0.0003 m

- Ws = 10.0138 m
= 32.8537 f
Q= 5.3911 m3/jam
Total Head = 10.0 m

Diperoleh jenis pompa: Centrifugal Single Stage

* Menghitung pompa teoritis :


Tenaga Pompa dapat dicari dengan persamaan : Q. Wf .
BHP teoritis
550
Diketahui :
Q= 0.0599 f3/s
- Ws = 32.8537 f
= 58.5746 lb/f3
Sehingga,
BHP teoritis = 0.2095 Hp

* Menghitung Tenaga Pompa Actual :


BHP teoritis = 0.2095 Hp
Kapasitas Pompa = 5.3911 m3/jam
efisiensi centrifugal pump () = 30.00%
BHP actual = BHP teoritis/
= 0.6983 Hp

* Menghitung Power Motor :


BHP actual = 0.6983 Hp
m= 80.00%

BHP pompa
Power motor
m
Power Motor = 0.8729 Hp
= 650.9378 watt
Standar NEMA = 1 Hp

* Menghitung Specific Pump Speed :


N * Q 0 .5
Ns Pers 5.1, Coulson, Halaman 182
( h ) 0 . 75
N= 3500 rpm
Q= 105.2603 gal/min
h= 32.8537 f
Ns = 2616.7514 rpm
Menurut Coulson and Richardson (halaman 183), impeller pompa dapat dipilih berdasarkan Specific Speed-
1. Ns = 400 - 1000, pilih Radial Flow Impellers
2. Ns = 1000 - 7000, pilih Mixed Flow Impellers
3. Ns > 7000, pilih Axial Flow Impellers
Sehingga, untuk pompa dengan Ns = 2616.7514 rpm, digunakan pompa jenis:

Spesifikasi Pompa
Jenis Centrifugal Single Stage
Impeller Mixed Flow Impellers
Driver Motor Elektrik 1 Hp
%mol
0.0011
0.0036
0.9954
1.0000

K
C
Tc , kg/m3 BM .x BM .x
512.58 780.8224 32.042 0.8232 0.0338
647.13 1021.0367 18.015 3.6329 0.0641
647.00 938.1776 73.095 933.8504 72.7579
938.3065 72.8557

, Cp x
0.4924 0.0005
0.1683 0.0006
0.7808 0.7772
0.7783
(Peters, 2003 : hal 496-497)

(Tabel 11 Kern, hal. 844)

0.1723 f
0.1983 f

0.0233 f2

58.5746 lb/f3

(Peters, hal 486)


m/dtk
0.7844 m/s
0.0314 m
0.1029 f

f
f
m
f
m

atm
atm
atm

. 141 (untuk pipa commercial steel )

L atau Le
m
5.0000
0.8048
10.9728
4.5720
0.3658
21.7154
fik. 127, Brown, 1950 : 141

(Pers. 63 Brown, Halaman 136)

Q. Wf .
550
(Grafik 12-17 Peters hal. 516)

(Grafik 12-18 Peters hal. 516)

Grafik 5.6 Coulson hal. 182

dasarkan Specific Speed-nya, jika:

Mixed Flow Impellers


POMPA-10

Fungsi : Mengalirkan hasil Methanol T-04 ke Truck pengangkut

komponen kg %berat BM
C2H4O2 3.6294 0.0020 60.053
CH3OH 1842.1872 0.9911 32.042
H2O 8.9192 0.0048 18.015
C3H7NO 3.9759 0.0021 73.095
1858.7117 1.0000

Desitas
Density = A. B (1-T/Tc) ^ n T =
=
komponen %mol A B
C2H4O2 0.0010 0.34143 0.25838
CH3OH 0.9895 0.27197 0.27192
H2O 0.0085 0.34710 0.27400
C3H7NO 0.0009 0.27376 0.23013
Total 1.0000

Viskositas :
T= 305.1500 K
Log = A + B/T + CT + DT2
komponen A B C
C2H4O2 -8.0637 1.01E+03 2.09E-02
CH3OH -9.0562 1.25E+03 2.24E-02
H2O -10.2158 1.79E+03 1.77E-02
C3H7NO -5.329 8.95E+02 1.06E-02
Total
Diperoleh :
Densitas = 31.9900 kg/m3
= 1.9970 lb/f3
Viskositas = 0.4949 cP
= 0.0003 lb/f dt

* Menentukan kapasitas pompa : Kapasitas


Qf
Waktu dtk

Kapasitas = 58.1028 m3/jam


Qf = 0.5700 f3/s
= 58.1029 m3/jam
= 213.0051 gpm
= 0.0161 m3/s
Diambil :
Over Design = 20.00%
Faktor Keamanan = 20.00%
Sehingga kapasitas pompa = 0.8208 f3/s
= 126.9492 m3/jam
= 49622.5203 gpm
= 102475.5574 m3/s
* Menghitung diameter optimum pipa :

Diopt 3,9.Qf 0,45


0,13
Keterangan :
Diopt = Diameter dalam optimum, in
Qf = laju alir volumetrik, f 3/s
= densitas cairan (lb/f3)
Dopt = 3.9040
Digunakan pipa standart :
D nominal = 4
ID = 4.026
OD = 4.5
Schedule = 40
Flow area perpipe = 12.7

* Menghitung kecepatan linier fluida (v) :


Dimana :
Q
v Q = laju alir volumetric, f3/s
A
A = luas penampang, f2
v= 9.3053 f/s
= 2.8363 m/s

* Menghitung bilangan Reynold :


Dimana :
D.v. = densitas cairan (lb/f3)
N Re
D = OD, ( f )
v = kecepatan linier (f/s)
= viskositas (lb/f.s)
Nre = 0.3750 f x 9.3053
0.0003
NRe = 20951.4369 (Nre > 2100 jadi aliran Turbulent)

* Neraca tenaga :
Tenaga mekanis teoritik dihitung dengan persamaan Bernaulli
v 2 z.g P
. F Wf
2..g C gC

Dimana :
Dv = beda kecepatan linier fluida
a = Faktor koreksi terhadap tenaga kinetis, s2/lb
gc = faktor koreksi = 32,174
Dz = beda elevasi
g = Konstanta kecepatan gravitasi, m/s2
= densitas fluida, lb/f3
SF = total friksi pada sistem pemipaan
.-Wf = Total head
v2
* Menghitung velocity head : Velocity head
2 .g C
Diketahui : g =
Kecepatan fluida di ujung pipa pemasukan Reaktor
Velocity Head

zg
* Menghitung static head : Static head
gC
Tinggi Fluida dalam T-04 z1 =
Tinggi pipa pemasukan Truck z2 =
=
z = z2 - z1 =
=
* Menghitung pressure head :
Tekanan dalam T-04 P1 =
Tekanan dalam Truck P2 =
Pressure Head P / g =

* Menghitung Friction head :


Nre = 20951.4369
D= 4 in
Diperoleh :
/D = 0.00035 Grafik.126 Brown hal. 141 (untuk pipa

f= 0.016 Grafik.125 Brown hal. 140

* Menghitung panjang ekivalen


Le/D
Komponen Jumlah f
Pipa Lurus Horizontal 1 16.4042
Vertikal 1 1.0000
Fitting Standar Elbow 90 3 22
Check Valve 1 25
Gate Valve 1 2.4
Total

Panjang Ekivalen Pipa : L + Le = 34.2731


= 112.4446
f * ( L Le ) *V 2
F 2 * g * ID
Dimana:
f= Faktor friksi = 0.016
V= Kecepatan linier fluida = 9.3053
Le = Panjang ekuivalen = 112.4446
gc = Faktor konversi = 32,174
D= Diameter dalam pipa = 0.3355
F = 0.0072 f.lbf/lbm
= 0.0022 m
* Menghitung Total Head :

P V 2
( Ws ) z F
*g 2*g
Velocity head zg / g c = 0.4101 m

Static head V2 / 2 g c = 8.1737 m

Pressure head P/g = 0.0000 m

Friction head :
f * (L+Le) * V2 / 2 * g * ID = 0.0022 m

- Ws = 8.5861 m
= 28.1695 f
Q= 126.9492 m3/jam
Total Head = 8.6 m

Diperoleh jenis pompa: Centrifugal Single Stage

* Menghitung pompa teoritis :


Q. Wf .
BHP teoritis
550
Tenaga Pompa dapat dicari dengan persamaan : Q. Wf .
BHP teoritis
550
Diketahui :
Q= 0.8208 f3/s
- Ws = 28.1695 f
= 1.9970 lb/f3
Sehingga,
BHP teoritis = 0.0839 Hp

* Menghitung Tenaga Pompa Actual :


BHP teoritis = 0.0839 Hp
Kapasitas Pompa = 126.9492 m3/jam
efisiensi centrifugal pump () = 78.00%
BHP actual = BHP teoritis/
= 0.1076 Hp

* Menghitung Power Motor :


BHP actual = 0.1076 Hp
m= 80.00%

BHP pompa
Power motor
m
Power Motor = 0.1345 Hp
= 100.3201 watt
Standar NEMA = 1/2 Hp

* Menghitung Specific Pump Speed :


N * Q 0 .5
Ns Pers 5.1, Coulson, Halaman 182
( h ) 0 . 75
N= 3500 rpm
Q= 49622.5203 gal/min
h= 28.1695 f
Ns = 63763.6802 rpm
Menurut Coulson and Richardson (halaman 183), impeller pompa dapat dipilih berdasarkan Specific Speed-
1. Ns = 400 - 1000, pilih Radial Flow Impellers
2. Ns = 1000 - 7000, pilih Mixed Flow Impellers
3. Ns > 7000, pilih Axial Flow Impellers
Sehingga, untuk pompa dengan Ns = 63763.6802 rpm, digunakan pompa jenis:

Spesifikasi Pompa
Jenis Centrifugal Single Stage
Impeller Axial Flow Impellers
Driver Motor Elektrik 1/2
kmol %mol
0.0604 0.0010
57.4929 0.9895
0.4951 0.0085
0.0544 0.0009
58.1028 1.0000

305.1500 K
32.0000 C
n Tc , kg/m3 BM .x BM .x
0.27680 487.20 956.8852 60.053 0.0625 0.0625
0.23310 512.58 780.8224 32.042 31.7056 31.7056
0.28571 647.13 1021.0367 18.015 0.1535 0.1535
0.27630 647.00 938.1776 73.095 0.0684 0.0684
31.9900 31.9900

D , Cp x
-2.30E-05 0.3088 0.0003
-2.35E-05 0.4924 0.4872
-1.26E-05 0.7808 0.0067
-1.01E-05 0.7728 0.0007
0.4949
(Peters, 2003 : hal 496-497)

in
(Tabel 11 Kern, hal. 844)
in
in = 0.3355 f
in = 0.3750 f

in2 = 0.0882 f2

u alir volumetric, f3/s


s penampang, f2

ensitas cairan (lb/f3)

kecepatan linier (f/s)


iskositas (lb/f.s)
f/s x 1.9970 lb/f3
lb/f s
(Peters, hal 486)

lb f / lbf.s2

9.807 m/dtk
V= 2.8363 m/s
V2 / 2g = 0.4101 m
= 1.3456 f

27.8167 f
1.0000 f
0.3048 m
26.8167 f
8.1737 m

1.0000 atm
1.0000 atm
0.0000 atm

26 Brown hal. 141 (untuk pipa commercial steel )

25 Brown hal. 140

Le/D L atau Le
m m
5.0000 5.0000
0.3048 0.8048
6.7056 20.1168
7.6200 7.6200
0.7315 0.7315
34.2731

Dari Grafik. 127, Brown, 1950 : 141

m
f

(Pers. 63 Brown, Halaman 136)

f/s
f
lb f / lbf.s2
f

Q. Wf .
itis
550
Q. Wf .
itis
550

(Grafik 12-17 Peters hal. 516)

(Grafik 12-18 Peters hal. 516)

, Coulson, Halaman 182

Grafik 5.6 Coulson hal. 182

lih berdasarkan Specific Speed-nya, jika:

unakan pompa jenis: Axial Flow Impellers

gle Stage
pellers
Hp
EXPANSION VALVE (EV-01)

