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# KALKULUS LANJUT

MODUL 11
Fungsi Gama dan Beta

Zuhair
Jurusan Teknik Informatika
Universitas Mercu Buana
Jakarta
2009.12.20

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KALK-LANJ_MODUL_11

## Fungsi Gama dan Beta

I.

Fungsi Gamma

(n ) = x n1 e x dx

Definisi:

## Konvergen untuk n > 0

Rumus rekursi fungsi gama:

(n + 1) = n (n)
Contoh:

(2) = 1 (1)

. (1)

(3 2 )

(12 )

## Untuk n = bilangan bulat positif n = 1, 2, 3, ...

(n + 1) = n!

...................................................... (2)

Contoh:

(2) = 1! = 1

(5) = 4!

(3) = 2! = 2

(6) = 5!

Contoh:

(3)

(5 3 ) =

(7 2 ) =

(12 )

(2 3 )

(n)

(n + 1)
n

atau (n) =

(4)

( n + m)
n (n + 1)...
1424
3

. (5)

m bilangan

## m = bilangan bulat positif

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KALK-LANJ_MODUL_11

1
= ( 2 ) = 2 (12 )
1

( 1 2 )

( 5 2 ) = ( 3 2 ) =

( 12)
=
5
3

2 .
2

( 12)
. 32 .

= 815 ( 1 2 )

## Jika pakai rumus (5)

( 5 2 + 3)
= 815
5 2 . 3 2 . 12

( 5 2 ) =

Ingatlah:

(12 )

(1)

(12 )

cari buktinya!

=1

(x) (1-x) =

.. (6)

sin x

0<x<1

Contoh:

( 13 )

(2 3 )

Hitunglah

m ax
0 x e

(14 )

sin

sin 60

1
2

2
3
3

(3 4 ) .

m +1

n
dx = (m +1) / n
a
.n

(7)

Bukti:

y
Misalkan y = ax x =
a

dx =
Jika

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x=0

1
1 1 / n 1
y
dy
.
a1/ n n

y=0

KALK-LANJ_MODUL_11

x=

y=

0 x m e ax dx
n

y 1 / n y
1
y1/n-1 dy
e . 1 / n
a .n
a

1
ym / n y
y1/n-1 dy
e . 1/ n
m/n
a .n
a

= 0

1
a

m +1

( m +1) / n

y n . e dy
0 4
4
42444
3
.n 1
m +1

Contoh:
Tentukanlah

x 2 e x dx = ?
3

m=2
a =1

n=3

x 2 .e

bx

dx

2 + 1

3 = 1
dx =
(2 + 1 )
3
3
1
.3

(1 ) =

1
3

(1 n )

(b ln a ) 1 n

.n

Bukti:
a = e ln a

(e )

n
ln .a bx

abx dx = 0
n

= 0

dx

e (b. ln .a ). x dx
n

m=0
a = b ln a dan n = n

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KALK-LANJ_MODUL_11

0 +1

n
=
(b ln a )1 / n . n

(1 / n )
( b ln a )1 / n . n

Contoh: 0 5 2 x dx =
3

a =5

b=2
n=3
( 13 )
1
( 2 ln 5) 3 . 3

1
m
0 x (ln x ) dx =
n

( 1 )n n !
(m + 1 )n + 1

## n = bilangan bulat positif

m > -1
Bukti:

dx = e y dy

Misalkan x = e y

ln x = ln e y = -y
Jika

y=

x=1

y=0

x m (ln .x ) dx = 0
n

x=0

e (m + 1 ) y

= ( 1)n

( 1 )n

(e ) ( y )
y m

. e y dy

y n dy

y n e (m +1 ) y dy

gunakan rumus 7

n
(n + 1 )
( 1 )n n !
= ( 1 )
=
n +1
n +1

(m

+ 1)

(m

+ 1)

Contoh:
(1) 01 (ln .x ) dx =
4

m=0

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KALK-LANJ_MODUL_11

n=4

=
(2) 01

(x

( 1) 4 4 ! 4 !
=
= 4 ! = 24
1
(0 + 1) 4 +1

ln x

dx =

= 01 x 2 ln x

dx

m=2
n=2

(1) 2 2 ! 2
2
=
= 3 =
2+1
27
(2 + 1)
3

(n ) =

1
0

ln
x

n 1

dx , n > 0 Buktikan !

