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INTRODUKSI

ANALISA KERUSAKAN
(Failure Analyses)
Dr. Ir. Winarto, M.Sc.

Departemen Metalurgi & Material


Fakultas Teknik Universitas Indonesia

ANALISA KERUSAKAN (FA)

DEFINISI KERUSAKAN (FAILURE)

Ketidak-mampuan suatu komponen untuk dapat


berfungsi sebagaimana mestinya. Perpatahan
(fracture) tidak perlu harus terjadi.

Dr. Ir. Winarto, M.Sc. 1


ANALISA KERUSAKAN (FA)

KONDISI UMUM KERUSAKAN

1. Jika tidak dapat dioperasikan (dijalankan)


2. Masih dpt beroperasi, tetapi tidak berfungsi
semestinya
3. Kerusakan serius atau tidak aman untuk
digunakan

ANALISA KERUSAKAN (FA)

Contoh bahaya kerusakan

Dr. Ir. Winarto, M.Sc. 2


ANALISA KERUSAKAN (FA)

Contoh bahaya kerusakan

ANALISA KERUSAKAN (FA)

20cm-crack

20cm-crack

Dr. Ir. Winarto, M.Sc. 3


ANALISA KERUSAKAN (FA)

Contoh Failure pada Material

ANALISA KERUSAKAN (FA)

Dr. Ir. Winarto, M.Sc. 4


ANALISA KERUSAKAN (FA)

ANALISA KERUSAKAN (FA)

Failure analysis rules

 The failure investigator has only one objective to determine the failure mechanism that
caused the failure and to use that knowledge to prevent another occurrence.

 Start with and maintain an open mind. Emotion obscures objectivity and must be edged
from the investigation.

 The theory, however elegant, must agree with the observed evidence, however humble.

 The simplest solution is the best solution.

 Having the wrong solution is frequently much worse than having no solution.

 Major incidents are often triggered by very minor or apparently innocuous details.

 Only one thing is worse than knowing you have a crack growing in a component, and that
is not knowing you have a crack growing in a component.

 Cracks never get smaller, nor do they ever disappear. Either they stay the same size
(invariably in a minor, insignificant, or easily repaired component), or they get bigger
(usually in a critical component).

Dr. Ir. Winarto, M.Sc. 5


ANALISA KERUSAKAN (FA)

EQUATION FOR SUCCESSFUL FAILURE


ANALYSIS
Proper background information
+
correct analyses and tests
+
Thorough knowledge of materials behaviour
and processing
+
Pertinent experience
_________________________
Correct Analysis

ANALISA KERUSAKAN (FA)

Penyebab Kerusakan Material

SALAH SALAH
PERAWATAN DESAIN
KONDISI
OPERASI
TAK SESUAI SALAH
MEMILIH
KERUSAKAN MATERIAL

SALAH
DALAM
ASSEMBLY
KETIDAKSEMPUR
SALAH PADA NAAN MATERIAL
PROSES
PRODUKSI

Dr. Ir. Winarto, M.Sc. 6


ANALISA KERUSAKAN (FA)

FAKTOR KEGAGALAN

1. SALAH DISAIN :

Apakah ada stress concentration (lubang, ulir, notch)

Apakah Dimensinya sesuai ? Lost by wear or corrosion

Haruskah Rigid atau Flexsible like spring?

Apakah Part / Komponen memang didisain untuk mudah


rusak atau memang untuk tahan rusak ?

ANALISA KERUSAKAN (FA)

Fracture of a Forged 4150 Steel


Drive Axle in an Overhead Crane

Dr. Ir. Winarto, M.Sc. 7


ANALISA KERUSAKAN (FA)

2. SALAH MEMILIH MATERIAL

Apakah mechanical prop. sesuai? (Hardness, UTS, yield)

Apakah physical prop. sesuai? (Thermal ex, density, cond.)

Apakah Chemical prop. sesuai? (chem comp., corrosion res.)

ANALISA KERUSAKAN (FA)

Sand-cast oil-pump gears. (a)


ASTM A536, grade 100-70-03,
ductile iron. (b) Class 40 gray
iron that fractured because of
improper material selection.
0.25X.

Dr. Ir. Winarto, M.Sc. 8


ANALISA KERUSAKAN (FA)

3. KETIDAK SEMPURNAAN MATERIAL

Apakah ada defects pada base


metal?
(porosity, inclusion, lamination, segregation)

Apakah ada residual stress pada


base metal? (tension, compression)

ANALISA KERUSAKAN (FA)

Nonmetallic inclusions in wrought steel.


(a) Manganese sulfide stringers.
(b) Silicate stringer. Both 200X.