Tugas : Menurunkan tekanan campuran keluar Cooler (Co-01)


dari 3.40 atm menjadi 2.7 atm.
Type : gobe valve
Bahan Konstruksi : Carbon Stell

Massa masuk :
komponen kg/jam fraksi BM kmol/jam fraksi
C2H4O2 362.9448 0.0582 60.053 6.0437 0.0505
CH3OH 1,862.6578 0.2986 32.042 58.1318 0.4856
C2H7N 9.3633 0.0015 45.084 0.2077 0.0017
C3H9N 13.7982 0.0022 59.111 0.2334 0.0020
H2O 12.4184 0.0020 18.015 0.6893 0.0058
C3H7NO 3,975.9054 0.6375 73.095 54.3937 0.4544
Total 6,237.0878 1.0000 119.6996 1.0000

Menghitung viskositas
Log = A + B/T + CT + DT2 T = 379.5 K
komponen A B C D , cp
C2H4O2 -8.0637 1.01E+03 2.09E-02 -2.30E-05 0.1662
CH3OH -9.0562 1.25E+03 2.24E-02 -2.35E-05 0.2254
C2H7N -11.5558 1.21E+03 3.50E-02 -4.13E-05 0.0955
C3H9N -3.9726 4.42E+02 1.07E-02 -1.61E-05 0.0819
H2O -10.2158 1.79E+03 1.77E-02 -1.26E-05 0.2611
C3H7NO -5.329 8.95E+02 1.06E-02 -1.01E-05 0.3842
Total

Menghitung densitas
Density = A. B (1-T/Tc) ^ n T = 379.5 K
komponen A B n Tc (kg/m3)
C2H4O2 0.34143 0.25838 0.27680 487.20 832.3244
CH3OH 0.27197 0.27192 0.23310 512.58 703.8888
C2H7N 0.24110 0.26785 0.24800 437.65 535.7272
C3H9N 0.23283 0.25703 0.26870 433.25 505.5152
H2O 0.34710 0.27400 0.28571 647.13 949.1290
C3H7NO 0.27376 0.23013 0.27630 647.00 865.4010
Total

Kapasitas = 6,237.0878 kg/jam


= 1.7325 kg/dtk
= 13,750.4086 lb/jam
Densitas = 784.5014 kg/m3
= 48.9749 lb/f3
Viskositas, = 0.2943 cp
2.9425E-04 kg/m.dtk
0.7121 lb/f.jam
1.9780E-04 lb/f.dtk
Pin = 3.4000 atm
= 49.9800 psia
P out = 2.7000 atm
= 39.6900 psia
gravitasi, gc = 32.2 f/dtk
T in = 106.3905 C
= 379.3905 K
= 223.5029 F

Design
a. Laju Alir Volumentrik

m
Qv=

Qv = 7.9504 m3/jam
= 280.7651 f3/jam
= 7,950.3847 ltr/jam
= 0.1463 f3/dtk
= 4.6794 f3/mnt
b. Menentukan Jenis Aliran
Asumsi bahwa aliran turbulen

0. 45 0 .13
Di opt =3 . 9 . Q .
Diopt = 2.7234604034 in = 0.2269527277
Dari tabel 11 Kern, 844 didapat
Pipa standart dengan spesifikasi
NPS = 3 in OD =
Sch N = 40 A' t =
=
c. Kecepatan Linear Cairan

Q
V=
A' t
V = 2.8544 f/dtk
d. Cek aliran

D. V .
Reynold Number NR E =

NRE = 160,392.2574
Jadi jenis aliran turbulen karena NR E > 2100
/D = 0.0006 (Fig. 126, Brown, 1950)
faktor friksi = 0.0320 (Fig. 125, Brown, 1950)
Proses :
1. Tidak ada perubahan kimia.
2. Tidak ada kerja yang diberikan (W = 0).

v dv fv 2 dL
V dP+ + (Pers. 72, Brown, 1950)
gc 2gcD
Lost work, lw (F) :

( P1 P2 ) 144
Lw ( F )=

Lw = 30.2555255018 f

P*2gcD (Pers. 72, Brown, 1950)


L=
fv2
L = 39.2419605457 f = 11.9609495743 m
, x
0.00839
0.10945
0.00017
0.00016
0.00150
0.17458
0.29425

106.39
.x, kg/m3
42.0248
341.8415
0.9295
0.9858
5.4659
393.2539
784.5014
f

3.5
7.38 in2
0.0512548547 f2
. 126, Brown, 1950)
. 125, Brown, 1950)

rs. 72, Brown, 1950)


EXPANSION VALVE (EV-01)

Tugas : Menurunkan tekanan campuran keluar Cooler (Co-02)


dari 2.70 atm menjadi 1 atm.
Type : gobe valve
Bahan Konstruksi : Carbon Stell

Massa masuk :
komponen kg/jam fraksi BM kmol/jam fraksi
C2H4O2 3.6294 0.0006 60.053 0.0604 0.0005
CH3OH 1,844.0312 0.3160 32.042 57.5504 0.5107
H2O 12.4184 0.0021 18.015 0.6893 0.0061
C3H7NO 3,975.9054 0.6813 73.095 54.3937 0.4827
Total 5,835.9844 1.0000 112.6939 1.0000

Menghitung viskositas
Log = A + B/T + CT + DT2 T = 354.3 K
komponen A B C D , cp
C2H4O2 -8.0637 1.01E+03 2.09E-02 -2.30E-05 0.2041
CH3OH -9.0562 1.25E+03 2.24E-02 -2.35E-05 0.2880
H2O -10.2158 1.79E+03 1.77E-02 -1.26E-05 0.3465
C3H7NO -5.329 8.95E+02 1.06E-02 -1.01E-05 0.4710
Total

Menghitung densitas
Density = A. B (1-T/Tc) ^ n T = 354.3 K
komponen A B n Tc (kg/m3)
C2H4O2 0.34143 0.25838 0.27680 487.20 878.0794
CH3OH 0.27197 0.27192 0.23310 512.58 732.1113
H2O 0.34710 0.27400 0.28571 647.13 974.3763
C3H7NO 0.27376 0.23013 0.27630 647.00 890.9091
Total

Kapasitas = 5,835.9844 kg/jam


= 1.6211 kg/dtk
= 12,866.1280 lb/jam
Densitas = 810.3180 kg/m3
= 50.5865 lb/f3
Viskositas, = 0.3766 cp
3.7663E-04 kg/m.dtk
0.9114 lb/f.jam
2.5318E-04 lb/f.dtk
Pin = 2.7000 atm
= 39.6900 psia
P out = 1.0000 atm
= 14.7000 psia
gravitasi, gc = 32.2 f/dtk
T in = 81.1398 C
= 354.1398 K
= 178.0516 F

Design
a. Laju Alir Volumentrik

m
Qv=

Qv = 7.2021 m3/jam
= 254.3394 f3/jam
= 7,202.0915 ltr/jam
= 0.1463 f3/dtk
= 4.2390 f3/mnt
b. Menentukan Jenis Aliran
Asumsi bahwa aliran turbulen

0. 45 0 .13
Di opt =3 . 9 . Q .
Diopt = 2.7349481402 in = 0.2279100294
Dari tabel 11 Kern, 844 didapat
Pipa standart dengan spesifikasi
NPS = 3 in OD =
Sch N = 40 A' t =
=
c. Kecepatan Linear Cairan

Q
V=
A' t
V = 2.8544 f/dtk
d. Cek aliran

D. V .
Reynold Number NR E =

NRE = 129,982.3032
Jadi jenis aliran turbulen karena NR E > 2100
/D = 0.0006 (Fig. 126, Brown, 1950)
faktor friksi = 0.0320 (Fig. 125, Brown, 1950)
Proses :
1. Tidak ada perubahan kimia.
2. Tidak ada kerja yang diberikan (W = 0).

2
v dv fv dL
V dP+ + (Pers. 72, Brown, 1950)
gc 2gcD
Lost work, lw (F) :

( P1 P2 ) 144
Lw ( F )=

Lw = 71.1367156952 f

P*2gcD (Pers. 72, Brown, 1950)


L=
fv2
L = 95.7038939422 f = 29.1705468736 m
81.14
, x
0.00011
0.14707
0.00212
0.22732
0.37663

.x, kg/m3
0.4709
373.8741
5.9601
430.0128
810.3180
f

3.5
7.38 in2
0.0512548547 f2
. 126, Brown, 1950)
. 125, Brown, 1950)

rs. 72, Brown, 1950)


EXPANSION VALVE (EV-03)

Tugas : Menurunkan tekanan campuran keluar ACC-01 ke striper


dari 2.7 atm menjadi 1.5 atm.
Type : gobe valve
Bahan Konstruksi : Carbon Stell

Massa masuk :
komponen kg/jam fraksi BM kmol/jam fraksi
C2H4O2 358.9561 0.9507 60.053 5.9773 0.9114
CH3OH 18.6266 0.0493 32.042 0.5813 0.0886
Total 377.5827 1.0000 6.5586 1.0000

Menghitung viskositas
Log = A + B/T + CT + DT2 T = 318.5 K
komponen A B C D , cp
C2H4O2 -8.0637 1.01E+03 2.09E-02 -2.30E-05 0.2739
CH3OH -9.0562 1.25E+03 2.24E-02 -2.35E-05 0.4195
Total

Menghitung densitas
Density = A. B (1-T/Tc) ^ n T = 318.5 K
komponen A B n Tc (kg/m3)
C2H4O2 0.34143 0.25838 0.27680 487.20 936.4937
CH3OH 0.27197 0.27192 0.23310 512.58 768.2284
Total

Kapasitas = 377.5827 kg/jam


= 0.1049 kg/dtk
= 832.4264 lb/jam
Densitas = 921.5797 kg/m3
= 57.5324 lb/f3
Viskositas, = 0.2868 cp
2.8682E-04 kg/m.dtk
0.6941 lb/f.jam
1.9281E-04 lb/f.dtk
Pin = 2.7000 atm
= 39.6900 psia
P out = 2.2000 atm
= 32.3400 psia
gravitasi, gc = 32.2 f/dtk
T in = 45.3761 C
= 318.3761 K
= 113.6771 F
Design
a. Laju Alir Volumentrik

m
Qv=

Qv = 0.4097 m3/jam
= 14.4689 f3/jam
= 409.7125 ltr/jam
= 0.1463 f3/dtk
= 0.2411 f3/mnt
b. Menentukan Jenis Aliran
Asumsi bahwa aliran turbulen

Di opt =3 . 9 . Q 0. 45 . 0 .13
Diopt = 2.7810779214 in = 0.2317541388
Dari tabel 11 Kern, 844 didapat
Pipa standart dengan spesifikasi
NPS = 3 in OD =
Sch N = 40 A' t =
=
c. Kecepatan Linear Cairan

Q
V=
A' t
V = 2.8544 f/dtk
d. Cek aliran

D. V .
Reynold Number NR E =

NRE = 197,389.4730
Jadi jenis aliran turbulen karena NR E > 2100
/D = 0.0006 (Fig. 126, Brown, 1950)
faktor friksi = 0.0320 (Fig. 125, Brown, 1950)
Proses :
1. Tidak ada perubahan kimia.
2. Tidak ada kerja yang diberikan (W = 0).

v dv fv 2 dL
V dP+ + (Pers. 72, Brown, 1950)
gc 2gcD
2
v dv fv dL
V dP+ +
gc 2gcD
Lost work, lw (F) :

( P1 P2 ) 144
Lw ( F )=

Lw = 18.3965970788 f

P*2gcD (Pers. 72, Brown, 1950)


L=
fv2
L = 28.6229737968 f = 8.7242824133 m
, x
0.24964
0.03718
0.28682

.x, kg/m3
853.4886
68.0911
921.5797
f

3.5
7.38 in2
0.0512548547 f2

. 126, Brown, 1950)


. 125, Brown, 1950)

rs. 72, Brown, 1950)


COOLER (CO-01)

Kode : CO-01
Fungsi : mendinginkan produk dari Reaktor menuju MD-01 (110-104 C)
Jenis : Double pipe
NP Total di Sektar Cooler
Masuk
komponen Kmol A B C
C2H4O2 6.0437 42.381 0.57084 -0.0019727
CH3OH 58.1318 40.152 0.31046 -1.029E-03
C2H7N 0.2077 36.962 0.95817 -3.585E-03
C3H9N 0.2334 47.96 0.7302 -0.0028388
H2O 0.6893 92.05 -4.00E-02 -2.11E-04
C3H7NO 54.3937 63.727 0.60708 -1.62E-03
Total 119.6996

