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MODUL ASAS PENGAJARAN DAN PEMBELAJARAN ABAD KE 21

DISEDIAKAN OLEH :
PPDKU:TOWARDS 21ST CENTURY EXCELLENCE

Program Pembangunan Kualiti


Pengajaran Guru Di Bawah Program
Transformasi Daerah
(Dtp)

Modul Asas Pengajaran dan



Pembelajaran Abad
MODUL ASAS PENGAJARAN DAN PEMBELAJARAN
21
ABAD 21
(MAPPA21)
(MAPPA 21)

FA C E
PREFACE
PR E

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KATA ALU- ALUAN

PEGAWAI PENDIDIKAN DAERAH KINTA UTARA

Assalammualaikum Warahmatullahi Wabarakatuh dan Salam Perak Excellent.


KATA ALU- ALUAN

PEGAWAITerima kasih saya DAERAH


PENDIDIKAN ucapkan kepada
KINTAPanel Penggubalan Modul Asas Pengajaran dan
UTARA
Pembelajaran Abad 21 (MAPPA 21) SISC+ Bahasa Melayu, Bahasa Inggeris dan Matematik
Assalammualaikum Warahmatullahi Wabarakatuh dan Salam Perak Excellent.
Pejabat Pendidikan Daerah Kinta Utara kerana memberi ruang untuk saya merakamkan kata alu-
aluan sempena
Terima kasih penerbitan modulkepada
saya ucapkan ini. Panel Penggubalan Modul Asas Pengajaran dan
Pembelajaran Abad 21 (MAPPA 21) SISC+ Bahasa Melayu, Bahasa Inggeris dan Matematik
Pejabat Pendidikankesempatan
Saya mengambil Daerah Kinta
iniUtara
untukkerana memberi ruang
mengucapkan untuk
sekalung saya merakamkan
tahniah katapadu
dan sokongan
alu- aluan sempena penerbitan modul ini.
kepada Panel Penggubalan MAPPA 21 atas kejayaan menerbitkan modul ini. Pada hemat saya,
penerbitan
Saya modulkesempatan
mengambil ini akan dapat
ini membantu meningkatkan
untuk mengucapkan dan membugarkan
sekalung lagi pembelajaran
tahniah dan sokongan padu
kepada Panel Penggubalan
dan pengajaran MAPPA
guru-guru khasnya 21subjek
bagi atas kejayaan menerbitkan
Bahasa Melayu, Bahasamodul ini.dan
Inggeris Pada hemat
Matematik.
saya, penerbitan modul ini akan dapat membantu meningkatkan dan membugarkan lagi
pembelajaran
Sesungguhnya dan pengajaran
pendidikan guru-guru
di negara khasnyamengalami
kita sedang bagi subjek Bahasa
proses Melayu, yang
transformasi Bahasa
pantas
Inggeris dan Matematik.
dalam segala aspek. Saya amat yakin, modul MAPPA 21 dapat memenuhi kehendak dan
keperluan pelajar
Sesungguhnya untuk pembelajaran
pendidikan di negara kitaAbad 21mengalami
sedang serta dijadikan
prosesrujukan agar PdP
transformasi yangakan lebih
pantas
dalam segala
diminati untukaspek. Sayaoleh
dipelajari amatpara
yakin, modul
pelajar yangMAPPA 21 dapat
merupakan modalmemenuhi
insan yangkehendak dan
bakal menerajui
keperluan pelajar
dan memimpin untukpembangunan
agenda pembelajarannegara.
Abad 21 serta dijadikan rujukan agar PdP akan lebih
diminati untuk dipelajari oleh para pelajar yang merupakan modal insan yang bakal
menerajui dan memimpin agenda pembangunan negara.
Sekian, terima kasih.
Sekian, terima kasih.

HAJI HASNI BIN HASSHIM


Pegawai Pendidikan Daerah Kinta Utara
HAJI HASNI BIN HASSHIM
Pegawai Pendidikan Daerah Kinta Utara

3 i
MAPPA21


PPDKU:TOWARDS 21ST CENTURY EXCELLENCE

Program Pembangunan Kualiti


Pengajaran Guru Di Bawah Program
Transformasi Daerah
(Dtp)

MODUL ASAS PENGAJARAN DAN PEMBELAJARAN


ABAD 21
(MAPPA 21)


T ER S
W R I
E L OF
PAN

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UNIT SISC+
PEJABAT PENDIDIKAN DAERAH KINTA UTARA,
SK SERI MUTIARA,
JALAN TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN,
30010 IPOH
PERAK DARUL RIDZUAN
Modul Asas Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran Abad 21
(MAPPA21)

PANEL OF WRITERS

Puan Cheah Yet Thang

Puan Jayanthi a/p Karuppan

Encik Joel Jacob a/l M.K. Jacob

Puan Juliana binti Shaharum

Puan Mary Stella a/p Santhanasamy

Puan S. Vijayalachemy a/p Subramaniam

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TABLE OF CONTENT

PAGE

Preface 3

Panel of Writers 5

National Philosophy of Education 7

The Philosophy of Teacher Education 8

Malaysia Education Blueprint System Aspirations 9

Malaysia Education Blueprint Student Aspirations 9

1 Proforma 11

2 Pretest 13

3 Pillar 1 Lesson Plan, Content and Delivery 15

4 Pillar 2 Creating a Positive Learning Environment 41

5 Pillar 3 Assessment for Learning 56

6 Pillar 4 Collaborative and Cooperative Learning 79

7 Pillar 5 Questioning and Thinking Skills 110

8 Pillar 6 Differentiation 138

9 Pillar 7 Professional Knowledge and Reflection 156

10 Post Test 165

11 Evaluation 167

12 References 172

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MAPPA21 8


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Program Pembangunan Kualiti


Pengajaran Guru Di Bawah Program
Transformasi Daerah
(Dtp)

MODUL ASAS PENGAJARAN DAN PEMBELAJARAN


ABAD 21
(MAPPA 21)

RM A
F O
PRO
Pro Forma

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PEJABAT PENDIDIKAN DAERAH KINTA UTARA,


SK SERI MUTIARA,
JALAN TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN,
30010 IPOH
PERAK DARUL RIDZUAN

PROGRAMME IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF TEACHING, IN LINE WITH


THE DISTRICT TRANSFORMATION PROGRAMME (DTP)

MODULE MODUL ASAS PENGAJARAN DAN PEMBELAJARAN


ABAD 21
(MAPPA21)

A. OBJECTIVES

At the end of this Module, teachers should be able to:


1. understand and explain the need to carry out and apply 21st Century T&L concepts in the
classroom.
2. state issues pertaining to T&L transformation, reflect and design an action plan for
professional development.
3. interconnect all the pedagogical pillars and plan interventions.