Dr. Ir. Winarto, M.Sc. 9


ANALISA KERUSAKAN (FA)

4. SALAH DALAM MANUFACTURE (Fabrikasi)

Rolling  (lamination, inclusion)


Welding  (Pore, undercut, cracks, lack of penetration)
Casting  (Pore, coldshut, shrinkage, segregation)
Heat Treatment  (decarburization, scale, over/under
tempered, improper microstructures)

ANALISA KERUSAKAN (FA)

Impeller specimen showing cavitation damage and porous zones.


(a) Cavitation pits (top-left arrow) and porous zones (bottom-right
arrow) in an unetched transverse section of impeller 1.2.5X .
(b) (b) Microsection from a cavitation zone. Etched with V2A reagent.
100X . Source: Ref 1.

Dr. Ir. Winarto, M.Sc. 10


ANALISA KERUSAKAN (FA)

5. SALAH DALAM ASSEMBLING


(PERAKITAN)

Ada Misalignment ?
Ada Inaccurate Machining & accum. of
tolerance
 Interference & abnormal stress
Ada Deflection? (shafts or pipes)

ANALISA KERUSAKAN (FA)

Welded stainless steel elbow assembly that, as originally designed,


cracked at the root of the weld under cyclic loading. The improved
design moved the weld out of the high-stress area.
Dimensions given in inches.

Dr. Ir. Winarto, M.Sc. 11


ANALISA KERUSAKAN (FA)

6. KONDISI OPERASI

Ada unusual occurrence


(abnormal)?(bunyi, bau, asap)
Apakah terjadi over speed ?
Apakah terjadi over load ?
Apakah lingkungannya korosif? (temperature,
environment)

ANALISA KERUSAKAN (FA)

Contoh Kerusakan Akibat Korosi

(1) (2) (3)

1. Pitting Corrosion
2. Uniform Corrosion
3. Galvanic Corrosion
4. SCC
5. SCC under SEM

(4) (5)

Dr. Ir. Winarto, M.Sc. 12


ANALISA KERUSAKAN (FA)

Contoh Kerusakan Akibat Korosi


Deterioration
Description Behavior Key Variables Examples
Mechanism
Joined materials of
Galvanic Occurs when two metals are joined and Seawater and some cooling
Localized construction, distance
Corrosion exposed to an electrolyte. water services.
in galvanic series
CO2 is a weakly acidic gas which is corrosive
when dissolved in water becoming carbonic Refinery steam condensate
Carbon dioxide
Carbon acid (H2CO3). CO2 is commonly found in system, hydrogen plant and
upstream sections before treatment. The
Localized concentration,
Dioxide the vapor recovery section
reactions are often accompanied by the process conditions.
of catalytic cracking unit.
formation of films of FeCO3 (and/or Fe3O4)
The general corrosion process Presence of oxygen, high temperature processes
General
Atmospheric occurring under atmospheric temperature range where carbon steels have
uniform
Corrosion conditions where carbon steel (Fe) is and the availability of been used without protective
corrosion
converted to iron oxide Fe2O3. water/moisture coatings
CUI is a specific case of atmospheric
Presence of oxygen,
corrosion where the temperatures and
temperature range
Corrosion the concentrations of water/moisture General
and the availability of
Under can be higher. Often trace corrosive to highly Insulated piping/vessels.
water/moisture and
Insulation elements can also be leached out of the Localized
corrosive constituents
insulation material itself creating a
within the insulation.
more corrosive environment.
Outside of furnace tubes,
A high temperature corrosion reaction Temperature,
General furnace tube hangers, and
where metal is converted to a metal presence of air,
Oxidation uniform furnace components
oxide above specific temp. (975F for material of
corrosion exposed to combustion
carbon steel, 1400F for 9Cr-1Mo) construction
gases containing excess air.

ANALISA KERUSAKAN (FA)

7. KONDISI PERAWATAN (MAINTENANCE)

Apakah terjadwal?

Apakah ada pelumasan?

Apakah metoda pengukuran baik?


(temperature, pressure, dimension, etc.)

Dr. Ir. Winarto, M.Sc. 13


ANALISA KERUSAKAN (FA)

Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA)


 Salah satu tools dalam quality management adalah Failure Modes
and Effects Analysis (FMEA). FMEA adalah suatu metodologi dalam
menganalisa masalah kualitas yang muncul sejak di tahap
pengembangan, maka tindakan koreksi bisa langsung diambil, dan
desain langsung bisa diperbaiki. FEMA awalnya mengklasifikasikan
jenis failure mode yang muncul, kemudian menentukan dampaknya
terhadap produksi, kemudian menjalankan tindakan koreksi.
 FMEA terdiri dari beberapa jenis, antara lain sebagai berikut:
• Process: berfokus pada analisa proses manufaktur dan assembly
• Design: berfokus pada analisa produk sebelum proses produksi
• Concept: berfokus pada analisa sistem atau subsistem dalam tahap awal
desain konsep.
• Equipment: berfokus pada analisa desain mesin dan perlengkapan
sebelum melakukan pembelian
• Service: berfokus pada analisa jasa dari proses industri jasa sebelum
diluncurkan ke pelanggan
• System: berfokus pada analisa fungsi sistem secara global
• Software: berfokus pada analisa fungsi software