Keluar
komponen Kmol A B C
C2H4O2 6.0437 42.381 0.57084 -0.0019727
CH3OH 58.1318 40.152 0.31046 -1.029E-03
C2H7N 0.2077 36.962 0.95817 -3.585E-03
C3H9N 0.2334 47.96 0.7302 -0.0028388
H2O 0.6893 92.05 -4.00E-02 -2.11E-04
C3H7NO 54.3937 63.727 0.60708 -1.62E-03
Total 119.6996

Beban panas = 54262.2506 kJ/jam


Air pendingin masuk pada T = 29 C dan keluar pada T = 40 C
Tin = 302 K
Tout = 313.15 K
Cp air = 1Kkal/kg.K = 4.184 kJ/kg.K
Maka kebutuhan air pendingin :
Q = m x CpDT
m= Q
Cp.(Tout-Tin)
m= 54262.2506
4.184*(313-302)
= 1178.9990 kg/jam

Komponen kg/jm fraksi BM kmol


C2H4O2 362.9448 0.0582 60.053 6.0437
CH3OH 1862.6578 0.2986 32.042 58.1318
C2 H 7 N 9.3633 0.0015 45.084 0.2077
C3 H 9 N 13.7982 0.0022 59.111 0.2334
H 2O 12.4184 0.0020 18.015 0.6893
C3H7NO 3975.9054 0.6375 73.095 54.3937
Total 6237.0878 1.0000 119.6996

Perancangan alat Coooler


Fluida panas :
Suhu masuk : 110.00 C 230.00
Suhu keluar : 106.39 C 223.50
Massa masuk : 6237.0878 kg/jam
: 13750.1936 lb/jam
Fluida dingin :
Kebutuhan air : 1178.9990 kg/jam
: 2599.2042 lb/jam
Beban panas (Q) : 54262.2506 kJ/jam
: 51433.4129 btu/jam
Suhu air masuk : 84.2 F
Suhu air keluar : 104 F

Menentukan spesifikasi Alat


Fluida panas (F) Fluida dingin (F) T, F
230.00 Higher temp 104 126.00
223.50 Lower temp 84.2 139.30

t 2 - t 1
TLMTD = = 132.54 o
F
t 2
ln
( t 1 )
tavg = ta = t 1+ t2
= 94.1 o
F Tav =
2
Menghitung densitas
Density = A. B (1-T/Tc) ^ n
* Fluida Panas
T = 110.00 oC = 383.15 K
Komponen fraksi A B n
C2H4O2 0.0505 0.34143 0.25838 0.27680
CH3OH 0.4856 0.27197 0.27192 0.23310
C2 H 7 N 0.0017 0.24110 0.26785 0.24800
C3 H 9 N 0.0020 0.23283 0.25703 0.26870
H 2O 0.0058 0.27400 0.28571 647.13
C3H7NO 0.4544 0.23013 0.27630 647.00
Total 1.0000

Viskositas :
Log = A + B/T + CT + DT2
T= 383.15 K
Komponen A B C D
C2H4O2 -8.0637 1.01E+03 2.09E-02 -2.30E-05
CH3OH -9.0562 1.25E+03 2.24E-02 -2.35E-05
C2 H 7 N -11.5558 1.21E+03 3.50E-02 -4.13E-05
C3 H 9 N -3.9726 4.42E+02 1.07E-02 -1.61E-05
H 2O -10.2158 1.79E+03 1.77E-02 -1.26E-05
C3H7NO -5.329 8.95E+02 1.06E-02 -1.01E-05
Total

Fluida Dingin T= 307.65 K


Komponen A B C D
H 2O -10.2158 1.79E+03 1.77E-02 -1.26E-05

T = 307.65 K
Komponen A B n Tc
H2O 0.34710 0.27400 0.28571 647.13

Untuk exchanger fluida panas heavy organic dan water fluida dingin
UD = 6-75Btu/f2.oF.jam (tabel 8. Kern, 1965 : 840)
diambil harga UD = 30 Btu/f2.oF.jam

A = Q = 54262.2506 = 13.6467
U D T LMTD 3976.2059082826

karena A < 200 f2 maka digunakan jenis Double pipe

Spesifikasi dirancang (reff : Kern hal 103):


a) Annulus : (IPS : 3 in)
OD : 3.50 in ( tabel 11 Kern hal 844)
ID : 3.068 in
b) Inner pipe : (IPS2 in)
OD : 2.38 in
ID : 2.067 in
c) Luas penampang: 13.6467 f2
d) Panjang pipa : 12 f
Fluida dingin :water, inner pipe Fluida panas : Heavy organic, anulus
Menghitung flow area Menghitung flow area
D= 2.067 D2 =
12
= 0.1723 f =
ap = 3,14 D2/4 = 0.023291 f2 D1 =
Gp = w/ap = 2599.2042 lb/jam
0.023291 f2 =
= 111596.9379 lb/jam f2
= 0.7409 cP aa =
= 1.7930 lb/f jam =
De =
Reynolds =
DG p = 19222.572548844 lb/jam.f Ga = w/aa =
Re p =
1.7930 lb/jam.f
= 10721.1407 =
jH = 48 fig.24 (Kern, 1969 : 834) T =
At = 94.10 o
F =
c= 1.0000 Btu/lb.oF (fig.2 Kern, hal 804) =
k= 0.3560 (Tabel 4 Kern) Reynolds
DG p =
1/3 Re p =
c.
( )k
= 1.71

1 /3 0 .14

=
jH =
k c.
hi = jH . .
D k ( )( ) .
.
t =
c=
= 36.1334 Btu/jam f F 2o
0.2124892397 k=
hio = hi x ID/OD 1/3
c.
= 31.3814 Btu/jam f2 oF
( )k
=

k c
1

ho= jH
De k ( )( 3

=

Clean overall coefficient, Uc:

hio .ho =
Uc= 29.7957 Btu/jam f2 oF
hio +ho
Design overall coefficient,Ud :
Dari tabel 11 Kern untuk 2 in IDS standar pipe = 0,622 f 2/f (eksternal surface per foot length)
Surface actual = 24 x 0.622
= 14.9280
UD = Q =
54262.2506 =
A . T 14.9280 132.5402

UC UD
Dirt factor : Rd = = 0.0029 jam f2F/Btu
UC . UD

589.6408 h outside 31.3814


Uc = 29.7957 Btu/jam f2 oF
UD = 27.4251 Btu/jam f2 oF
Rd = 0.0029 jam f2F/Btu

Pressure drop :
Rep = 10721.1407 De ' =
f = 0,0035 + 0.264 Rep =
10721.1407 0, 42 f = 0,0035 +
(= )
s=
0.00886
1.00000
(
=
)0, 42
= 62.5000 lb/f3 s=
2 =
4 fG a L = 0.0094 f
Pp= 2
2
4 fG a L =
2 g D Pa=
2 g2 D
PP = 0.0094 x 62.5000 V=
144 F1 =
= 0.0041 psi Pa =

P = 0.4043
e. Neraca Panas di Sekitar Coller (Co-01)

T= 383.15 K Tabel 2.11 Neraca Panas di Sekitar Coller (Co-01)


D Cp dT
Q =m CpdT komponen Masuk, kJ/Jam Keluar, kJ/Jam
2.8945E-06 10466.41 63256.26 C2H4O2 63256.2554 60339.3595
1.460E-06 7192.38 418105.83 CH3OH 418105.8287 399253.9322
5.399E-06 13790.56 2864.11 C2H7N 2864.1069 2728.8095
4.6585E-06 12990.53 3032.35 C3H9N 3032.3550 2887.4882
5.35E-07 6410.96 4419.30 H2 O 4419.2984 4230.7510
1.86E-06 13325.52 724823.83 C3H7NO 724823.8275 692799.0809
1216501.67 Sub total 1216501.6718 1162239.4212
Beban Pendingin 54262.2506
T= 379.54 K Total 1216501.6718 1216501.6718
D Cp dT
Q =m CpdT
2.8945E-06 9983.78 60339.36
1.460E-06 6868.09 399253.93
5.399E-06 13139.11 2728.81
4.6585E-06 12369.92 2887.49
5.35E-07 6137.44 4230.75
1.86E-06 12736.76 692799.08
1162239.42

fraksi
0.0505
0.4856
0.0017
0.0020
0.0058
0.4544
1.0000

F
F

T 1+ T 2
= 226.75 o
F
2

Tc , kg/m3 .x (lb/f3)
487.20 825.3855 2.6005
512.58 699.6239 21.2017
437.65 529.0208 0.0573
433.25 498.3090 0.0606
437.65 274.0000 0.0985
433.25 230.1300 6.5255
30.5440

fraksi umpan , Cp x
0.0505 0.1613 0.0081
0.4856 0.2177 0.1057
0.0017 0.0918 0.0002
0.0020 0.2521 0.0005
0.0058 0.2521 0.0015
0.4544 0.3738 0.1699
1.0000 0.2858

, Cp
0.7409

, kg/m3 .x (lb/f3)
1018.7323 63.5689

f2

11 Kern hal 844)


panas : Heavy organic, anulus
itung flow area
3.068
12
0.2557 f
2.38
12
0.1983 f

3,14(D22-D12)/4
0.0204 f
(D22-D12)/D1
0.1312 f
13750.1936 lb/jam
0.0204 f2
672939.64015 lb/jam f2
226.75 o
F
0.2858 cP
0.6917 lb/jam.f

88316.824571 lb/jam.f
0.6917 lb/jam.f
127685.72003
253 fig.24 (Kern, 1969 : 834)
226.75 o
F
1.0000 Btu/lb.oF (fig.2 Kern, hal 804)
0.2034 (Tabel 4 Kern)

1.50
1 0, 14
k c
ho= jH
De k ( )( ) 3
w
589.6408 Btu/jam f2 oF
al surface per foot length)

27.4251 Btu/jam f2 oF

0.0573 f
55780.4724
0.264
55780.4724 0, 42
( 0.00618
)
1.23000 (tabel 6.kern hal 808)
76.8750 lb/f 3

0.4742 f

2.4316 fps
0.2754 f
0.74965 x 76.8750
144.00
0.4002 psi
(Co-01)
COOLER (CO-02)

Kode : CO-02
Fungsi : mendinginkan produk hasil bawah MD-01 menuju MD-02
Jenis : Double pipe
NP Total di Sektar Cooler
Masuk
komponen Kmol A B C
C2H4O2 0.0604 42.381 0.57084 -0.0019727
CH3OH 57.5504 40.152 0.31046 -1.029E-03
H2O 0.6893 92.05 -4.00E-02 -2.11E-04
C3H7NO 54.3937 63.727 0.60708 -1.62E-03
Total 112.6939

Keluar
komponen Kmol A B C
C2H4O2 0.0604 42.381 0.57084 -0.0019727
CH3OH 57.5504 40.152 0.31046 -1.029E-03
H2O 0.6893 92.05 -4.00E-02 -2.11E-04
C3H7NO 54.3937 63.727 0.60708 -1.62E-03
Total 112.6939

Beban panas = 423063.4431 kJ/jam


Air pendingin masuk pada T = 29 C dan keluar pada T = 40 C
Tin = 302 K
Tout = 313.15 K
Cp air = 1Kkal/kg.K = 4.184 kJ/kg.K
Maka kebutuhan air pendingin :
Q = m x CpDT
m= Q
Cp.(Tout-Tin)
m= 423063.4431
4.184*(313-302)
= 9192.2354 kg/jam

Komponen kg/jm fraksi BM kmol


C2H4O2 3.6294 0.0006 60.053 0.0604
CH3OH 1844.0312 0.3160 32.042 57.5504
H 2O 12.4184 0.0021 18.015 0.6893
C3H7NO 3975.9054 0.6813 73.095 54.3937
Total 5835.9844 1.0000 112.6939
Perancangan alat Coooler
Fluida panas :
Suhu masuk : 111.60 C 232.89
Suhu keluar : 81.14 C 178.05
Massa masuk : 5835.9844 kg/jam
: 12865.9268 lb/jam
Fluida dingin :
Kebutuhan air : 9192.2354 kg/jam
: 20265.0693 lb/jam
Beban panas (Q) : 423063.4431 kJ/jam
: 401008.0030 btu/jam
Suhu air masuk : 84.2 F
Suhu air keluar : 104 F

