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PRESENTASI ENERGETIKA I

Alvin Ariesta Ishak Firdausi Kadek Andhika Maharani Ewina Priyanka Julianandi Rahma Widya Suanto Syahputra

DEPARTEMEN KIMIA FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA 2011

1.3. A perfect gas undergoes isothermal compression, which reduces its volume by 2.20 L. The final pressure and volume of the gas are 3.78 x 103 Torr and 4.65 L respectively. Calculate original pressure of the gas in (a) Torr, (b) atm Diketahui : Pf = 3.78 103 Torr Vf = 4.65 L V = 2.20 L (reduce) Ditanya : Pi dalam (a) Torr, (b) atm Jawab : a. b. Vi V = Vf Vi = Vf + V = 4.65 L + 2.20 L = 6.85 L Pi Vi=Pf Vf Pi=Pf VfVi Pi=3.78 103 Torr 4.65 L6.85 L Pi=2.57 103 Torr c. Pi= 2.57 103 Torr760 Torr x 1 atm Pi=3.38 atm

1.10. Given that the density of air at 740 Torr and 27C is 1.146 g L-1, calculate the mole fraction and partial pressure of nitrogen and oxygen assuming that (a) air consists only of these two gases, (b) air also contains 1.0 mole per cent Ar. Diketahui : Udara P = 740 Torr = 740760atm = 0.9737 atm T = 27C = 1.146 g L-1 Ditanya : XN2, XO2, PN2, PO2 jika : (a) Udara hanya terdiri dari oksigen dan nitrogen (b) Udara juga mengandung 1.0 mol per sen Ar. Jawab : (a)Udara hanya terdiri dari oksigen dan nitrogen

misal : Volume Udara adalah 1 L maka massa (w) udara adalah : w=V w=1.146 g L-1 1 L w=1.146 g PV=nRT 0.9737 atm 1L=n 0.082 L atm mol-1K-1 300 K n=0.9737 atm 1L 0.082 L atm mol-1K-1 300 K n udara=0.03958 mol Karena udara hanya terdiri dari oksigen dan nitrogen, maka dapat dimisalkan: w N2=x g dan w O2=(1.146-x)g, serta: n N2+n O2=n udara x g28.02 g/mol+ 1.146-x g32 g/mol=0.03958 mol 32x-28.02x+32.111896 mol=0.03958 mol 4.02x+32.111=35.464 x=0.8383 g Massa N2=0.8383 g Massa O2= 0.3077 g mol N2= 0.8383 g28.02 g/mol=0.0299 mol mol O2= 0.3077 g32.00gmol=0.0096 mol

Fraksi mol N2(XN2)= mol N2 mol udara= 0.0299 mol0.03958 mol=0.7544 Fraksi mol O2XO2=1-XN2=1-0.7544=0.2456 P N2=XN2P=0.7544 0.9737 atm P N2=0.7346 atm PO2=XO2P PO2=0.2456 0.9737 atm=0.2391 atm (b)Udara juga mengandung 1.0 mol per sen Ar n udara=0.03958 mol XAr=0.01 nAr=XArnudara nAr=0.01 0.03958 mol

nAr=0.0003958 mol wAr= 0.0003958 mol 39.95gmol=0.0158 g Maka, massa udara yang mengandung oksigen dan nitrogen adalah : 1.146 g 0.0158 g = 1.1302 g Maka dapat dimisalkan : wN2=x g dan wO2=1.1302-x g nN2+nO2+nAr=nudara x g28.02gmol+1.1302-x32.00gmol+0.0003958 mol=0.03958 mol 32x-28.02x+31.668896mol=0.0391842 mol 4.02x+31.668=35.109 x=0.856 g Maka, wN2=0.856 g nN2=0.856 g28.02g/mol=0.03055 mol nO2=0.2742 g32.00gmol=0.0086 mol

wO2=1.1302-0.856=0.2742 g

XN2=0.03055 mol0.03958 mol=0.7719 XO2= 0.0086 mol0.03958 mol=0.2173 PN2=XN2P PN2=0.7719 0.9737 atm=0.7516 atm PO2=XO2P PO2=0.2173 0.9737 atm=0.2116 atm PAr=XArP PAr=0.01 0.9737 atm=0.009737 atm 1.21. Estimate the critical constants of a gas with van der Waals parameters a=0.751 atm L2mol-2 and b=0.0026 L mol-1 Diketahui : gas mengikuti persamaan van der Waals a=0.751 atm L2mol-2 b=0.0026 L mol-1 Ditanya : konstanta kritis dari gas tersebut pc, Vc,Tc Jawab :

pc= a27b2 pc= 0.751 atm L2 mol-227 (0.0026 L mol-1)2 pc= 10.70 atm Tc= 8a27bR Tc= 8 0.751 L atm2 mol-227 0.0026 L mol-1 (0.082 L atm mol-1K1) Tc=0.035 K