B. CONTENT

1.1 Pillar 1: Lesson plan, content and delivery


1.2 Pillar 2: Creating a Positive Learning Environment
1.3 Pillar 3: Assessment for Learning
1.4 Pillar 4: Collaborative and Coperative Learning
1.5 Pillar 5: Questioning and Thinking Skills
1.6 Pillar 6: Differentiation

C. IMPLEMENTATION
1. Individual coaching by SISC+
2. Coaching in groups

D. EVALUATION

Reflection form / Action plan

E. SUMMARY

Teachers will be able to carry out their tasks as facilitators during the Teaching and Learning
process, using the strategies and techniques suggested in this module

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UNIT SISC+
PEJABAT PENDIDIKAN DAERAH KINTA UTARA,
SK SERI MUTIARA,
JALAN TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN,
30010 IPOH
PERAK DARUL RIDZUAN

PRETEST

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.
Fill in the Y chart below:

My view on 21st Century Teaching and Learning

Kedengaran
seperti

Saya Saya
lihat rasa

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Read and answer the questions below:


1. In your opinion, is it necessary for the schools to transform into 21st Century teaching
and learning. Why?

2. From your perspective, why there is a need to change the method of teaching and
learning? Do you agree with the change?

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Program Pembangunan Kualiti


Pengajaran Guru Di Bawah Program
Transformasi Daerah
(Dtp)

MODUL ASAS PENGAJARAN DAN PEMBELAJARAN


ABAD 21
(MAPPA 21)

PILLAR 1



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UNIT SISC+
PEJABAT PENDIDIKAN DAERAH
KINTA UTARA,
SK SERI MUTIARA,
JALAN TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN,
30010 IPOH
PERAK DARUL RIDZUAN

PROGRAMME IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF TEACHING IN LINE


WITH THE DISTRICT TRANSFORMATION
PROGRAMME

MODULE TEACHING AND LEARNING IN THE 21st CENTURY


BASED ON THE 7 PEDAGOGICAL PILLARS

OVERVIEW THE SEVEN PEDAGOGICAL PILLARS GUIDE


PROFESSIONAL LEARNING, OUTLINING WHAT
TEACHERS ARE EXPECTED TO KNOW AND BE ABLE
TO DO. THIS MODULE AIMS TO ACHIEVE THE
FOLLOWING OBJECTIVES:

1 TO IMPROVE STUDENT OUTCOMES THROUGH THE


ENHANCEMENT OF TEACHING PRACTICE AND
METHODOLOGY.

2 TO EMBED A COMMON CORE OF PEDAGOGIES


AND METHODOLOGIES ACROSS A SCHOOL AND
PROMOTE A SHARED UNDERSTANDING OF
EFFECTIVE TEACHING PRACTICE.

3 TO PROVIDE OPPORTUNITIES FOR TEACHERS TO


DEVELOP PROFESSIONALLY IN ORDER TO IMPROVE
TEACHING AND LEARNING AND DEVELOP A
CULTURE OF PROFESSIONAL LEARNING.

4 TO INTRODUCE A COMMON SET OF STANDARDS


AND TEACHER COMPETENCIES ACROSS THE
COUNTRY.

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PILLAR 1 - LESSON PLANNING AND CONTENT DELIVERY

F. OBJECTIVES

Teachers will be able to:


4. Understand what learning objectives (intentions) and success criteria are and the
difference between them.
5. Create opportunities for using learning objectives and success criteria in the classroom.
6. Able to identify and frame specific learning objectives and success criteria.
7. State the importance of displaying the learning objectives and success criteria before
commencing the lesson.
8. Achieve greater consistency in lesson planning through sharing lesson objectives and
success criteria.
9. State the importance of lesson starter activity (set induction) and plenary.
10. Develop the skill to create lesson starter activity and plenary.

G. CONTENT

1. Learning Objectives and Success Criteria


2. Lesson Starter Activities (Set Induction)
3. Plenary Activities (Summary/Reflection)

H. IMPLEMENTATION

3. Individual coaching by SISC+


4. Group Coaching

I. ASSESSMENT

1. Reflection/Action Plan

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1. LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND SUCCESS CRITERIA
If learners are to take more responsibility for their own learning, then they need to
know;
1. What they are going to learn;
2. Why they should learn it in the first place; and
3. How they will recognise when they have succeeded.

An Introduction to Assessment for Learning, Learning Unlimited, (2004)

Identifying what the students need to learn and sharing the objectives with the students is
essential. How can students learn effectively if they dont know what it is they are learning
and how are they going to learn it?









In order for effective learning to take place in the classroom the teacher needs to have a
lesson plan. The lesson plan is the teachers road map of what students need to learn and how
it will be done effectively during the class time. Before you plan your lesson, you will first
need to identify the learning objectives. Then, you can design appropriate instructional
activities and develop strategies to obtain feedback on student learning.

Teachers plan in order to modify the curriculum to fit the unique characteristics of their
students and resources. To plan, teachers reflect on and integrate information about their
students, the subject matter to be taught, the curriculum they are following, their own
teaching experience, the resources available for instruction, the classroom environment, and
other factors. Their reflection and integration of these factors leads to an instructional lesson
plan.

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Quick Practice 1: How does lesson planning help you in the classroom?
Write them in the space provided.

The key elements in planning a lesson are learning objectives, instructional activities,
learning outcomes, success criteria as well as starter activities and plenaries. Therefore, it is
important to ensure that all lesson plans include these elements to ensure a successful
learning experience. However, in this chapter of the module, we will be focussing only on
certain aspects of lesson planning.

1.1 Learning Objectives

A learning objective is the focal point of a lesson plan. It is a description of


an intended learning outcome and is the basis for the rest of the lesson. It
provides criteria for constructing an assessment for the lesson, as well as for
the instructional procedures the teacher designs to implement the lesson.
How to Write Learning Objectives that Meet Demanding Behavioural Criteria,
Bob Kizlik, (2015)

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Learning objectives help teachers focus on what they want their students to achieve during
the lesson and beyond. Teachers need to be aware of these objectives throughout the lesson
and support their students to meet them. If teachers fail to identify their objectives then the
instructional activities and assessment will be purposeless.