Menentukan spesifikasi Alat


Fluida panas (F) Fluida dingin (F) T, F
232.89 Higher temp 104 128.89
178.05 Lower temp 84.2 93.85

t 2 - t 1
TLMTD = = 110.45 o
F
t 2
ln
( t 1 )
tavg = ta = t 1+ t2
= 94.1 o
F Tav =
2
Menghitung densitas
Density = A. B (1-T/Tc) ^ n
* Fluida Panas
T = 111.60 oC = 384.75 K
Komponen fraksi A B n
C2H4O2 0.0005 0.34143 0.25838 0.27680
CH3OH 0.5107 0.27197 0.27192 0.23310
H 2O 0.0061 0.27400 0.28571 647.13
C3H7NO 0.4827 0.23013 0.27630 647.00
Total 1.0000

Viskositas :
Log = A + B/T + CT + DT2
T= 384.75 K
Komponen A B C D
C2H4O2 -8.0637 1.01E+03 2.09E-02 -2.30E-05
CH3OH -9.0562 1.25E+03 2.24E-02 -2.35E-05
H 2O -10.2158 1.79E+03 1.77E-02 -1.26E-05
C3H7NO -5.329 8.95E+02 1.06E-02 -1.01E-05
Total

Fluida Dingin T= 307.65 K


Komponen A B C D
H 2O -10.2158 1.79E+03 1.77E-02 -1.26E-05

T = 307.65 K
Komponen A B n Tc
H2O 0.34710 0.27400 0.28571 647.13

Untuk exchanger fluida panas light organic dan water fluida dingin
UD = 75-150 Btu/f2.oF.jam (tabel 8. Kern, 1965 : 840)
diambil harga UD = 110 Btu/f2.oF.jam

A = Q = 423063.4431 = 34.8230
U D T LMTD 12148.9543647733

karena A < 200 f2 maka digunakan jenis Double pipe

Spesifikasi dirancang (reff : Kern hal 103):


a) Annulus : (IPS : 4 in)
OD : 4.50 in ( tabel 11 Kern hal 844)
ID : 4.026 in
b) Inner pipe : (IPS3 in)
OD : 3.50 in
ID : 3.068 in
c) Luas penampang: 34.8230 f2
d) Panjang pipa : 15 f

Fluida dingin :water, inner pipe Fluida panas : Methanol, anulus


Menghitung flow area Menghitung flow area
D= 3.068 D2 =
12
= 0.2557 f =
ap = 3,14 D2/4 = 0.051312 f2 D1 =
Gp = w/ap = 20265.0693 lb/jam
0.051312 f2 =
= 394939.1776 lb/jam f2
= 0.7409 cP aa =
= 1.7930 lb/f jam =
De =
Reynolds =
DG p = 100972.783077154 lb/jam.f Ga = w/aa =
Re p =
1.7930 lb/jam.f
= 56316.2612 =
jH = 147 fig.24 (Kern, 1969 : 834) T =
At = 94.10 o
F =
c= 1.0000 Btu/lb.oF (fig.2 Kern, hal 804) =
k= 0.3560 (Tabel 4 Kern) Reynolds
DG p =
1/3 Re p =
c.
( )k
= 1.71

1 /3 0 .14

=
jH =
k c.
hi = jH . .
D k ( )( ) .
.
t =
c=
= 351.0877 Btu/jam f F 2o
0 k=
hio = hi x ID/OD 1/3
c.
= 307.7535 Btu/jam f2 oF
( )k
k c
=
1

ho= jH
De k ( )( 3

=

Clean overall coefficient, Uc:

hio .ho =
Uc= 239.1700 Btu/jam f2 oF
hio +ho
Design overall coefficient,Ud :
Dari tabel 11 Kern untuk 3 in IDS standar pipe = 0,917 f 2/f (eksternal surface per foot length)
Surface actual = 30 x 0.917
= 27.5100
UD = Q =
423063.4431 =
A . T 27.5100 110.4450

UC UD
Dirt factor : Rd = = 0.0030 jam f2F/Btu
UC . UD

1073.2230 h outside 307.7535


Uc = 239.1700 Btu/jam f2 oF
UD = 139.2415 Btu/jam f2 oF
Rd = 0.0030 jam f2F/Btu

Pressure drop :
Rep = 56316.2612 De ' =
f = 0,0035 + 0.264 Rep =
56316.2612 0, 42 f = 0,0035 +
(= 0.00617
) 0, 42
s= 1.00000
(
=
)
= 62.5000 lb/f3 s=
=
4 fG 2
a L = 0.0691 f
Pp= 2
2
4 fG a L =
2 g D Pa=
2 g2 D
PP = 0.0691 x 62.5000 V=
144 F1 =
= 0.0300 psi Pa =

P = 0.5079
f. Neraca Panas di Sekitar Coller (Co-03)

T= 384.75 K Tabel 2.12 Neraca Panas di Sekitar Coller (Co-03)


D Cp dT
Q =m CpdT komponen Masuk, kJ/Jam Keluar, kJ/Jam
2.8945E-06 10682.32 645.61 C2H4O2 645.6115 406.0770
1.460E-06 7337.21 422259.71 CH3OH 422259.7095 267874.7499
5.35E-07 6532.67 4503.20 H2 O 4503.1997 2918.1087
1.86E-06 13587.98 739100.30 C3H7NO 739100.3043 472246.4464
1166508.83 Sub total 1166508.8251 743445.3819
Beban Pendingin 423063.4431
T= 354.29 K Total 1166508.8251 1166508.8251
D Cp dT
Q =m CpdT
2.8945E-06 6718.97 406.08
1.460E-06 4654.61 267874.75
5.35E-07 4233.22 2918.11
1.86E-06 8682.01 472246.45
743445.38

fraksi
0.0005
0.5107
0.0061
0.4827
1.0000
F
F

T 1+ T 2
= 205.47 o
F
2

Tc , kg/m3 .x (lb/f3)
487.20 822.2644 0.0275
512.58 697.7074 22.2334
437.65 274.0000 0.1046
433.25 230.1300 6.9312
29.2967

fraksi umpan , Cp x
0.0005 0.1591 0.0001
0.5107 0.2143 0.1094
0.0061 0.2482 0.0015
0.4827 0.3693 0.1783
1.0000 0.2893

, Cp
0.7409

, kg/m3 .x (lb/f3)
1018.7323 63.5689

f2

11 Kern hal 844)

panas : Methanol, anulus


itung flow area
4.026
12
0.3355 f
3.5
12
0.2917 f

3,14(D22-D12)/4
0.0216 f
(D22-D12)/D1
0.0943 f
12865.9268 lb/jam
0.0216 f2
596188.994332 lb/jam f2
205.47 o
F
0.2893 cP
0.7001 lb/jam.f

56193.3110316 lb/jam.f
0.7001 lb/jam.f
80261.6702871
300 fig.24 (Kern, 1969 : 834)
205.47 o
F
1.0000 Btu/lb.oF (fig.2 Kern, hal 804)
0.2340 (Tabel 4 Kern)

1.44
1 0,14
k c
ho= jH
De k ( )( ) 3
w
1073.2230 Btu/jam f2 oF

al surface per foot length)

139.2415 Btu/jam f2 oF
0.0438 f
37326.0492
0.264
37326.0492 0, 42
( 0.00667
)
1.20000 (tabel 6.kern hal 808)
75.0000 lb/f 3

0.6903 f

2.2081 fps
0.2271 f
0.91746 x 75.0000
144.00
0.4778 psi
COOLER (CO-03)

Kode : CO-03
Fungsi : mendinginkan produk Dimethylformamide dari MD-02 bawah ke T-03
Jenis : shell and tube HE
NP Total di Sektar Cooler
Masuk
komponen Kmol A B C
CH3OH 0.0576 40.152 0.31046 -1.029E-03
H2O 0.1942 92.050 -4.00E-02 -2.11E-04
C3H7NO 54.3393 63.727 0.60708 -1.62E-03
Total 54.5911

Keluar
komponen Kmol A B C
CH3OH 0.0576 40.152 0.31046 -1.029E-03
H2O 0.1942 92.05 -4.00E-02 -2.11E-04
C3H7NO 54.3393 63.727 0.60708 -1.62E-03
Total 54.5911

Beban panas = 1047160.2834 kJ/jam


Air pendingin masuk pada T = 29 C dan keluar pada T = 40 C
Tin = 302 K
Tout = 313.15 K
Cp air = 1Kkal/kg.K = 4.184 kJ/kg.K
Maka kebutuhan air pendingin :
Q = m x CpDT
m= Q
Cp.(Tout-Tin)
m = 1047160.2834
4.184*(313-302)
= 22752.4831 kg/jam

Komponen kg/jm fraksi BM kmol


CH3OH 1.8440 0.0005 32.042 0.0576
H 2O 3.4992 0.0009 18.015 0.1942
C3H7NO 3971.9295 0.9987 73.095 54.3393
Total 3977.2727 1.0000 54.5911

Perancangan alat Coooler


Fluida panas :
Suhu masuk : 151.63 C 304.93
Suhu keluar : 32.00 C 89.60
Massa masuk : 3977.2727 kg/jam
: 8768.2379 lb/jam
Fluida dingin :
Kebutuhan air : 22752.4831 kg/jam
: 50159.7952 lb/jam
Beban panas (Q) : 1047160.2834 kJ/jam
: 992568.9890 btu/jam
Suhu air masuk : 84.2 F
Suhu air keluar : 104 F

Menentukan spesifikasi Alat


Fluida panas (F) Fluida dingin (F) T, F
304.93 Higher temp 104 200.93
89.60 Lower temp 84.2 5.40

t 2 - t 1
TLMTD = = 54.07 o
F
t 2
ln
( t 1 )
tavg = ta = t 1+ t2
= 94.1 o
F Tav =
2 34.5 C
Menghitung densitas
Density = A. B (1-T/Tc) ^ n
* Fluida Panas
T = 151.63 oC = 424.78 K
Komponen fraksi A B n
CH3OH 0.0011 0.27197 0.27192 0.23310
H 2O 0.0036 0.27400 0.28571 647.13
C3H7NO 0.9954 0.23013 0.27630 647.00
Total 1.0000

Viskositas :
Log = A + B/T + CT + DT2
T= 424.78 K
Komponen A B C D
CH3OH -9.0562 1.25E+03 2.24E-02 -2.35E-05
H 2O -10.2158 1.79E+03 1.77E-02 -1.26E-05
C3H7NO -5.329 8.95E+02 1.06E-02 -1.01E-05
Total

Fluida Dingin T= 307.65 K


Komponen A B C D
H 2O -10.2158 1.79E+03 1.77E-02 -1.26E-05
T = 307.65 K
Komponen A B n Tc
H2O 0.34710 0.27400 0.28571 647.13

Untuk exchanger fluida panas heavy organik dan water fluida dingin
UD = 5 -75 Btu/f2.oF.jam (tabel 8. Kern, 1965 : 840)
diambil harga UD = 25 Btu/f2.oF.jam

A = Q = 1047160.2834 = 774.7242
U D T LMTD 1351.6556326292

karena A > 200 f2 maka digunakan jenis shell and tube HE

PERANCANGAN PIPA
Dari tabel 10. Kern, dipilih pipa dengan spesifikasi :
Tube side Shell side
OD tube : 1 in ID :
ID tube : 0.87 in Baffle Space :
BWG : 16 1 1/4
a't : 0.594 in2
a" : 0.2618 f2/lin f
L: 20 f 240
Passes (n) : 1

Jumlah tube (Nt) = L a} } } {


A = 774.7242



5.236
= 147.9611

Digunakan jumlah pipa standart Nt standar


Nt = 152 buah tube (Tabel 9, Kern)

FLUIDA DINGIN (SHELL)


Jenis Fluida = water
Letak = Shell

Menghitung Flow Area (ap)


DG as = ID C' B (Eq 7.1)
Re=pp
144 PT
C = clearance between tube
= Pitch - ODtube
= 1/4 in
B = baffle spacing
PT = tube pitch
DG
Re=pc.p1/3 as = 0.1287 f2

(k)