Vc=3b=3 (0.0026 L mol-1) Vc =0.0078 L mol-1

1.26. A vessel of volume 22.4 L contains 2.0 mol H2 and 1.0 mol N2 at 273.15 K. Calculate (a) the mole fractions of each component, (b) their partial pressures, and (c) their total presure Diketahui: V = 22.4 L T = 273.15 K nN2= 1.0 mol nH2= 2.0 mol Ditanya : a) Fraksi mol tiap komponen b) Tekanan Parsial tiap komponen c) Tekanan total Jawab : nt= nH2+ nN2

nt= 2.0 mol + 1.0 mol = 3.0 mol a) b) XN2=nN2nt XN2= 1.0 mol3.0 mol XN2=0.33 c) XH2=nH2nt XH2= 2.0 mol3.0 mol

XH2=0.67 PV = nRT P=nt RTV

P= 3 mol 0.082 L atm mol-1K-1 273.15 K22.4 L P=3.0 atm PN2= XN2P PN2=0.33 3.0 atm PN2=1.0 atm PH2= XH2P

PH2=0.67 3.0 atm PH2 =2.0 atm d) Pt=1.0 atm+2.0 atm=3.0 atm

2.3. A chemical reaction takes place in a container of cross-directional area 100 cm2. As a result of the reaction, a piston is pushed out through 10 cm against an external pressure of 1.0 atm. Calculate the work done by the system.

Diketahui : A = 100 dh = 10 cm Peks = 1.0 atm Ditanya : W Jawab : W = - PeksdV W = - 1.0 atm (A dh) W = -1.0 atm (100 cm2. 10 cm) cm2

W = - 1.0 atm (1000 cm3) W = -1.0 atm (1 L) W = - 1.0 atm L W = -1.0 atm L0.082 L atm mol-1K18.314 Jmol-1K-1 W = -101.39 J

2.4. A sample consisting of 1.00 mol Ar is expanded isothermally at 0 from 22.4 L to 44.8 L (a) reversibly, (b) against a constant external pressure equal to the final pressure of the gas, and (c) freely against zero external pressure. For three processes calculate q, w, U, H. Diketahui : Proses ekspansi isotermal Mol Ar = 1.00 mol T = 0 = 273 K Vi = 22.4 L Vf = 44.8 L

Ditanya : q, w, U, H Jawab: a) w= -nRTlnVfVi w= -1.00 mol 8.314 J mol-1K-1 273 Kln44.8 L22.4 L w=1.573 kJ U = n CvmdT=0 H = n CpmdT=0 U = q + w 0=q+w q = -w q = - 1.573 kJ b) w = - PeksdV (Peks=Pf) w = -Pf dV w = -nRTVfdV w = - 1.00 mol 8.314 J mol-1K-1 273 K44.8 L (22.4L) w = -1135 J = -1.135 kJ U = n CvmdT=0

H = n CpmdT=0 U = q + w 0=q+w q = -w q = - 1.135 kJ c) free expansion w =- PeksdV (Peks=0) Pemuaian bebas w=0 U = n CvmdT=0 H = n CpmdT=0 U = q + w 0=q+w q = -w q=0

2.21. A sample consisting of 3.0 mol of perfect gas at 200 K and 2.00 atm is compressed reversibly and adiabatically until the temperature reaches 250 K. Given that its molar constant-volume heat capacity is 27.5 JK-1mol-1, calculate q, w, U, H, and the final pressure and volume. Diketahui: Proses adiabatis reversibel Mol gas = 3.00 mol Ti = 200 K Pi = 2.00 atm Tf = 250 K Cvm= 27.5 JK-1mol-1 Ditanya : q, w, U, H,Pf,Vf

Jawab : Adiabatis q=0

H = 3.00 mol 35.814 J K-1mol-1 50 K H = 5372 J = 5.372 kJ PiTi=PfTf Pf=Tf PiTi Pf= 250 K 2.00 atm200 K Pf=2.50 atm Vf= nRTPf Vf= 3.0 mol 0.082 L atm mol-1 K1250 K2.50 atm Vf=123 L

dT = Tf-Ti = 250-200 = 50 K U = n CvmdT U = 3.00 mol 27.5 JK-1mol-1 (50 K) U = 4125 J = 4.125 kJ U = q + w U = 0 + w U = w w = 4.125 kJ Cpm-Cvm=R Cpm=R+ Cvm Cpm=8.314 JK-1mol-1+ 27.5 JK1mol-1 Cpm=35.814 JK-1mol-1 H = n CpmdT