Objectives are particularly crucial in teaching because teaching is an intentional and


normative act. Teaching is intentional because teachers teach for a purpose; they want
students to learn something as a result of teaching. Teaching is also normative because what
teachers teach is viewed by them as being worthwhile for their students to learn. In fact, it
would be unethical for teachers to teach things that they did not believe were beneficial to
students.

There are many ways to write learning objectives, but not all of them convey clearly what
students are to learn from instruction. Ensuring clarity requires being aware of what makes
the learning objective statement complete.

Quick Practice 2: Examine the examples of learning objectives in the table below.
Which of these learning objectives are good or poor examples?
Can you rewrite the poor examples? Discuss.

1. Become a good student.


2. The students will be able to state the main ideas in the short story.
3. Analyse.
4. The students will be able to list three causes of pollution.
5. The students will be able to count aloud.
6. The students will be able to appreciate.
7. Understand.
8. The students will be able to punctuate sentences.
9. The students can explain the process of sandwich making in their own words.

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Show and discuss a lesson plan that you have used. Reflect on the learning
objectives and how the plan took various resources and conditions into
account as well as how closely the plan was actually followed when the
lesson was taught.

The diagram below shows the importance of having clear learning objectives.

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Quick Practice 3: Do you agree that clear and specific lesson objectives are of utmost
importance to a successful lesson? How much consideration do you
give when planning your lesson objectives? What problems do you
encounter if any? How do you plan to overcome them?

Writing Learning Objectives: Beginning With the End in Mind


A Simple 3 Step Model

Step 1: Create a stem

By the end of the lesson you will be able to:

Step 2: Add a verb an active verb


E.g. use

Step 3: Determine the actual knowledge/skills/outcome


E.g. use negative verbs


By the end of the lesson you will be able to use negative verbs.

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*Remember the learning objective is a specific skill and not an activity.

*When writing the learning objective, use pupil friendly language so that
they can understand and share responsibility for what they are going to
learn.

*The next time you write a learning objective, ask yourself,


"Does this objective clearly describe the intended learning?

Quick Practice 4: Write the learning objective based on the lesson today in the
space provided .

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Quick Practice 5: What is the purpose of learning objectives?
Reflect and write them in the space provided. Discuss

1.2 Success Criteria

Success Criteria (SC) tells a student when they have achieved success. They show the
learning and thinking strategies required for success.

SUCCESS CRITERIA: I can..............

recognise the verb in a sentence


add the word not after the auxiliary verb in a sentence
respond to questions using negative verbs

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Success criteria consist of a list of features that a teacher wants the children to include in their
work during the course of a lesson. It is a really good way of making children aware of what
is expected of them and can also encourage them to extend further during the course of the
lesson. Some teachers use the term 'WILF' ('What I'm Looking For') instead of success
criteria. When teachers take time to identify, share, and clarify the learning goals and success
criteria with their students, students begin to acquire the knowledge and skills they need to
direct their own learning.

Success criteria describe, in specific terms and in language meaningful to students, what
successful attainment of the learning goals looks like. Criteria help students understand what
to look for during the learning and what it looks like once they have learned. Quality success
criteria make the learning explicit and transparent for students and teachers alike. They
identify the significant aspects of student performance that are assessed and/or evaluated (i.e.,
the look-fors) in relation to curriculum expectations.

Quick Practice 6: List the success criteria based on the lesson today in the space
provided below.

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Sharing Learning Objectives and Success Criteria
Learning objectives and success criteria are only useful to the students if they are shared.
You should:

use student friendly language;


display them on the board and share them verbally;
explain them fully
use large print so that everyone can read them
check the success with the students during and at the end of the lesson.

By the end of
You will be successful if you can:
todays lesson you
-recognise the verb in a sentence
will be able to
-add the word not after the
form negative auxiliary verb in a sentence
verbs. -respond to questions using
negative verbs

Learning goals and success criteria are critical pieces of information students need to be
successful learners. Hattie and Timperley (2007) describe three questions that guide learning
for students:
Where am I going?
How am I going?
Where to next?

Identifying and sharing learning goals with students at or near the beginning of a period of
instruction is intended to provide an explicit answer to the first question, by clearly setting the
direction about what the students are expected to learn. Making the success criteria explicit
helps students to determine the answer to the second question, How am I going?, by
identifying look- fors that students can use to monitor their progress towards the goals. A
common and clear understanding of the learning objective and success criteria help to answer
the third question.

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Quick Practice 7: Consider a lesson you are teaching today. What is the learning
objective? Write it below, (remember, it is a skill not an activity).
What are the success criteria? Write them below to show how the
students will know if they are successful.


Learning Objective
By the end of the lesson you will be able to.




Success Criteria
You will be successful if you can

Writing quality lesson objectives and success criteria are one of the most important
elements in planning a good lesson and any successful lesson will be driven by these
intentions. Ideally, if an observer asked students in your class, they would be able to explain
what they are trying to learn and why. Your questions and explanations will be focussed on
the learning intentions of the lesson and the activities you set will all help students to meet
the intentions. Practice and you are certain to make a difference.

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Quick Practice 8: Why do you think success criteria are important in lesson planning?
Write them in the space provided.

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Write your reflection in the space provided.

Learning Objective Success Criteria Why?


Learning Outcome
By the end of the lesson you You will be Students need to
will be able to. successful if you know.
can
Listening and say what you have for recognise and say how to answer
Speaking breakfast the different types questions and talk
of food you have about themselves
for breakfast
ask questions
about the different
types of food your
friends have for
breakfast
create answers
using questions as
sentence starters

Reading

.
Writing

Language Arts

Grammar

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LEARNING
DISPLAYING LEARNING
OBJECTIVE: OBJECTIVES AND
SUCCESS CRITERIA

SUCCESS CRITERIA:

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Quick Practice 9: What are the issues/challenges you might face in


sharing the learning objectives and success criteria in your classroom?

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Reflection:

My Personal Action Plan

Name: _______________________________

Date: _______________________________

My goal is to..

To achieve this I will..

What I did.....

(give details of your actions)

What was successful?


(give details and examples)

What were the challenges?


(give details and examples)

Next, I am going to.....


(create a new personal action
for your next steps)

(Adapted from Differentiated Learning-Teacher Tool Kit, LeapEd)

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LESSON STARTER ACTIVITIES
A strong start to a lesson ensures the ship will be steered in the right direction.

What is a starter activity and when do I use it?

A starter activity is a short activity that comes at the beginning of the lesson to capture
students interest, right before the actual key activities begin.

Why is a starter activity important?

When students enter into a classroom, they want to feel excitement toward their learning. As
a teacher, you have the power to engage and empower them in their learning.