0.14/3
Menghitung Kecepatan Massa (Gs)

c.k
kD).
.hi=jH(
Gs = w / as
Gs = 389840.3382 lb/jam.f2

tavg = 34.50 o
C = 94.10 o
F
1/3
.c
(ck)
k0,14
=
=
0.7409
1.7930
Cp
lb/f jam

ho=jH() 3
De = 4 x
1 PTx 0,86PT 1 do 2 / 4
Dekw
2 2
1 do
2
(Pers. 7.5, Kern)
dimana, do = outside diameter of tubes, in
De = 0.7118 in
= 0.0593 f

ioh.
Uc= Menghitung Bilangan Reynold (Re)
hio+
D .G
Res =

Res = 12896.8277
L/D = 337.1812
jH = 34 (Fig. 28, Kern, Hal. 838)
Q tavg = ta = 94.1 o
F
A.T
k= 0.368 Btu/jam.f2.(oF/f) (Tabel 4, Kern)
c= 1.000 (Fig. 2, Kern, Hal. 804)
UCD
1/3
c.
.UCD ( )
k
= 1.6953

1 /3 0 .14
k c.
hi = jH .
D
. (
k ) ( ) .
.
hi = 357.6029 Btu/jam f2 oF

ho = hi x ID/OD
ho = 311.1145 Btu/jam f2 oF

Clean Overall Coefficient (Uc)


0,42
()
0,42
()0,42 Uc=
hio . ho
() hio + ho

Uc = 24.7825
2
4LfG2a Design Overall Coefficient (U )
4Pp=LfGa D

Pa=222Dg 1 1
2Dg = + Rd
U D Uc
dimana:
Rd = Fouling Factor
Rd = 0.003 (Tabel 8, Kern, 1950, Hal 840)
1 = 0.0434
UD
UD = 23.0675 Btu/jam f2 oF

TOTAL SURFACE
a" = 0.2618 f2/lin f (Tabel 10, Kern)

Total Surface = Nt x L x a"


= 795.872 f2

UD KOREKSI

Q 23.0670 Btu/jam f2 oF
U D= =
A . T LMTD

DIRT FACTOR

U C -U D = 0.0030 jam f2F/Btu


R D=
U C U D

311.1145 h outside 26.9274


Uc = 24.7825 Btu/jam f2 oF
UD = 23.0670 Btu/jam f2 oF
RD = 0.0030 jam f2F/Btu

MENGHITUNG PRESSURE DROP

FLUIDA DINGIN (SHELL)


Res = 12896.8277

f = 0.0024 (Fig. 29, Kern)


s = 1 (tabel 6. hal 808)

t = 1

D = 0.0593 f

n = Passes = 1

r= 62.5

Number of Crosses
N + 1 = 12.L / B
= 598.4416

Ps = f . G2 . D . (N+1)
5,22 . 1010 . D . S .t

= 0.4182 psia
P = 0.4187
f. Neraca Panas di Sekitar Coller (Co-05)

T= 424.78 K Tabel 2.12 Neraca Panas di Sekitar Coller (Co-05)


D Cp dT
Q =m CpdT Komponen Masuk, kJ/Jam
1.460E-06 11104.43 639.0646 CH3OH 639.0646
5.35E-07 9607.51 1866.1500 H2 O 1866.1500
1.86E-06 20304.82 1103349.3458 C3H7NO 1103349.3458
1105854.56 Sub total 1105854.5603
Beban Pendingin
T= 305.15 K Total 1105854.5603
D Cp dT
Q =m CpdT
1.460E-06 573.61 33.01
5.35E-07 539.65 104.82
1.86E-06 1077.61 58556.45
58694.28

fraksi
0.0011
0.0036
0.9954
1.0000

F
F
T 1+ T 2
= 197.27 o
F
2
91.82

Tc , kg/m3 .x (lb/f3)
512.58 644.7234 0.0424
437.65 274.0000 0.0608
433.25 230.1300 14.2939
14.3971

fraksi umpan , Cp x
0.0011 0.1436 0.0002
0.0036 0.1804 0.0006
0.9954 0.2779 0.2766
1.0000 0.2774

, Cp
0.7409
, kg/m3 .x (lb/f3)
1018.7323 63.5689

f2

19 1/4 in
4.8125 in = 0.4010 f
Triangular pitch

FLUIDA PANAS (TUBE)


Jenis Fluida = Heavy Organic
Letak = Tube

Menghitung Flow Area (ap)


a't = 0.594 in2

at = Number of Tubes x Flow Area per Tube


Number of Passes
at = (Nt . a't) / (144 . n)
at = 0.6103
(Pers. 7.48)
Menghitung Kecepatan Massa (Gt)
Gt = w / at
Gt = 14366.1668 lb/jam.f2

Tavg = 91.8153 o
C = 197.2675

= 0.2774 Cp o
F
= 0.6713 lb/f jam

D = ID tube
D = 0.8700 in
= 0.0725 f

Menghitung Bilangan Reynold (Re)

D .G
Re=
Re =

t 1551.5174
L/D = 275.8621
jH = 20 (Fig. 24, Kern, Hal. 838)
tavg = ta = 197.2675 o
F
k= 0.0480 Btu/jam.f2.(oF/f)(Tabel 4, Kern)
c= 0.4000 (Fig. 2, Kern, Hal. 804)
1/3
c. =
( )
k
2.3375 0.0000

1 /3 0 .14
k c.
hi = jH .
D ( ) ( )
.
k
.
.
hi = 30.9511 Btu/jam f2 oF

hio = hi x ID/OD
hio = 26.9274 Btu/jam f2 oF
FLUIDA PANAS (TUBE)
Ret = 1551.5174

f = 0.00035 (Fig. 26, Kern)


s = 1.42

t = 1

D = 0.0725 f

n = Passes = 2

Pt = f . G2 . L . N = 0.0005
5,22 . 10 . D . s . t
10

psia
r Coller (Co-05)

di Sekitar Coller (Co-05)


Keluar, kJ/Jam
33.0114
104.8200
58556.4457
58694.2770
1047160.2834
1105854.5603
COOLER (CO-04)

Kode : CO-02
Fungsi : mendinginkan produk methanol hasil atas MD-02 menuju T-04
Jenis : Double pipe
NP Total di Sektar Cooler
Masuk
komponen Kmol A B C
C2H4O2 0.0604 42.381 0.57084 -0.0019727
CH3OH 57.4929 40.152 0.31046 -1.029E-03
H2O 0.4951 92.05 -4.00E-02 -2.11E-04
C3H7NO 0.0544 63.727 0.60708 -1.62E-03
Total 58.1028

Keluar
komponen Kmol A B C
C2H4O2 0.0604 42.381 0.57084 -0.0019727
CH3OH 57.4929 40.152 0.31046 -1.029E-03
H2O 0.4951 92.05 -4.00E-02 -2.11E-04
C3H7NO 0.0544 63.727 0.60708 -1.62E-03
Total 58.1028

Beban panas = 155881.1221 kJ/jam


Air pendingin masuk pada T = 29 C dan keluar pada T = 40 C
Tin = 302 K
Tout = 313.15 K
Cp air = 1Kkal/kg.K = 4.184 kJ/kg.K
Maka kebutuhan air pendingin :
Q = m x CpDT
m= Q
Cp.(Tout-Tin)
m= 155881.1221
4.184*(313-302)
= 3386.9529 kg/jam

Komponen kg/jm fraksi BM kmol


C2H4O2 3.6294 0.0020 60.053 0.0604
CH3OH 1842.1872 0.9911 32.042 57.4929
H2O 8.9192 0.0048 18.015 0.4951
C3H7NO 3.9759 0.0021 73.095 0.0544
Total 1858.7117 1.0000 58.1028
Perancangan alat Coooler
Fluida panas :
Suhu masuk : 64.65 C 148.36
Suhu keluar : 32.00 C 89.60
Massa masuk : 1858.7117 kg/jam
: 4097.6890 lb/jam
Fluida dingin :
Kebutuhan air : 3386.9529 kg/jam
: 7466.8275 lb/jam
Beban panas (Q) : 155881.1221 kJ/jam
: 147754.6181 btu/jam
Suhu air masuk : 84.2 F
Suhu air keluar : 104 F

Menentukan spesifikasi Alat


Fluida panas (F) Fluida dingin (F) T, F
148.36 Higher temp 104 44.36
89.60 Lower temp 84.2 5.40

t 2 - t 1
TLMTD = = 18.50 o
F
t 2
ln
( t 1 )
tavg = ta = t 1+ t2
= 94.1 o
F Tav =
2 34.5
Menghitung densitas
Density = A. B (1-T/Tc) ^ n
* Fluida Panas
T = 64.65 oC = 337.80 K
Komponen fraksi A B n
C2H4O2 0.0010 0.34143 0.25838 0.27680
CH3OH 0.9895 0.27197 0.27192 0.23310
H 2O 0.0085 0.27400 0.28571 647.13
C3H7NO 0.0009 0.23013 0.27630 647.00
Total 1.0000

Viskositas :
Log = A + B/T + CT + DT2
T= 337.80 K
Komponen A B C D
C2H4O2 -8.0637 1.01E+03 2.09E-02 -2.30E-05
CH3OH -9.0562 1.25E+03 2.24E-02 -2.35E-05
H 2O -10.2158 1.79E+03 1.77E-02 -1.26E-05
C3H7NO -5.329 8.95E+02 1.06E-02 -1.01E-05
Total

Fluida Dingin T= 307.65 K


Komponen A B C D
H 2O -10.2158 1.79E+03 1.77E-02 -1.26E-05

T = 307.65 K
Komponen A B n Tc
H2O 0.34710 0.27400 0.28571 647.13

Untuk exchanger fluida panas methanol dan water fluida dingin


UD = 250-500 Btu/f2.oF.jam (tabel 8. Kern, 1965 : 840)
diambil harga UD = 260 Btu/f2.oF.jam

A = Q = 155881.1221 = 32.4067
U D T LMTD 4810.1453006937

karena A < 200 f2 maka digunakan jenis Double pipe

Spesifikasi dirancang (reff : Kern hal 103):


a) Annulus : (IPS : 2 in)
OD : 2.38 in ( tabel 11 Kern hal 844)
ID : 2.067 in
b) Inner pipe : (IPS 1 1/4 in)
OD : 1.66 in
ID : 1.38 in
c) Luas penampang: 32.4067 f2
d) Panjang pipa : 20 f

Fluida dingin :water, inner pipe Fluida panas : methanol, anulus


Menghitung flow area Menghitung flow area
D= 1.38 D2 =
12
= 0.1150 f =
ap = 3,14 D2/4 = 0.010382 f2 D1 =
Gp = w/ap = 7466.8275 lb/jam
0.010382 f2 =
= 719234.9432 lb/jam f2
= 0.7409 cP aa =
= 1.7930 lb/f jam =
De =
Reynolds =
DG p = 82712.0184681952 lb/jam.f Ga = w/aa =
Re p =
1.7930 lb/jam.f
= 46131.5564 =
jH = 153 fig.24 (Kern, 1969 : 834) T =
At = 94.10 o
F =
c= 1.0000 Btu/lb.oF (fig.2 Kern, hal 804) =
k= 0.3560 (Tabel 4 Kern) Reynolds
DG p =
1/3 Re p =
c.
( )k
= 1.71

1 /3 0 .14

=
jH =
k c.
hi = jH . .
D k ( )( ) .
.
t =
c=
= 811.8649 Btu/jam f F 2o
k=
hio = hi x ID/OD 1/3
c.
= 674.9238 Btu/jam f2 oF
( )k
=

k c
1

ho= jH
De k ( )( ) 3
w
=

Clean overall coefficient, Uc:

hio .ho
Uc= = 393.9196 Btu/jam f2 oF
hio +ho
Design overall coefficient,Ud :
Dari tabel 11 Kern untuk 1 1/4 in IDS standar pipe = 0,622 f 2/f (eksternal surface per foot length)
Surface actual = 40 x 0.435
= 17.4000
UD = Q =
147754.6181 =
A . T 17.4000 18.5006

UC UD
Dirt factor : Rd = = 0.0029 jam f2F/Btu
UC . UD

946.1274 h outside 674.9238


Uc = 393.9196 Btu/jam f2 oF
UD = 183.5976 Btu/jam f2 oF
Rd = 0.0029 jam f2F/Btu

Pressure drop :
Rep = 46131.5564 De ' =
f = 0,0035 + 0.264 Rep =
46131.5564 0, 42 f = 0,0035 +
(= 0.00640
) 0, 42
s= 1.00000
(
=
)
= 62.5000 lb/f3 s=
=
4 fG 2
a L = 0.7055 f
Pp= 2
4 fG 2a L =
2 g D Pa=
2 g2 D
PP = 0.7055 x 62.5000 V=
144 F1 =
= 0.3062 psi Pa =