Bukti:

1
= ln x 1 = ln x
x

Misalkan: y = ln

x = e y

dx = e y dy
Jika x = 0 y =
x=1y=0
1
10 ln
x

n 1

dx

= 0 y n 1 . e y dy
= 0 y n 1 e y dy = (n ) terbukti !

1
Contoh: 0 ln

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dx

= 01

(ln )

(4 3 ) = 1 3

4 1
3

( 13 )

KALK-LANJ_MODUL_11

## II. Fungsi Beta

Definisi: (m, n) = 10 xm-1 (1-x)n-1 dx

## Hubungan fungsi beta dengan fungsi gamma :

(m, n) =

( m) . ( n )
( m + n)

Contoh:

1) 10 x3 (1 - x)2 dx
= (4,3) =

(4) . (3) 3 ! . 2 ! 6 . 2
2
1
=
=
=
=
6 . 5 ! 120 60
6!
(4 + 3)

x 2 dx
3 x

2) 30

Penyelesaian: Misalkan

dx

= 3 du

27

x=3

u=0

u=1

27

(3, 1 2 )

27 (3) .( 12 )
(7 2 )
3

( 12 )
1 (1 )
2
2

2!
5

48
3
5

1 x
dx
x

= 0 x

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= 3u x = 0

9 u 2 3 du
27 1 2
-1/2
=
du
0 u (1 - u)
3 3u
3

= 10

3) 10

13

(1 x )

dx

KALK-LANJ_MODUL_11

(2 3 , 4 3 )

(2 3 ) . ( 4 3 )
(2 )

(2 3 ). 13

( 1 3 ) (2 3 )

sin

2 m 1
. cos 2 n 1 d =
0 2 sin

p
p
0 2 sin d = 0 2 cos d

( 13 )

1!

= 13
=

(m, n)

1 . 3 . 5 ... ( p 1)
.
2 . 4 . 6 ... p
2

## Jika p genap positif

2 . 4 . 6 ... ( p 1)
1 . 3 . 5 ... p

## Jika p ganjil positif

Contoh-contoh Soal

1) 0 2 sin 4 . cos 2
cara 1:

d =

2m 1 = 4 m = 5
2n 1 = 2 n = 3

(5 2 , 3 2 ) =

2
2

(5 2 ) . ( 3 2 )
2 ( 4)

. 1 2 .

( 12 ). 12

( 12 )

2.3 !
3

=
cara 2:

12

32

4
2
0 2 sin . cos d

= 0 2 sin 4 . (1 sin 2 ) d

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KALK-LANJ_MODUL_11

= 0 2 sin 4 - sin 6 d

1. 3
1. 3 . 5
.

.
2.4 2
2.4.6 2

3
15 18 15

=
=
16
96
96
32

2) 0 sin 7 d

= 2 0 2 sin 7 d
=2.

2.4.6
96 32
=
=
1 . 3 . 5 . 7 105 35

## Boleh juga dilakukan dengan cara berikut:

2 0 2 sin 7 d,

=2.

2m 1 = 7

m=4

2n 1 = 0

n = 1

(m, n) = (m, n)

= (4,

(4) . ( 12 )
( 9 2)

3 ! . ( 12)
7 . 5 . 3 . 1 (1 )
2
2
2
2
2

6
105
16

=6.

16 32
=
105 35

Mana cara yang lebih mudah, bisa dipilih dari cara penyelesaiannya.
_____________________________________________________________________

SOAL-SOAL

1.

(3) . ( 3 2 )
=?
(9 2 )

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16

105

KALK-LANJ_MODUL_11

2.

6 3 x
0 x e dx =

3.

2 2 x
=
0 x e

4.

Tunjukkan 0 e

80

2
16

st

dt =

Petunjuk: Misalkan

5.

1
0 ln x

6.

(x

7.

( 3 2 ) =

8.

( 9 2 ) =

9.

(3, 5) =

,s>0

y = st
-120

dx

ln x dx =

32
945
1
105
4

15

( 13 , 2 3 ) =

10. 02 4 x 2

128

( 3 2 , 2) =

243

3
dx

## (Petunjuk: misalkan x2 = 4y)

11. 04 u3/2 (4 u)5/2 du

12

## 12. 0 2 sin 4 cos 4 d =

13. 02 cos 6 d =

256
5
8

_____________________________________________________________________

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KALK-LANJ_MODUL_11

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