Having a starter-activity before the actual lesson begins, not only sets the direction of the
lesson, it also establishes the learning context for students, and therefore the success for the
remainder of the lesson.

An effective starter activity is important because it:


gains students' attention;

encourages recall of prior learning;


sets the pace and challenge of the lesson;

motivates with early success;

creates the expectation that students will think and participate.




Ideally, a starter activity should take no longer than 5 minutes.
Remember to vary your activities each time.

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Starter Activities
Try these starter activities at the beginning of your lesson.

USES OF....
Resources: 1. Teacher shows (and allows students to handle) the item.
Item related to key study topic 2. Students list as many uses for the item as they can
imagine.
3. Ideas are shared with the class.
4. Discussion can follow.

RUNNING DICTATION...
Resources: 1. Teacher posts words/ definitions or phrases/
Cards explanations separately around the classroom.
Blu-tac 2. Students pairs are given one word/ phrase to start with.
3. Student A moves around the classroom to find the
matching definition/ explanation and returns to dictate to
student B who records the answer.
4. Students can take turns to be the runner/ writer until the
answer to all words/ phrases have been recorded.


YOU GOT THAT....
Resources: 1. Teacher places various stimulus materials around the
Stimulus topics related to the key room.
study topic 2. Students have 4 minutes to move around the room
Cards examining the stimulus materials and deciding on one
question they want answered by the end of the lesson.
3. Teacher collects the student cards. (These can be used
during the lesson and/or for the penalty).


PASS THE PARCEL...
Resources: 1. Teacher pre-wraps an item (with several layers) related
Item related to key study topic to the key study topic- inserting cards with related clues,
Wrapping paper questions, or key vocabulary between some wrapping
Cards layers.
Music/timer tool 2. Students pass the parcel until signalled to stop. The
student with the parcel responds to the card after they
unwrap the parcel and has the opportunity to guess what
the item inside might be. The parcel continues being passed
until a student guesses what its relevance is to the lesson.
3. Discussion can follow.

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Quick Practice 10: Reflect on some of the starter activities you have used in your
classroom. Write them in the space provided.

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Reflection

My Personal Action Plan

Name: _______________________________

Date: _______________________________

My goal is to...

To achieve this I
will...


What I did
(give details of your
actions)


What was
successful?
(give details and
examples)


What were the
challenges?
(give details and
examples)


Next, I am going
to

(create a new
personal action for
your next steps)

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Plenary Activities

What is a plenary activity and when do I use it?


A plenary activity is a short activity that comes right at the end of the lesson after all key components
have been taught, to wind up a lesson successfully and effectively.

Why is a plenary activity important?


Just as a starter activity ensures a strong start to a lesson, a plenary activity ensures the solid ending to
a lesson.

An effective plenary activity is important because it:


gives students time to check their learning success;

allows students to leave class with a shared message of success;

enables the teacher to assess the effectiveness of learning and further steps to take.

*Ideally, a plenary should take no longer than 5 minutes.


*Plan to fit a plenary activity into your lesson, as it is often forgotten due
to time constraint. Remember to vary your activities each time.

How often do you remember to include a plenary (be honest)!



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Plenary Activities
Try these plenary activities at the end of your lesson.

10 WORDS
Resources: 1. Teacher gives each pair/group of students 10
10 word cards (per pair/group) word cards related to the key study topic.
2. Students have 5 minutes to create a graphic
organiser demonstrating the link between the words.
3. Discussion can follow.

STAND UP SIT DOWN....


Resources: 1. Teacher says and displays a series of statements.
Statement strips 2. Students stand up if they disagree.
3. Students sit down if they agree.
4. Discussion can follow.


LIST-O-MANIA...
Resources: 1. Teacher displays image related to key study topic.
Image 2. Students have 3 minutes to list as many words of
phrases as they can, linked to the item.
3. Teacher asks some students for responses and
their explanation of the significance of that word to
the key study topic.
4. Discussion can follow.

FIND ME A PARTNER
Resources: 1. Students have half a statement (one the question
Matching cards and the other answer).
2. In silence students, mix together to find the match
to their card.
3. When they find their partner they form a pair and
discuss their card contents.
4. Discussion can follow.

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Quick Practice 11: Reflect on some of the plenary activities you have used in your
classroom. Write them in the space provided.


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Reflection

My Personal Action Plan

Name: ____________________________________

Date : ____________________________________

My goal is to...

To achieve this I will...

What I did...
(give details of your
actions)

What was successful?


(give details and
examples)

What were the


challenges?
(give details and
examples)

Next, I am going to...


(create a new personal
action plan for your next
steps)

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Program Pembangunan Kualiti


Pengajaran Guru Di Bawah Program
Transformasi Daerah
(Dtp)

MODUL ASAS PENGAJARAN DAN PEMBELAJARAN


ABAD 21
(MAPPA 21)

PILLA R 2


41
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PILLAR 2 : CREATING A POSITIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT

POSTIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT

1. Learning Objectives and Success Criteria


2. Why the need for a positive learning environment?
3. What is a positive learning environment?
4. Approaches to consciously build the environment.
5. How the teacher can affect the classroom atmosphere.
6. The wrap up

POSITIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT

Did you achieve the LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Teachers will be able to:
learning
You will be successful if you can:
-recognise the verb in a sentence
-add the word not after the auxiliary verb in a sentence
-respond to questions using negative verbs
SUCCESS CRITERIA: You will be successful if you can:
You will be successful
list affective attibutes which contribute towards the positive learning
Environment in the classroom.

Write your Show and discuss a lesson plan that you have used. Reflect on the
reflection in the learning objectives and how the plan took various resources and
Did you achieve the learning objectives?

How could you use the learning points here in your classroom?

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Why the need for a positive learning environment?


students will feel comfortable, safe and engaged when the teacher creates a positive
learning environment in the classroom.

students will be more open to actively participating in class.

students will be more likely to benefit from the lesson, and thus more likely to be self-
motivated. This should be a primary goal for all teachers, since lack of motivation is
often the root of disciplinary issues.

Students will have a sense of rapport with their teachers and peers.

Learning becomes a pleasurable experience.

Creates a sense of positivity in students.

Students will embrace positive attitudes and have mutual respect

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Do the students in your classroom display the attributes above ?

If they dont, list out their behavioural patterns.

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What is a positive classroom environment?

A number of factors contribute to a positive learning environment for your students. Three of
the most important ones are:

Core Ideals

Each teacher will have different standards and values in the classroom, but the only
universally important element is that these remain consistent so that students know what to
expect and what is expected of them.