=
P = 0.6089
f. Neraca Panas di Sekitar Coller (Co-04)

T= 337.80 K Tabel 2.12 Neraca Panas di Sekitar Coller (Co-02)


D Cp dT
Q =m CpdT komponen Masuk, kJ/Jam Keluar, kJ/Jam
2.8945E-06 4679.33 282.81 C2H4O2 282.8067 49.4836
1.460E-06 3254.98 187138.29 CH3OH 187138.2877 32978.3467
5.35E-07 2994.20 1482.42 H2 O 1482.4157 267.1765
1.86E-06 6089.57 331.23 C3H7NO 331.2338 58.6151
189234.74 Sub total 189234.7439 33353.6218
Beban Pendingin 155881.1221
T= 305.15 K Total 189234.7439 189234.7439
D Cp dT
Q =m CpdT
2.8945E-06 818.76 49.48
1.460E-06 573.61 32978.35
5.35E-07 539.65 267.18
1.86E-06 1077.61 58.62
33353.62

fraksi
0.0010
0.9895
0.0085
0.0009
1.0000
F
F

T 1+ T 2
= 118.98 o
F
2
48.32

Tc , kg/m3 .x (lb/f3)
487.20 905.8056 0.0588
512.58 749.2549 46.2627
437.65 274.0000 0.1457
433.25 230.1300 0.0134
46.4806

fraksi umpan , Cp x
0.0010 0.2332 0.0002
0.9895 0.3402 0.3366
0.0085 0.4350 0.0037
0.0009 0.5463 0.0005
1.0000 0.3411

, Cp
0.7409

, kg/m3 .x (lb/f3)
1018.7323 63.5689

f2

11 Kern hal 844)

panas : methanol, anulus


itung flow area
2.067
12
0.1723 f
1.66
12
0.1383 f

3,14(D22-D12)/4
0.0083 f
(D22-D12)/D1
0.0761 f
4097.6890 lb/jam
0.0083 f2
495539.21 lb/jam f2
118.98 o
F
0.3411 cP
0.8255 lb/jam.f

37734.838 lb/jam.f
0.8255 lb/jam.f
45713.173
150 fig.24 (Kern, 1969 : 834)
130.00 o
F
0.7500 Btu/lb.oF (fig.2 Kern, hal 804)
0.1540 (Tabel 4 Kern) 0.4231

1.14
1 0,14
k c
ho= jH
De k ( )( ) 3
w
946.1274 Btu/jam f2 oF

ernal surface per foot length)

183.5976 Btu/jam f2 oF
0.0339 f
###
0.264
### 0, 42
( 0.00759
)
0.82000 (tabel 6.kern hal 808)
51.2500 lb/f 3

2.0025 f

2.6858 fps
0.3360 f
2.33859 x 51.2500
144.00
0.3027 psi
COOLER (CO-01)

Kode : CO-05
Fungsi : mendinginkan produk dari ACC-01 menuju striper (55-37.47 C)
Jenis : Double pipe
NP Total di Sektar Cooler
Masuk
komponen Kmol A B C
C2H4O2 5.9833 42.381 0.57084 -0.0019727
CH3OH 0.5813 40.152 0.31046 -1.029E-03
C2H7N 0.2077 36.962 0.95817 -3.585E-03
C3H9N 0.2334 47.96 0.7302 -0.0028388
Total 7.0057

Keluar
komponen Kmol A B C
C2H4O2 5.9833 42.381 0.57084 -0.0019727
CH3OH 0.5813 40.152 0.31046 -1.029E-03
C2H7N 0.2077 36.962 0.95817 -3.585E-03
C3H9N 0.2334 47.96 0.7302 -0.0028388
Total 7.0057

Beban panas = 5516.9312 kJ/jam


Air pendingin masuk pada T = 29 C dan keluar pada T = 40 C
Tin = 302 K
Tout = 313.15 K
Cp air = 1Kkal/kg.K = 4.184 kJ/kg.K
Maka kebutuhan air pendingin :
Q = m x CpDT
m= Q
Cp.(Tout-Tin)
m= 5516.9312
4.184*(313-302)
= 119.8707 kg/jam

Komponen kg/jm fraksi BM kmol


C2H4O2 359.3153 0.8958 60.053 5.9833
CH3OH 18.6266 0.0464 32.042 0.5813
C2 H 7 N 9.3633 0.0233 45.084 0.2077
C3 H 9 N 13.7982 0.0344 59.111 0.2334
Total 401.1034 1.0000 7.0057
Perancangan alat Coooler
Fluida panas :
Suhu masuk : 60.34 C 140.61
Suhu keluar : 53.72 C 128.69
Massa masuk : 401.1034 kg/jam
: 884.2668 lb/jam
Fluida dingin :
Kebutuhan air : 119.8707 kg/jam
: 264.2653 lb/jam
Beban panas (Q) : 5516.9312 kJ/jam
: 5229.3186 btu/jam
Suhu air masuk : 84.2 F
Suhu air keluar : 104 F

Menentukan spesifikasi Alat


Fluida panas (F) Fluida dingin (F) T, F
140.61 Higher temp 104 36.61
128.69 Lower temp 84.2 44.49

t 2 - t 1
TLMTD = = 40.42 o
F
t 2
ln
( t 1 )
tavg = ta = t 1+ t2
= 94.1 o
F Tav =
2
Menghitung densitas
Density = A. B (1-T/Tc) ^ n
* Fluida Panas
T = 60.34 oC = 333.49 K
Komponen fraksi A B n
C2H4O2 0.8541 0.34143 0.25838 0.27680
CH3OH 0.0830 0.27197 0.27192 0.23310
C2 H 7 N 0.0296 0.24110 0.26785 0.24800
C3 H 9 N 0.0333 0.23283 0.25703 0.26870
Total 1.0000

Viskositas :
Log = A + B/T + CT + DT2
T= 333.49 K
Komponen A B C D
C2H4O2 -8.0637 1.01E+03 2.09E-02 -2.30E-05
CH3OH -9.0562 1.25E+03 2.24E-02 -2.35E-05
C2 H 7 N -11.5558 1.21E+03 3.50E-02 -4.13E-05
C3 H 9 N -3.9726 4.42E+02 1.07E-02 -1.61E-05
Total

Fluida Dingin T= 307.65 K


Komponen A B C D
H 2O -10.2158 1.79E+03 1.77E-02 -1.26E-05

T = 307.65 K
Komponen A B n Tc
H2O 0.34710 0.27400 0.28571 647.13

Untuk exchanger fluida panas light organic dan water fluida dingin
UD =6-60 Btu/f2.oF.jam (tabel 8. Kern, 1965 : 840)
diambil harga UD = 10 Btu/f2.oF.jam

A = Q = 5516.9312 = 13.6485
U D T LMTD 404.2149762221

karena A < 200 f2 maka digunakan jenis Double pipe

Spesifikasi dirancang (reff : Kern hal 103):


a) Annulus : (IPS : 2 in)
OD : 2.38 in ( tabel 11 Kern hal 844)
ID : 2.067 in
b) Inner pipe : (IPS 1 1/4 in)
OD : 1.66 in
ID : 1.38 in
c) Luas penampang: 13.6485 f2
d) Panjang pipa : 12 f

Fluida dingin :water, inner pipe Fluida panas : Heavy organic, anulus
Menghitung flow area Menghitung flow area
D= 1.38 D2 =
12
= 0.1150 f =
ap = 3,14 D2/4 = 0.010382 f2 D1 =
Gp = w/ap = 264.2653 lb/jam
0.010382 f2 =
= 25455.1008 lb/jam f2
= 0.7409 cP aa =
= 1.7930 lb/f jam =
De =
Reynolds =
DG p = 2927.336588083 lb/jam.f Ga = w/aa =
Re p =
1.7930 lb/jam.f
= 1632.6840 =
jH = 15 fig.24 (Kern, 1969 : 834) T =
At = 94.10 o
F =
c= 1.0000 Btu/lb.oF (fig.2 Kern, hal 804) =
k= 0.3560 (Tabel 4 Kern) Reynolds
DG p =
1/3 Re p =
c.
( )k
= 1.71

1 /3 0 .14

=
jH =
k c.
hi = jH . .
D k ( )( ) .
.
t =
c=
= 17.3956 Btu/jam f F 2o
0.2185527696 k=
hio = hi x ID/OD 1/3
c.
= 14.4614 Btu/jam f2 oF
( )k
k c
=
1

ho= jH
De k ( )( 3

=

Clean overall coefficient, Uc:

hio .ho
Uc= = 13.6068 Btu/jam f2 oF
hio +ho
Design overall coefficient,Ud :
Dari tabel 11 Kern untuk 1 1/4 in IDS standar pipe = 0,435 f 2/f (eksternal surface per foot length)
Surface actual = 24 x 0.435
= 10.4400
UD = Q =
5516.9312 =
A . T 10.4400 40.4215

UC UD
Dirt factor : Rd = = 0.0030 jam f2F/Btu
UC . UD

230.2402 h outside 14.4614


Uc = 13.6068 Btu/jam f2 oF
UD = 13.0733 Btu/jam f2 oF
Rd = 0.0030 jam f2F/Btu

Pressure drop :
Rep = 1632.6840 De ' =
f = 0,0035 + 0.264 Rep =
1632.6840 0, 42 f = 0,0035 +
(= 0.01531
) 0, 42
s= 1.00000
(
=
)
= 62.5000 lb/f3 s=
=
4 fG 2
a L = 0.0013 f
Pp= 2
4 fG 2a L =
2 g D Pa=
2 g2 D
PP = 0.0013 x 62.5000 V=
144 F1 =
= 0.0006 psi Pa =

P = 0.0222
f. Neraca Panas di Sekitar Coller (Co-02)

T= 333.49 K Tabel 2.12 Neraca Panas di Sekitar Coller (Co-02)


D Cp dT
Q =m CpdT komponen Masuk, kJ/Jam
2.8945E-06 4157.34 24874.64 C2H4O2 24874.6389
1.460E-06 2894.82 1682.81 CH3OH 1682.8079
5.399E-06 5402.88 1122.10 C2H7N 1122.1020
4.6585E-06 5050.31 1178.88 C3H9N 1178.8835
28858.43 Sub total 28858.4323
Beban Pendingin
T= 326.87 K Total 28858.4323
D Cp dT
Q =m CpdT
2.8945E-06 3362.80 20120.64
1.460E-06 2345.11 1363.26
5.399E-06 4364.02 906.35
4.6585E-06 4075.16 951.26
23341.50

fraksi
0.8541
0.0830
0.0296
0.0333
1.0000
F
F

T 1+ T 2
= 134.65 o
F
2

Tc , kg/m3 .x (lb/f3)
487.20 912.8126 48.6467
512.58 753.5882 3.9019
437.65 606.6586 1.1222
433.25 581.6777 1.2094
54.8803

fraksi umpan , Cp x
0.8541 0.2415 0.2063
0.0830 0.3559 0.0295
0.0296 0.1459 0.0043
0.0333 0.1297 0.0043
1.0000 0.2445

, Cp
0.7409

, kg/m3 .x (lb/f3)
1018.7323 63.5689

f2

11 Kern hal 844)

panas : Heavy organic, anulus


itung flow area
2.067
12
0.1723 f
1.66
12
0.1383 f

3,14(D22-D12)/4
0.0083 f
(D22-D12)/D1
0.0761 f
884.2668 lb/jam
0.0083 f2
106935.6073 lb/jam f2
134.65 o
F
0.2445 cP
0.5916 lb/jam.f

8143.0444992 lb/jam.f
0.5916 lb/jam.f
13764.790806
55 fig.24 (Kern, 1969 : 834)
134.65 o
F
1.0000 Btu/lb.oF (fig.2 Kern, hal 804)
0.2340 (Tabel 4 Kern)

1.36
1 0, 14
k c
ho= jH
De k ( )( ) 3
w
230.2402 Btu/jam f2 oF

ernal surface per foot length)