ANALISA KERUSAKAN (FA)

Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA)


 Dalam menjalankan FMEA, ada 3 variabel utama, yakni:
1. Severity, yakni rating yang mengacu pada besarnya dampak serius dari
suatu potential failure mode.
2. Occurrence, yakni rating yang mengacu pada berapa banyak frekuensi
potential failure terjadi
3. Detection, yakni mengacu pada kemungkinan metode deteksi yang
sekarang dapat mendeteksi potential failure mode sebelum produk tsb
dirilis untuk produksi, untuk desain, hingga untuk proses sebelum
 Metode FMEA menggunakan Risk Priority Number (RPN), yakni angka yang
bakal menggambarkan area mana yang perlu jadi prioritas perhatian. RPN
diukur berdasarkan 3 faktor diatas, i.e. severiry, occurrence, & detection.

RPN = rating severity x rating occurrence x rating detection


Suatu tindakan koreksi harus dilakukan, bila:
• severity menunjukkan angka 9 atau 10, karena dampaknya sangat serius,
dan berpotensi menghasilkan kerugian yang sangat besar, atau;
• severity rating x occurrence rating menghasilkan angka yang tinggi, atau;
• tidak ada aturan khusus, lakukan judgement berdasarkan analisa RPN

Dr. Ir. Winarto, M.Sc. 14


ANALISA KERUSAKAN (FA)

Risk-Based Inspection (RBI)


 Risk-Based Inspection: A risk assessment and
management process that is focused on loss of
containment of pressurized equipment in processing
facilities, due to material deterioration. These risks are
managed primarily through equipment inspection.
 Risk Management: Coordinated activities to direct and
control an organization with regard to risk. Risk
management typically includes risk assessment, risk
treatment, risk acceptance and risk communication
 Risk Control: Actions implementing risk management
decisions. Risk control may involve monitoring, re-
evaluation, and compliance with decisions.

ANALISA KERUSAKAN (FA)

Basic Concepts
 Risk is the combination of the probability of
some event occurring and the consequences,
(generally negative) associated with the event.
In mathematical terms, risk can be calculated by
the equation:
Risk = Probability x Consequence
 Risk management is a process to assess risks,
to determine if risk reduction is required and to
develop a plan to maintain risks at an
acceptable level. By using risk management,
some risks may be identified as acceptable so
that no risk reduction (mitigation) is required.

Dr. Ir. Winarto, M.Sc. 15


ANALISA KERUSAKAN (FA)

Basic Concepts

Risk with Typical Inspection Programs

R
I
S
K

Risk Using RBI

Residual Risk

LEVEL OF INSPECTION ACTIVITY

ANALISA KERUSAKAN (FA)

Dimana Lokasi yg umum


terjadinya kerusakan pada
sepatu tsb ?

Berikan analisa (alasan)


kasus tsb secara logis
menurut saudara !

- Lokasi dimana ?
- Penyebabnya apa ?
- Kesimpulan
- Rekomendasi (saran)

Dr. Ir. Winarto, M.Sc. 16


ANALISA KERUSAKAN (FA)

ANALISA KERUSAKAN (FA)

KESIMPULAN
 Analisa Kegagalan  Sabjek yang Kompleks ,
sebab akan meliputi area dari:
1. Fisika, Kimia, Metalurgi, elektro-kimia
2. Proses Manufaktur
3. Stress analysis, Design Analysis
4. Fracture Mechanics, dll

 “To be expertiest FA”  “individually near


impossible”, sehingga perlu “Team of Experts”

Dr. Ir. Winarto, M.Sc. 17


ANALISA KERUSAKAN (FA)

Home Works
(Format file: Tugas_01_nama.doc  kirim ke Scele

1) Jelaskan apa yang dimaksud dengan “kerusakan”! Sebutkan kondisi


umum dari kerusakan material !
2) Sebutkan beberapa penyebab kerusakan yang umum terjadi pada suatu
material teknik!
3) Buatlah analisis kerusakan pada “Jam Tangan” saudara yang biasa
dipakai sehari-hari !
4) Pelajaran apa yang diperoleh dari teknik kerusakan (failures
engineering) ?
5) Di bidang material (manufacture), ada istilah Failure Modes and Effects
Analysis (FMEA). Jelaskan konsep dan ruang lingkup dari FMEA dan
kegunaannya, berilah contoh di lapangan berikut resikonya!
6) Di bidang Korosi, ada istilah yang disebut dengan Risk Based Inspection
(RBI). Jelaskan konsep dan ruang lingkup dari RBI dan kegunaannya,
berilah contoh di lapangan berikut resikonya!

ANALISA KERUSAKAN (FA)

TERIMA KASIH

Dr. Ir. Winarto, M.Sc. 18