It is important that your students know that theirs is an inclusive, respectful, community-
oriented environment. Work hard to learn students names. One trick is, with permission of
the students, use a digital camera to photograph students holding a piece of paper with their
name on it. Do this in groups of three or four students and then review them between classes
To build community and an inclusive atmosphere in the classroom, one idea is to involve
students in taking attendance, using photos of each student as a supplement to the boring old
HERE style of attendance-taking.

It is also important to remember that, more than anything else, students will emulate your
actions in the classroom. Therefore, it is very important to work well within your community
with your partner teachers as well as other members of the staff.

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How can we make attendance taking more interesting?

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Ambience

This is an extremely important and fun part of creating a positive learning environment.
Your classroom should be a dynamic and engaging place to be for your students. What would
you think if you walked into an elementary classroom with nothing on the walls? Weird.

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Have fun, but keep your dcor related to both your particular students and to the topic being
taught. In an ESL classroom, keeping it related to the subject matter is pretty easy, since
almost anything in English counts, but keeping it related to your students requires that you
know a bit about them.

If you are afforded your own classroom, this is much easier than if you have to go from class
to class although its still possible. In your own classroom, reserve a portion of the wall for
each class that you teach. This allows them to feel that they belong in the classroom. You can
also use the walls to re-enforce your core ideals, such as community, by posting photos of
students, group photos and student work.

If you have to move from room to room, have a portable poster for each group you teach, and
this will establish a similar sense of belonging. Keep their past projects so that they know that
their work is valued.

Another aspect of ambience in the classroom is how it is physically set up. Again, this should
reflect your core ideals. Desks arranged in rows does not allow for a very communal
atmosphere, so you may want to come in just before your class and rearrange the desks in a
circle, groups or pairs. Dont forget to move them back when youre finished in the room!

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How would you like your classroom to look like ?

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Expectations

If you establish your expectations for student behaviour early and keep them consistent, you
may be able to avoid many classroom management issues.

Laying down the ground rules early in your relationship with a class is quintessential to your
success as a teacher. Involve your students in this to be sure that they are aware of the rules
and the consequences. This is another great way to add to the ambience of your classroom
post the ground rules and always lean towards positive, rather than negative, re-enforcement
of them. Posting something on the wall when a student doesnt follow the rules will likely
affect the entire class in a negative way, but posting something for each student that did
adhere to the rules will do the opposite.

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What are your expectations in the classroom ?

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Relativity

you are responsible for imparting knowledge to your students.

you will be a more successful teacher if you also allow yourself to learn from them as
well. This is particularly true when you are teaching ESL in a foreign country. Your
students can teach you multitudes about their culture.

Learning about your students will allow you to keep the material and classroom activities
relative to their interests.

Approaches to Consciously Build the Environment

To build on the success of your opening lesson and to create an open, rewarding, and
responsive classroom environment, you might consider using the following approaches:

Listen to what students say without comment. Use eye contact, non-verbal cues such
as a nod, and facial expression to indicate your interest.

Don't dismiss student comments with a vague phrase such as "uh-huh" or "okay."

Try to incorporate student comments and responses into your material.

Encourage students to respond to each other by inviting them to comment on a remark


a classmate has made.

Write insightful responses or comments on the board to emphasize the value of


student contributions to your class.

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If you are not sure what a student is asking, ask some questions which will help you
clarify what the student is asking. Don't say, "I don't understand what you mean."

Never try to capitalize on students' confusion by ridiculing or joking about incorrect


responses. "Humour" of this kind is bound to backfire and create the very kind of
inhospitable climate you are trying to avoid.

Never deter questions by saying, "Well that was really straightforward. I don't
suppose there are any questions, are there?" You can bet there won't be.

How the teacher can affect the classroom atmosphere


Be relaxed, well poised

Be enthusisatic

Have a keen sense of humor

Be calm

Engage good human relations

A classrooms climate doesnt just happenit's created! Regardless of your students past
experiences, there are things you can do to deliberately shape the climate of your classroom
into a positive learning environment. To create a positive climate for your classroom, focus
on the following three pieces of the classroom climate pie:

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1. Develop and reinforce classroom rules and norms that clearly support safe and
respectful behavior. Having classroom rules helps you create a predictable, safe learning
environment for your students. Rules give your students clear boundaries and opportunities to
practice self-regulation and make good choices. When students feel safe and respected both
emotionally and physically, they are able to focus better on learning.

2. Promote positive peer relationships. You want to create an environment where your
students support and are kind to one another. Some ways you can do this are:

Notice and reinforce casual positve interactions between students on a daily basis.

Deliberately plan relationship-building activities and games that encourage positive


interactions. These can be long-term projects, or short and simple games designed for
students to get to know each other better.

Pay attention to the social dynamics of your classroom. Do some students have
trouble making friends? Do some students have trouble getting along with others?
Who has a lot of friends? Who has few friends? Interviewing your students one-on-
one can help you identify students that have stronger or weaker social connections.
This can inform your seating arrangements, guide your grouping and pairing
decisions, and assist you in helping students form new networks of friends.

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Have class meetings. Class meetings provide a safe environment in which students
can discuss with you and each other topics that are important to them. You and your
students can get to know each other better and build relationships through open
discussions on subjects like: Following Rules, How to Get Help, Including Others at
Recess, Solving Playground Problems, etc. This helps create a positive classroom
climate built on trust and respect.

3. Nurture positive relationships with all students.

You need to let your students know that you not only care about their progress in the
classroom, you also care about them as human beings. Some ways you can do this are:

Greet your students by name every time they walk in the door. This lets them know
that you notice and care that they are there.

Use warm, inclusive behaviors with your face, body and words each day. Smile! Ask,
How are you feeling? Look at your students. Notice and reinforce their positive
behaviors with encouraging words.

Ask your students personal questions that will help you get to know them and whats
happening in their lives outside of school. How was your soccer game last night?
Is your grandma feeling better?

Notice changes in students physical and emotional behaviors. Changes may indicate
a student is in need of additional emotional support. Provide or find support for that
student as needed.

Spend and keep track of individual time with each one of your students over a set
duration (such as each month).

The Wrap Up

Putting together a classroom with the above ideas in mind will create an environment where
your students will thrive. They will feel involved and responsible for their own learning as
well as being comfortable enough to actively participate in individual and group activities.
Your positive re-enforcement will allow them to build self-esteem and be more successful
students, which of course, makes you a successful teacher!