13.0733 Btu/jam f2 oF
0.0339 f
6130.8164
0.264
6130.8164 0, 42
( 0.01027
)
1.23000 (tabel 6.kern hal 808)
76.8750 lb/f 3

0.0337 f

0.3864 fps
0.0070 f
0.04061 x 76.8750
144.00
0.0217 psi
Coller (Co-02)

di Sekitar Coller (Co-02)


Keluar, kJ/Jam
20120.64
1363.26
906.35
951.26
23341.50
5516.9312
28858.4323
POMPA-05

Fungsi : Mengalirkan bahan baku methylformate dari mixer ke Reaktor

komponen kg %berat BM kmol


C2H4O2 3629.4479 0.9681 60.053 60.4374
CH3OH 119.7758 0.0319 32.042 3.7381
3749.2237 1.0000 64.1755

Desitas
Density = A. B (1-T/Tc) ^ n T = 329.1807
= 56.0307
komponen %mol A B n
C2H4O2 0.9418 0.34143 0.25838 0.27680
CH3OH 0.0582 0.27197 0.27192 0.23310
Total 1.0000

Viskositas :
T= 329.1807 K
Log = A + B/T + CT + DT2
komponen A B C D
C2H4O2 -8.0637 1.01E+03 2.09E-02 -2.30E-05
CH3OH -9.0562 1.25E+03 2.24E-02 -2.35E-05
Total
Diperoleh :
Densitas = 58.4214 kg/m3
= 3.6470 lb/f3
Viskositas = 0.2574 cP
= 0.0002 lb/f dt

* Menentukan kapasitas pompa : Kapasitas


Qf
Waktu dtk

Kapasitas = 64.1755 m3/jam


Qf = 0.6295 f3/s
= 64.1756 m3/jam
= 235.2676 gpm
= 0.0178 m3/s
Diambil :
Over Design = 20.00%
Faktor Keamanan = 20.00%
Sehingga kapasitas pompa = 0.9065 f3/s
= 146.8236 m3/jam
= 338.7854 gpm
= 895.3968 m3/s
* Menghitung diameter optimum pipa :

Diopt 3,9.Qf 0,45 0,13



Keterangan :
Diopt = Diameter dalam optimum, in
Qf = laju alir volumetrik, f 3/s
= densitas cairan (lb/f3)
Dopt = 4.4151 in
Digunakan pipa standart :
D nominal = 6 in
ID = 6.065 in =
OD = 6.625 in =
Schedule = 40
Flow area perpipe = 12.7 in2 =

* Menghitung kecepatan linier fluida (v) :


Dimana :
Q
v Q = laju alir volumetric, f3/s
A
A = luas penampang, f2
v= 10.2779 f/s
= 3.1327 m/s

* Menghitung bilangan Reynold :


Dimana :
D.v. = densitas cairan (lb/f3)
N Re
D = OD, ( f )
v = kecepatan linier (f/s)
= viskositas (lb/f.s)
Nre = 0.5521 f x 10.2779 f/s x
0.0002 lb/f s
NRe = 119626.4546 (Nre > 2100 jadi aliran Turbulent)

* Neraca tenaga :
Tenaga mekanis teoritik dihitung dengan persamaan Bernaulli
v 2 z.g P
.F Wf
2..g C gC

Dimana :
Dv = beda kecepatan linier fluida
a = Faktor koreksi terhadap tenaga kinetis, s2/lb
gc = faktor koreksi = 32,174 lb f / lbf.s2
Dz = beda elevasi
g = Konstanta kecepatan gravitasi, m/s2
= densitas fluida, lb/f3
SF = total friksi pada sistem pemipaan
.-Wf = Total head
v2
* Menghitung velocity head : Velocity head
2 .g C
Diketahui : g = 9.807
Kecepatan fluida di ujung pipa pemasukan Reaktor V=
Velocity Head V2 / 2g =
=
zg
* Menghitung static head : Static head
gC
Tinggi Fluida dalam Mixer z1 = 5.8885
Tinggi pipa pemasukan di Reaktor z2 = 14.3026
= 4.3594
z = z2 - z1 = 8.4140
= 2.5646
* Menghitung pressure head :
Tekanan dalam Mixer P1 = 2.2121
Tekanan dalam Reaktor P2 = 3.4000
P HE-02 = 0.0293
= 0.0020
Pressure Head P / g = 1.1899

* Menghitung Friction head :


Nre = 119626.4546
D= 6 in
Diperoleh :
/D 0.00025 Grafik.126 Brown hal. 141 (untuk pipa commercial stee

f= 0.015 Grafik.125 Brown hal. 140

* Menghitung panjang ekivalen


Le/D
Komponen Jumlah f m
Pipa Lurus Horizontal 1 22.9659 7.0000
Vertikal 1 14.3026 4.3594
Fitting Standar Elbow 90 3 35 10.6680
Check Valve 1 40 12.1920
Gate Valve 1 3.5 1.0668
Total
Dari Grafik. 127, Brown, 1950 : 141

Panjang Ekivalen Pipa : L + Le = 57.1222 m


= 187.4089 f
f * ( L Le ) *V 2
F 2 * g * ID

Dimana:
f= Faktor friksi = 0.015
V= Kecepatan linier fluida = 10.2779 f/s
Le = Panjang ekuivalen = 187.4089 f
gc = Faktor konversi = 32,174 lb f / lbf.s2
D= Diameter dalam pipa = 0.5054 f
F = 0.0091 f.lbf/lbm
= 0.0028 m
* Menghitung Total Head :

P V 2
( Ws ) z F
*g 2*g

Velocity head zg / g c 0.5003 m

Static head V2 / 2 g c = 2.5646 m

Pressure head P/g = 1.1899 m

Friction head :
f * (L+Le) * V2 / 2 * g * ID = 0.0028 m

- Ws = 4.2576 m
= 13.9687 f
Q= 146.8236 m3/jam
Total Head = 4.3 m

Diperoleh jenis pompa: Centrifugal Single Stage

* Menghitung pompa teoritis :


Tenaga Pompa dapat dicari dengan persamaan : Q. Wf .
BHP teoritis
550
Diketahui :
Q= 0.9065 f3/s
- Ws = 13.9687 f
= 3.6470 lb/f3
Sehingga,
BHP teoritis = 0.0840 Hp

* Menghitung Tenaga Pompa Actual :


BHP teoritis = 0.0840 Hp
Kapasitas Pompa = 146.8236 m3/jam
efisiensi centrifugal pump () = 70.00%
BHP actual = BHP teoritis/
= 0.1200 Hp

* Menghitung Power Motor :


BHP actual = 0.1200 Hp
m= 80.00%

BHP pompa
Power motor
m
Power Motor = 0.1499 Hp
= 111.8123 watt
Standar NEMA = 1/2 Hp

* Menghitung Specific Pump Speed :


N * Q 0 .5
Ns Pers 5.1, Coulson, Halaman 182
( h ) 0 . 75
N= 3500 rpm
Q= 338.7854 gal/min
h= 13.9687 f
Ns = 8915.8839 rpm
Menurut Coulson and Richardson (halaman 183), impeller pompa dapat dipilih berdasarkan Specific Speed-
1. Ns = 400 - 1000, pilih Radial Flow Impellers
2. Ns = 1000 - 7000, pilih Mixed Flow Impellers
3. Ns > 7000, pilih Axial Flow Impellers
Sehingga, untuk pompa dengan Ns = 8915.8839 rpm, digunakan pompa jenis:

Spesifikasi Pompa
Jenis Centrifugal Single Stage
Impeller Axial Flow Impellers
Driver Motor Elektrik 1/2 Hp
%mol
0.9418
0.0582
1.0000

K
C
Tc , kg/m3 BM .x BM .x
487.20 919.7323 60.053 56.5550 56.5550
512.58 757.8672 32.042 1.8664 1.8664
58.4214 58.4214

, Cp x
0.2503 0.2357
0.3727 0.0217
0.2574
(Peters, 2003 : hal 496-497)

(Tabel 11 Kern, hal. 844)

0.5054 f
0.5521 f

0.0882 f2

3.6470 lb/f3

(Peters, hal 486)


m/dtk
3.1327 m/s
0.5003 m
1.6415 f

f
f
m
f
m

atm
atm
psia
atm
atm

(untuk pipa commercial steel )

L atau Le
m
7.0000
4.8594
32.0040
12.1920
1.0668
57.1222
rafik. 127, Brown, 1950 : 141

(Pers. 63 Brown, Halaman 136)

Wf .
550
(Grafik 12-17 Peters hal. 516)

(Grafik 12-18 Peters hal. 516)

Grafik 5.6 Coulson hal. 182

berdasarkan Specific Speed-nya, jika:

Axial Flow Impellers


EXPANSION VALVE (EV-03)

Tugas : Menurunkan tekanan campuran keluar ACC-01 ke striper


dari 2.7 atm menjadi 1.5 atm.
Type : gobe valve
Bahan Konstruksi : Carbon Stell

Massa masuk :
komponen kg/jam fraksi BM kmol/jam fraksi
C2H4O2 359.3153 0.8958 60.053 5.9833 0.8541
CH3OH 18.6266 0.0464 32.042 0.5813 0.0830
C2H7N 9.3633 0.0233 45.084 0.2077 0.0296
C3H9N 13.7982 0.0344 59.111 0.2334 0.0333
Total 401.1034 1.0000 7.0057 1.0000

Menghitung viskositas
Log = A + B/T + CT + DT2 T = 333.5 K
komponen A B C D , cp
C2H4O2 -8.0637 1.01E+03 2.09E-02 -2.30E-05 0.2415
CH3OH -9.0562 1.25E+03 2.24E-02 -2.35E-05 0.3559
C2H7N -11.5558 1.21E+03 3.50E-02 -4.13E-05 0.1459
C3H9N -3.9726 4.42E+02 1.07E-02 -1.61E-05 0.1297
Total

Menghitung densitas
Density = A. B (1-T/Tc) ^ n T = 333.5 K
komponen A B n Tc (kg/m3)
C2H4O2 0.34143 0.25838 0.27680 487.20 912.8126
CH3OH 0.27197 0.27192 0.23310 512.58 753.5882
C2H7N 0.24110 0.26785 0.24800 437.65 606.6586
C3H9N 0.23283 0.25703 0.26870 433.25 581.6777
Total

Kapasitas = 401.1034 kg/jam


= 0.1114 kg/dtk
= 884.2806 lb/jam
Densitas = 879.4913 kg/m3
= 54.9049 lb/f3
Viskositas, = 0.2445 cp
2.4446E-04 kg/m.dtk
0.5916 lb/f.jam
1.6433E-04 lb/f.dtk
Pin = 3.4000 atm
= 49.9800 psia
P out = 2.7000 atm
= 39.6900 psia
gravitasi, gc = 32.2 f/dtk
T in = 60.3383 C
= 333.3383 K
= 140.6089 F

Design
a. Laju Alir Volumentrik

m
Qv=

Qv = 0.4561 m3/jam
= 16.1057 f3/jam
= 456.0630 ltr/jam
= 0.1463 f3/dtk
= 0.2684 f3/mnt
b. Menentukan Jenis Aliran
Asumsi bahwa aliran turbulen

0. 45 0 .13
Di opt =3 . 9 . Q .
Diopt = 2.7642287776 in = 0.2303500578
Dari tabel 11 Kern, 844 didapat
Pipa standart dengan spesifikasi
NPS = 3 in OD =
Sch N = 40 A' t =
=
c. Kecepatan Linear Cairan

Q
V=
A' t
V = 2.8544 f/dtk
d. Cek aliran

D. V .
Reynold Number NR E =

NRE = 219,681.7375
Jadi jenis aliran turbulen karena NR E > 2100
/D = 0.0006 (Fig. 126, Brown, 1950)
faktor friksi = 0.0320 (Fig. 125, Brown, 1950)
Proses :
1. Tidak ada perubahan kimia.
2. Tidak ada kerja yang diberikan (W = 0).