2.29. The standard enthalpy of combustion of cyclopropane is -2091 kJ mol-1 at 25. From this information and enthalpy of formation data for CO2(g) and H2O(g), calculate the enthalpy of formation of cyclopropane. The enthalpy of formation of propene is +20.42 kJ mol-1. Calculate the enthalpy of isomerization of cyclopropane to propene. Diketahui : Hc siklopropana = -2091 kJ mol-1 HfCO2(g) = - 393.51 kJ mol-1 HfH2O(g)= -241.82 kJ mol-1 Hf propena = +20.42 kJ mol-1 Ditanya: Hf siklopropana dan H isomerisasi siklopropana Jawab : Reaksi pembakaran untuk 1 mol siklopropana: C3H6(g) +92O2 (g) 3CO2(g)+ 3H2O(g) H = -2091 kJ mol-1 propena

H=( 3 Hf CO2(g)+ 3 HfH2O(g))-( HfC3H6g) -2091 kJ mol-1= 3 - 393.51 kJ mol-1+ (3-241.82 kJ mol-1)-( HfC3H6g) -2091 kJ mol-1= -1905.99 kJ mol-1-( HfC3H6g) HfC3H6g=185.01 kJ mol-1 Jadi, entalpi pembentukan dari siklopropana adalah 185.01 kJ mol-1 Reaksi isomerisasi siklopropana menjadi propena : C3H6siklopropana C3H6propena H= (HfC3H6propena- HfC3H6siklopropana) H=(+20.42 kJ mol-1-(185.01 kJ mol-1)) H= -164.59 kJ mol-1 Jadi, entalpi isomerisasi dari siklopropana menjadi propena adalah -164.59 kJ mol-1 2.44. From the data in table 2.5, calculate rH and rUat (a) 298 K (b) 378 K for the reaction C(graphite)+ H2O(g) CO(g)+H2 (g). Assume all heat capacities to be constant over the temperature range of interest. Diketahui :

HfC(graphite)=0 HfH2O(g)= -241.82 kJ mol-1 HfCO(g)= -110.53 kJ mol-1 HfH2 (g)= 0 Cpm C(graphite)= 8.527 J K-1mol-1 Cpm H2O(g)= 33.58 J K-1mol-1 Cpm COg= 29.14 J K-1mol-1 Cpm H2 (g)= 28.824 J K-1mol-1 Ditanya : rH dan rU pada (a) 298 K dan (b) 378 K Jawab : (a)Pada 298 K rH= HfCOg-HfH2Og rH=-110.53 kJ mol-1-(-241.82 kJ mol-1) rH=131.29 kJ mol-1 rU=rH-ngRT rU=131.29 kJ mol-1-1(8.31410-3 kJ K-1mol-1) (298 K) rU= 131.29 kJ mol-1- 2.48 kJ mol-1 rU=128.81 kJ mol-1 (b)Pada 378 K rH378 K= rH298 K+ (378 K-298 K)rCpm rCpm=Cpm COg+Cpm H2 g-Cpm Cgraphite+Cpm H2Og rCpm=(29.14 J K-1mol-1+28.824 J K-1mol-1)-( 8.527 J K-1mol-1+33.58 J K1mol-1) rCpm=57.964 J K-1mol-1- 42.107 J K-1mol-1 rCpm=15.857 J K-1mol-1=1.5857 10-2kJ K-1mol-1 rH378 K=131.29 kJ mol-1 + (80 K) 1.5857 10-2kJ K-1mol-1 rH378 K=131.29 kJ mol-1+ 1.27 kJ mol-1

rH378 K=132.56 kJ mol-1 rU378 K=rH(378 K)-ngRT rU378 K=132.56 kJ mol-1-18.314 10-3 kJ K-1mol-1(378 K) rU378 K=132.56 kJ mol-1-3.14 kJ mol-1 rU378 K=129.42 kJ mol-1 2.5. A 5.0 g block of solid carbon dioxide is allowed to evaporate in a vessel of volume 100 cm3 maintained at 25 . Calculate the work done when the system expands (a) isothermally against a pressure of 1.0 atm (b) isothermally and reversibly to the same volume as (a) Diketahui: Massa CO2 = 5.0 g Vi = 100 cm3= 0.1 L T= 25 Peks = 1.0 atm Ditanya: w, saat (a) Sistem berekspansi isotermal melawan tekanan 1.0 atm (b) Sistem berekspansi isotermal reversibel Jawab : (a)Saat sistem berekspansi isotermal melawan tekanan 1.0 atm mol CO2 = 5.0 mol44.01 g/mol = 0.114 mol Vf = n R TPeks=0.114 mol 0.082 L atm mol-1K-1298 K1.0 atm Vf= 2.79 L dV= Vf-Vi dV= 2.79 L 0.1 L dV= 2.69 L w = -Peks dV w= -1.0 atm 2.69 L w = - 2.69 L atm w= -2.69 L atm0.082 L atm mol-1K-18.314 J mol-1K-1 w = - 272.74 J

(b) Saat sistem berekspansi isotermal reversibel w= -n R TlnVfVi w= -0.114 mol8.314 J mol-1K-1298 Kln2.79 L0.1 L w=940.15 J