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Program Pembangunan Kualiti


Pengajaran Guru Di Bawah Program
Transformasi Daerah
(Dtp)

MODUL ASAS PENGAJARAN DAN PEMBELAJARAN


ABAD 21
(MAPPA 21)

PILLAR 3



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PILLAR 3: ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNING

A. OBJECTIVES

1. Enable teachers to discuss the importance of assessment for learning in


21st century classroom.
2. Apply the various strategies of formative assessment.
3. Use classroom assessment as a support for ongoing teaching and learning

B. CONTENT

1. Importance of assessment in teaching and learning in the classroom.

2. Assessment for Learning strategies

3. Teachers reflections and practices

C. IMPLEMENTATION

1. Coaching and mentoring


2. Observation
3. Discussion

B. EVALUATION

1. Self-assessment

2. Teacher survey

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ASSESSMENT: WHAT IS IT?

IS IT SOMETHING NEW?

IS IT NECESSARY TO HAVE
FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT
DURING TEACHING AND
LEARNING PROCESS?

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ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNING

Objec^ves Teachers will be able to:


Use forma^ve assessment prac^ce to measure and progress individual learning

To examine the role of feedback in improving student performance

Success Criteria You will be successful if you can:


State the advantages and disadvantages of individual and whole class feedback.

Explore the dierent strategies for drawing students aden^on to gaps through
whole-class feedback.

Reec^on Write your reec^on in the space provided.


Did you achieve the learning objec^ves?

How could you use the learning points here in your lesson planning?

Have you ever pondered on the differences between Assessment For


Learning, Assessment of Learning and Assessment as Learning?

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What is Assessment For Learning (AFL)?
Assessment for learning is best described as a process by which assessment information is
used by teachers to adjust their teaching strategies, and by students to adjust their learning
strategies.

Assessment for learning or rather known as formative assessment gives a platform for the
teachers to review their teaching in order to improve student outcomes.

REVIEW OF
TEACHING
AND
LEARNING

LEARN BETTER
CLEAR GOALS THAN JUST
FOR
ACHIEVE
LEARNING
BETTER
ACTIVITY
MARKS

ASSESSMENT
FOR
LEARNING
ENCOURAGES
SELF AND (AFL) FORMAL AND
INFORMAL
PEER
ASSESSMENT
ASSESSMENTS

REFLECTS A EFFECTIVE
BELIEF THAT FEEDBACK-
ALL STUDENTS MOTIVATES
CAN IMPROVE LEARNERS

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Consider filling in the K-W-L Chart below about Assessment for Learning

K-W-L CHART
What I know? What I want to know? What I learned?

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Have you had an opportunity to strategise your classroom assessment during


your teaching and learning process? When was it and how did you find the
lesson of the day?

STRATEGIES THAT YOU CAN USE IN YOUR LESSON:

A. On-going Assessment
Strategic questioning

What kind of questions do you ask most frequently-open or closed?


Do you ask questions that demand higher order thinking?

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1. Closed questions can be useful, however are not great at facilitating the use of
abstract thinking skills, encouraging talking or eliciting much understanding. Open questions
are more likely to do this and thus improve learning.
e.g.
Did you go out last night? (closed)
What did you do after school yesterday? (open)

B. Self and Peer Assessment


Strategies to enhance students feedback
1. Two Stars and a Wish

For peer assessment, ask students to give two stars and a wish.
Two stars = 2 things that are good about the piece of work
A wish = something they can improve to make it even better

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2. Traffic Light Cards

Use traffic light cards as a visual means of showing understanding.


e.g.
Students have red, amber and green cards which they show on their desks or in
the air. (red = dont understand, yellow = not sure, green = totally get it etc.)

Students self-assess using traffic light cards. The teacher could then record these
visually, for example, in their progress chart.

Peers assess presentations with traffic lights. To assess peers work, students can
use the green card to indicate where the success criteria have been achieved, or
yellow/amber card where improvement is needed and the red card to indicate
the entire piece of work need to be corrected.

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3. Plus, Minus and Whats next?

Students comment on what was done well in relation to the success criteria, and also on what
could be done better. This strategy may be better used after the students have become adept
at using Two Stars and A Wish.

+ - WHATS NEXT

4. De Bonos Thinking Hats


Teacher models the use of the Thinking Hats and train students in their use before using them
as peer feedback.

The Yellow Hat, for instance, encourages students to think of the good points and to ask
themselves questions such as Why will this work?

The Black Hat urges caution and evaluation, e.g. Is this true?

The Green Hat encourages creative thinking, e.g. Is there another way of doing this?

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5. Parking Lot

Students can post questions or statements about learning. This provides opportunity for the
teacher and peers to see that learning takes place.

6. Medals and Missions


Students give oral or written feedback on what has been done well (medal) before focusing
on the next learning steps(mission).

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7. Exemplar Work
When giving students tasks, provide some examples that make it clear of what they are asked
to do. Students could mark their peers work using the exemplar criteria.

8. Mini Whiteboard
Use mini-whiteboards so that every student can write or draw their answer and show it to
you (or their peers) immediately.

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9. Passing Ball

Pass a soft ball to one student to give one main idea from the lesson to share with
group.
The ball then passes to another student to give another main point of the lesson.
Once a student has taken part s/he cannot be passed the ball again.
This continues until the teacher thinks the main points have been given.

10. Smiley faces

J Got it. Ready to move on!

K Nearly there! Understand some parts but not all.

L Unsure. Do not understand and need to look at it again!

Students draw smiley faces to indicate how comfortable they are with the topic.
Good for checking knowledge on revision lists.

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Consider the importance of classroom culture in the facilitation of effective peer


feedback. What changes might need to occur in your classroom before students
will feel safe and comfortable about giving and receiving feedback from their peers?

Look back on a lesson you have taught recently. Try to decide where in that lesson you
might have been able to create opportunities for student self-assessment. What form would
that assessment take?

Choose a student self-assessment strategy to implement over a period of time. Keep a record
of student response and any improvement in student independence and willingness to accept
responsibility for learning.

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Questions to consider Response

How can I know that the students have


achieved the success criteria?

What classroom activities will engage my


students to achieve the learning objectives?

How can I build in opportunities for students


to receive feedback about their learning?

What opportunities can I provide for them to


evaluate their own progress and act on the
feedback?

What self and peer assessment have I used in


my teaching?

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TEACHERS ACTION PLAN

PROFESSIONAL LEARNING: ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNING (AFL)

SWOT Diagram

STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES
AFL(formative) is useful because: Using AFL strategies might not be so good
if:

OPPORTUNITIES THREATS
I can see that using AFL would be good in I feel a bit anxious about using AFL
my classroom because: because:

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Refer to the list of strategies given. Choose some of the strategies suggested to meet the
differing levels of students. They will assist you to identify more about your students
learning and enable you to give effective feedback.