2
v dv fv dL
V dP+ + (Pers. 72, Brown, 1950)
gc 2gcD
Lost work, lw (F) :

( P1 P2 ) 144
Lw ( F )=

Lw = 26.9877616132 f

P*2gcD (Pers. 72, Brown, 1950)


L=
fv2
L = 39.8293863563 f = 12.1399969614 m
, x
0.20627
0.02953
0.00433
0.00432
0.24446

.x, kg/m3
779.5948
62.5308
17.9845
19.3813
879.4913
f

3.5
7.38 in2
0.0512548547 f2
. 126, Brown, 1950)
. 125, Brown, 1950)

rs. 72, Brown, 1950)


MIXER-01

Fungsi : Tempat pencampuran dari arus-arus recycle dan dari tangki penyimpanan bahan baku.

Kondisi operasi :
Suhu : 56.0307 C = 329.1807 K
Tekanan : 2.2121 atm = 1,681.1707 mmHg

*) Dipilih bentuk silinder tegak


*) Memilih bahan konstruksi
Dalam perancangan ini dipilih bahan konstruksi carbon steel
Pertimbangan :
- Bahan tahan korosi
- Bahan tahan terhadap perubahan tekanan dan suhu

* Menghitung Densitas
Density = A. B (1-T/Tc) ^ n T= 329.1807 K
komponen A B n Tc , kg/m3
C2H4O2 0.34143 0.25838 0.27680 487.20 919.7323
CH3OH 0.27197 0.27192 0.23310 512.58 757.8672

Log = A + B/T + CT + DT2 T= 329.1807 K


komponen A B C D , Cp
C2H4O2 -8.0637 1.01E+03 2.09E-02 -2.30E-05 2.47E-01
CH3OH -9.0562 1.25E+03 2.24E-02 -2.35E-05 3.70E-01

Umpan Masuk
Arus 1
komponen kg %berat BM kmol %mol
C2H4O2 3270.4918 0.9700 60.053 54.3404 0.9451
CH3OH 101.1492 0.0300 32.042 3.1568 0.0549
3371.6410 1.0000 57.4972 1.0000

Arus 9
bawah :
komponen kg %berat BM kmol %mol
C2H4O2 358.9561 0.9507 60.053 5.9773 0.9114
CH3OH 18.6266 0.0493 32.042 0.5813 0.0886
377.5827 1.0000 6.5586 1.0000

Arus Keluar
Arus 3
komponen kg %berat BM kmol %mol
C2H4O2 3629.4479 0.9681 60.053 60.4374 0.9418
CH3OH 119.7758 0.0319 32.042 3.7381 0.0582
3749.2237 1.0000 64.1755 1.0000

komponen kg %berat (kg/m3) .x , Cp .x


C2H4O2 3629.4479 0.9681 919.7323 890.3498 2.47E-01 2.39E-01
CH3OH 119.7758 0.0319 757.8672 24.2115 3.70E-01 1.18E-02
3749.2237 1.0000 1677.5995 914.5612 2.51E-01

cairan = 914.5612 kg/m3


Laju Alir Volumetrik (Fv) = 4.1042 m3/jam

1) Menghitung volume tangki :


Dirancang waktu tinggal = 15 menit = 0.25 jam
VL = Fv x waktu tinggal
= 1.0261 m3
Over design 20 % = 1,2 x 1.0261
= 1.2313 m 3

= 43.4772 f3 < 71534 f3 small close vessel


= 325.2526 gal

2) Perhitungan Dimensi Mixer


Perbandingan antara diameter dan tinggi mixer yang optimum = 1 : 1 (D:H=1:1) (brownell, 1959, hal 43)
Jenis: silinder tegak dengan alas dan tutup berbentuk torispherical (cocok untuk P operasi 15-200 psig)

2
xD xD= xD 3
4 4
Volume shell =

D=
=

3 4xVshell

1.1619 m
= 45.7433 in
digunakan Diameter standar :
= 48 in
= 1.219 m
= 4.000 f

Dimana :
Ds = diameter shell, in
Vdish = volume, f3
sf = 2
Vsf = 2 sf
D
4 144
2 sf
D
4 144

Vhead = 2x (Vdish + Vsf)


4
D 2 sf
= 2x(0,000049xD3 + )
144
= 0.0353 f3
= 0.0010 m3
Vmixer = Vshell + Vhead
= 1.2313 + 0.0010
= 1.2323 m3

Dengan spesifikasi mixer sebagai berikut :


Diameter shell : 1.2192 m
Tinggi shell : 1.2192 m
Volume shell : 1.2313 m3
Volume head : 0.0010 m3
Volume mixer : 1.2323 m3
Volume cairan dalam shell
Volume bottom = 0,5 x Volume head
= 0.0005 m3
= 1.2308 m3

Tinggi cairan dalam shell :

4.V
h=
. D2
= 1.0548 m
= 3.4605 f

3) Menentukan tebal shell (ts)


Dirancang menggunakan Stainless steel SA-167 304
P.r
ts= +C
( f . E0,6 . P) (Pers. 13.1, Brownell & young, 1959; hal 254)
Dalam hubungan ini :
ts = tebal shell, in
r = Jari-jari
= .Diameter mixer
= 0,5 x 48.0000 in = 24.0000 in
E = effisiensi penggelasan = 0.85
C = faktor korosi = 0.125
f = tegangan yang diijinkan
f = 14507.7720
Menghitung tekanan:
P hidrostatis = tinggi cairan .mix = 964.6528 kg/m2 = 1.3692 psia
Popras = 32.5 psia
Poperasi = Preaksi + Phidrostatis = 33.8866 psia
Pdesain = 1.1* P operasi = 37.2752 psia
P = tekanan dalam mixer = 37.2752 psia
Sehingga :

ts = 0.1977 in
digunakan tebal standar 1/4 in = 1/4 in

4) Menentukan tebal head (th) dan tebal bottom


Direncanakan bentuk head torisperical, bahan steinless stell SA-167 340
OD = ID + 2ts = 48.5000 in
Dari tabel 5-7 Brownell, hal 91
untuk OD = 54 in
ts = 0.2500 in
icr = 3.25 in
r= 54 in

w= 1
4 ( )
3+
r
icr
= 1.7690 in

Sehingga: P.r .W
th = +C
2. f . E0,2.P (Pers. 7.77, Brownell & young, 1959; hal 138)

th = 0.2694 in digunakan tebal standar5/16 in


th = 5/16

5) Menentukan tinggi mixer total


untuk th =5/16 in pada tabel 5.6 Brownell & young, hal 88 diperoleh sf = 1 1/2 - 3, Diambil sf = 2

OD keterangan :
ID = diameter dalam head
OD = diameter luar head
icr b
t = tebal head
OA

B A
r = jari-jari dish
r
sf

icr = jari-jari dalam sudut dish


ID t b = tinggi head
a
sf = straight flange

C
ID = OD standart - (2*ts)
ID
a=
2
ID (jari-jari dalam shell)
a=
2
= 26.75 in
ID
AB = icr
2
= 23.500 in
BC = r irc
= 50.750 in
AC = (BC - AB )
2 2 1/2

= 44.9812 in
b= r AC (tinggi head)
= 9.0188 in
tinggi head total (OA) = sf + b + th
= 11.3313 in
= 0.2878 m
tinggi mixer total = 2 x tinggi head total+ tinggi shell
= 0.5756 + 1.2192
= 1.7948 m
= 5.88854 f
6) menentukan jumlah dan jenis pengaduk
Jenis pengaduk dipilih turbin dengan 6 blade disk standar
Dari tabel 8.3 Rase, 1977 :
Sistem : dissolution : Turbine (max : 10.000 gal)
Propeller (max : 2500 gal ( 9.5 m3))
Paddle (max : 10.000 gal)
Dipilih : Turbin, karena : - Hp turbin tidak dipengaruhi Viskositas diatas reynold 500-1000
- Percampuran sangat baik, bahkan dalam skala mikro
Dari McCabe L Warren,1999; jilid 1 hal 235 :
Perbandingan ukuran, umumnya: Di/DR = 1/3 L = Di/4
E/Di = 1 B = Di/12
W = Di /5

B Diameter mixer (DR) = 1.2192


Diameter pengaduk (Di) = 0.4064
Pengaduk dari dasar (E) = 0.4064
Tinggi Pengaduk (W) = 0.0813
H L DI Lebar pengaduk (L) = 0.1016
Lebar baffle (B) = 0.0339
W
E

DR
Menghitung jumlah impeler (pengaduk):
Dimana WELH adalah Water Equivalen Liquid High
WELH = tinggi bahan x sg

= tinggi bahan x cairan
air
sg = 0.9210
= 1.0548 m x 0.9210

= 0.9715 m

impeller = WELH
D
= 0.9715
1.2192
= 0.7968
Putaran pengaduk :
2
WELH . DI . N
=
2. DI 600 ( ) (Rase, 1977, hal. 345)

N=
N=
600
.
WELH
.DI/0,304 8 2.DI
156.6786 rpm
= 2.6113 rps

Menentukan Power Pompa :


P = n3 . KT . Di5 . (Mc Cabe and Smith, 1985)

KT = konstanta, untuk 6 blade turbin = 6.30000

P= 1,137.3569 W
P= 1.13736 kW
Dipilih effisiensi motor 80%
P= 0.14217 kW
P= 0.19999 Hp
P= 0.50000 Hp
Fv = m/
3.9462003
0.1580433
4.1042436

small close vessel


Neraca Panas

Menghitung panas bahan baku (Qf) pada T = 32 C


= 305.15 K
T ref = 25 C
= 298.15 K

Arus 1
komponen kg %berat BM kmol %mol
C2H4O2 3270.4918 0.9700 60.053 54.3404 0.9451
CH3OH 101.1492 0.0300 32.042 3.1568 0.0549
total 3371.6410 1.0000 57.4972 1.0000

CpdT = A (T -298) + B/2 (T2-2982) + C/3 (T3 - 2983) + D/4 (T4 - 2984)
komponen A B C D
C2H4O2 42.381 0.57084 -0.0019727 2.8945E-06
CH3OH 40.152 0.31046 -1.029E-03 1.460E-06
C2 H 7 N 36.962 0.95817 -3.585E-03 5.399E-06
C3 H 9 N 47.96 0.7302 -0.0028388 4.6585E-06
H 2O 92.05 -4.00E-02 -2.11E-04 5.35E-07
C3H7NO 63.727 0.60708 -1.62E-03 1.86E-06

Panas Masuk (Qf) : T =


komponen kmol A B C D Cp dT
C2H4O2 54.3404 42.381 0.57084 -0.0019727 2.8945E-06 8.188E+02
CH3OH 3.1568 40.152 0.31046 -1.029E-03 1.460E-06 573.6074
total 57.4972

Menghitung panas recycle (Qrc) pada T = 330.03 K


56.88 C
komponen kmol A B C D Cp dT
C2H4O2 5.9773 42.381 0.57084 -0.0019727 2.8945E-06 2212.2348534
CH3OH 0.5813 40.152 0.31046 -1.029E-03 1.460E-06 1.810E+03
total 6.5586

Menghitung panas di Mixer :

Neraca panas mixer ln Pi = A -B/(C+T), mmHg


komponen Qf Qrc komponen A B
C2H4O2 4.449E+04 13223.2401 CH3OH 18.5875 3626.55
CH3OH 1.811E+03 1051.95658 H 2O 18.3036 3816.44
total 60577.5733 C2 H 7 N 16.2653 2358.77
C3 H 9 N 16.0499 2230.51
C2H4O2 16.5104 2590.87
Menghitung suhu Mixer C3H7NO 15.770 3147.7

T trial = 329.1807 K
= 56.0307 C

komponen kmol A B C D Cp dT
C2H4O2 60.4374 42.381 0.57084 -0.0019727 2.8945E-06 2109.8808008
CH3OH 3.7381 40.152 0.31046 -1.029E-03 1.460E-06 1.739E+03
total 64.1755

T = 329.1807 K
56.0307 C

komponen %mol A B C Ln P P
C2H4O2 0.9405 16.5104 2590.87 -42.6 7.4698 1754.2035
CH3OH 0.0582 18.5875 3626.55 -34.29 6.2896 538.9127
Total 1.0000

P = 1681.1707 mmHg
2.2121 atm
305.15
Q =m CpdT
4.449E+04
1.811E+03
4.630E+04

Q =m CpdT
13223.2400584515
1051.9565786321
14275.1966370836

C
-34.29
-46.13
-35.13
-39.15
-42.6
-81.342

Q =m CpdT
127515.735231758
6499.6886264758
134,015.4239

Pi.xi
1649.8220
31.3487
1681.1707