Remember to differentiate for your different student levels.

Think and write about an activity or assessment that you have used in your
class that might fit into the Assessment for Learning strategies.
Provide effective feedback? Allow students to self- asses?
How could the task be improved to increase student involvement?

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PLANNING ASSESSMENT-CHECKLIST

WHAT TO CONSIDER? YES NO

Is your assessment aligned with your goal?



Is your assessment aligned with the learning objectives?



Do the assessments fall within the success criteria?



Are the methods of assessment chosen appropriate?



Is formative assessment used?



Are you clear on what exactly is being assessed?


Is your assessment aligned with the teaching methods?


Are progression issues dealt with? Are reward



classifications clear?

Have you considered the possibility of individual/group/



peer assessment?

Do the assessments meet the individual needs of students



with disabilities?

Have you considered evaluation strategies to reflect on



assessment?

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Sample Lesson Plan


LESSON

Subject: English Language Class: 5M Time: 11.55-1.05pm

Theme: People Learning Outcome: Moral Values:

3 (i) 1. Respect and Rationality

Topic: Earth Sentinels

Key Vocabulary : humble, vibrant, Resources: Newspaper,


analytic, sombre, energetic, Textbook, Handouts
honest, jovial

Learning Objective(s): Success Criteria:

By the end of the lesson I will be successful if I can


students are able to:
1. use adjectives to describe about myself
1. construct simple and

compound sentences orally
using the adjectives given 2. describe the personality traits of my friends based on the zodiac
signs

Time Starter Activity: Reflection:

5 mins Projects the zodiac signs in the class, and students


name the signs orally. State orally the zodiac signs

they belong to.

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Activities/Procedures: Reflection:

45 mins 1. Distributes handouts to students on some


character traits as a guide. (adjectives)

2. Students share their personality traits with their

shoulder partners (Reading and Speaking)

3. Group work: Each student is given a set of
newspapers and assigned a zodiac sign. Then, in table
group, discuss the personality traits based on the Ask students to
horoscope column in the newspaper (Reading and underline the
Speaking) adjectives

4. Students prepare some simple and compound
sentences based on the information given in the
zodiac signs and write on a poster sheet. Present it to
the class (Speaking and Writing)

15 mins Plenary Activity: 2 Stars and A Wish

Gallery walk: Noting the information given and add


any other information (Use the post- it note,
Traffic Light cards
students give one or two stars and write one wish.)

Write TWO paragraphs about your friend/a famous
Homework: personality

Sample Differentiated Activity (for the lesson above)


Basic Level
Students are given a set of sentence strips. Each strip has a simple sentence describing a
student in the class (from that group). Students sort out and arrange in sequence. Then write
the sentences in their exercise books.

Intermediate Level
Students are given some adjectives related to the picture given. They write simple and
compound sentences.

Advanced Level
Students write their own sentences based on the picture given

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Some Suggestions:
Can use traffic lights when the teacher is explaining and also during group activity.
Main Activity 3: teacher can give different zodiac signs and ask students to tabulate
their group members personality traits on a poster sheet and present it to the
class.(see sample below)

Sample Presentation: (Write on a poster sheet)

Good morning everyone. Today, I would like to describe about my group members to
you. The person on my right is Simon, who is loving and creative. Sitting beside him
is Amirul. He is a loving and hardworking boy. Next, is Erna, the most hardworking
girl in the class

Use 2 STARS and A WISH during Gallery Walk







Which self assessment or peer feedback strategies work most effectively with your

students? What is your evidence that these strategies are effective?















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MY PERSONAL ACTION PLAN


NAME:. DATE:.

My goal is

To achieve this I will

What I did(give details of


your actions)

What was successful?...(give


details and examples)

What were the challenges?


(give details and examples)

Next, I am going to(create a


new personal action for your
next steps)

(Source:Teacher Toolkit:Differentiated Teaching & Learning, ELTC)

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Program Pembangunan Kualiti


Pengajaran Guru Di Bawah Program
Transformasi Daerah
(Dtp)

MODUL ASAS PENGAJARAN DAN PEMBELAJARAN


ABAD 21
(MAPPA 21)

PILLAR 4

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PILLAR 4: COLLABORATIVE & COOPERATIVE LEARNING

A. COLLABORATIVE & COOPERATIVE STRATEGY

1. Learning Objectives and Success Criteria


2. What is Collaborative Learning?
3. Why the need for Collaborative Learning?
4. Reflections

B. GROUPS

1. Questions asked when forming groups


2. What to avoid when working in groups?
3. Different groupings
4. Forming groups
5. Seating
6. Roles
7. Reflection

C. IMPLEMENTATION

1. Types of collaborative strategies


2. Suggested activities
3. Checklist for successful group work
4. Reflection

"The strength of the team


is each individual
member. The strength of
each member is the
team. " - Phil Jackson

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COLLABORATIVE AND COOPERATIVE STRATEGIES

Objec^ves Teachers will be able to:


recognise the importance of using Collabora^ve and Coopera^ve strategies in
classroom.

iden^fy the need for various collabora^ve strategies for learners.

Success Criteria You will be successful if you can:


list the advantages of using this strategy to create a posi^ve learning
environment.

recognise suitable strategies for students according to their learning needs.

Reec^on Write your reec^on in the space provided.


Did you achieve the learning objec^ves?

How could you use the learning points here in your lesson planning?

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4.1 What is
collaborative
learning?
Collaborative learning activity involves learners working together in order to complete
a task. Collaboration increases the opportunities a student has to use the target
language, and thereby develop their skills in it.

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4.2 Why the need for


collaborative learning?
* How might this benet my students?

For learners to retain and comprehend knowledge, it must be placed in a conceptual


framework (Cooper, et al., 1997; Slavin, 1995). In the small group setting, the learner has the
opportunity to rehearse their understanding with others and to be exposed to other conceptual
constructs.

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4.3 AVOID !!

..allow a situation
where one or two
group members do
all the work and the
other students simply
sign their names to
the group product

..give the same ..a more talented


individual task to member to come up
several students and with all the answers,
tell them to talk dictate to the group,
about it or work separately

DO NOT

ask whoever finishes


first to help those not simply have students
sit together and talk
yet done

aggresive arguments

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4.4 Questions asked


when forming groups.

Factors to consider
keep the group
size of the group appropriate together throughout the
for the task? semester?
select the students for the groups or
allow students to select their
group?

form heterogeneous or
homogeneous groups? are students with different
ability levels placed in the same group?

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4.5 Different groupings

if students are completing a task according


to interest
social groups
person on either the left or right side of
student
shoulder partner

pairs facing each other

face partner

suitable for differentiated activities

ability groups students of similar abilities

mixed ability default grouping


less able learns from the more able

groups the more able benefits from coaching the


peers

4 members

table groups according to the tables they are seated at


suitable for pair structures

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4.6 Forming groups

Index cards
Put matching stickers on every set of two index cards. When it is time to choose partners
or groups, put cards face down on a table and have students come up and pick a
card. Students then find their sticker match.

Numbered sticks
Put a number on one end of each one - up to the number of kids in the class. Number the
students in the beginning of the year as well. Keep the "sticks" in a cup, number down.
When it's time for partner work, pull 2, or 3, or 4 (whatever size groups you need) at a
time and those numbered kids work together. The "sticks" are also good for choosing who
answers a question during a discussion.

Puzzle pieces
Cut the pictures from an old calendar, and have them laminated, then cut them into puzzle
shaped pieces. Have the kids each pull a puzzle piece from a basket and then tell them to
go find the other pieces to their puzzle and when their puzzle is complete to sit at a group
of desks and raise their hands.

Coloured Bracelets
Put colored bracelets into a paper bag and have students select one. Students with the
same colours are grouped together.

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4.7 Seating

Group
work
seating
position

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4.8 Roles

each member in the group should be assigned a role.

the individual roles should be rotated after a certain time period.

give each group a set of the tent cards

one side of each tent card displays the student's job title and the
other side lists the responsibilities for that job.

display the job titles facing the other members of the group, so that
everyone knows what each member is doing.

give each student has a list of reminders of what their

responsibilities are.

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4.9 Tent cards and


markers for group
work roles

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4.10 Types of
collaborative
strategies
Buzz groups

Clarify the activity.


Ask if there are any questions Do this before forming groups and before
handing out the activity sheets so as to ensure their attention is still on you.
Arrange the class into groups of 3/4. Usually they can do this by turning to those
nearest them.
Start the session, then circulate and monitor.
Tell the participants when there is one or two minutes left in the activity and
remind them to choose a presenter, if necessary.
End the activity.
Ask each group to report to the larger group, and discuss the feedback.

List 5 behaviors or actions that can undermine good group function.


Report out in 5 minutes.

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Think-pair-share

THINK PAIR SHARE


This strategy has three steps.

First, students think individually about a particular question or scenario.


Then they pair up to discuss and compare their ideas.
Finally, they are given the chance to share their ideas in a larger group discussion.

Think about how you might use collaborative learning strategies in your
classroom. Turn to a partner and discuss. Share your findings with a
larger group.

NAME: PARTNERS NAME:

WHAT MY WHAT WE
WHAT I
QUESTION/PROMPT PARTNER WILL
THOUGHT
THOUGHT SHARE

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Circle of Voices

This method involves students taking turns to speak.


Students form circles of four or five.
Give students a topic, and allow them a few minutes to organize their thoughts about
it.
Then the discussion begins, with each student having up to three minutes (or choose a
different length) of uninterrupted time to speak. During this time, no one else is
allowed to say anything.
After everyone has spoken once, open the floor within the subgroup for general
discussion.

When When round two discussions start, one can only talk about another
persons ideas that has already been shared in the first round


This is a version of show and tell that works for any age.

Invite each student to bring something special from home to share with the class. Be
sure to discuss what is and is not appropriate to bring.
Remind them the day before the circle.
Be sure to put a nice large fabric on the floor in the center of the circle for this
activity.
In the circle, go around and have each student in turn show their something special
and put it in the center on the fabric. Encourage them to arrange their item so it
becomes part of a collage or sculpture. Some students may forget to bring an item; it
works very well to simply have them describe what they would have brought and
what it means to them, and then to have them pantomime placing the object in the
center with the others.
If time permits, invite students to share a second round focusing on what they thought
about telling the class, but did not say
After everyone has shared take a few moments to appreciate the objects in the center.
You can ask students if they notice any patterns, similarities, or differences in what
people shared.
To close the circle, have each student in turn pick up their item (including the
imaginary items placed by those who forgot to bring something) and return to their
seats while the whole class remembers out loud what they shared about the item and
why it is special to them.

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ROTATING STATION

TYPE 1

Locate each small group at a station where they are given 10 minutes to discuss a task
and record their ideas on poster sheets.
When this time is up the groups move to new stations in the classroom where they
continue putting ideas on the poster sheet left by the previous group.
Rotations continue every 10 minutes until each group has been at all of the positions
and has had a chance to consider and contribute to all of the other groups' comments.
Teachers can use this model within a traditional classroom setting by simply breaking
students into small groups and having them rotate through different stations set up
around the classroom or rotating the whole class through a series of learning activities

TYPE 2 ( BLENDED LEARNING)

Students rotate through learning stations either on a fixed schedule or at the teachers
discretion. (as shown below)
At least one of the stations must be an online learning station for this to be considered
a blended learning model.
This is an easy model for teachers who are shifting from a traditional teaching model
to a blended learning model.

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Rotating trios
Form groups of three students.
Direct the students to assign numbers to each group member (1, 2, or 3).
Distribute a set of questions for the group to discuss and set a time limit (10 minutes)
for the discussion.
Call time after the discussion dies down or the time limit has been reached.
Direct the number 1s to stay put and raise their hands.
Direct the number 2s to move to the group on their left.
Direct the number 3s to move to the group on their right.
Distribute another (more complex) set of discussion question
Rotate trios in this manner as many time as desired.

In your panel , take 4 minutes to brainstorm on the skills that could be practiced using
Rotating Trio.

Role-play
Provide a situation for a small group to act out.

Role-play a situation where you have had to return an item to a shop or make a complaint.
Role-play a conversation between a doctor-patient, father son, waiter-diner.

This activity can be turned into an online discussion. Ask for groups to post
discussions on an issue (eg bullying). Have members interact online with each other in their
given role (e.g parent/teacher/student/bully)

Be wary of the content and what students are asked to do!

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Jigsaw
Divide students into groups of five or six.
Assign a group leader.
Divide the assignment up into sections that equal the number of students in each
group.
Give each student in each group one segment of this topic to learn.
Students take the required time to learn their part of the topic, and form a second set
of groups based on the topic.
Students take turns sharing what they've learned and fill in any gaps, becoming
experts on their part of the lesson and rehearsing what they will be presenting to their
main group.
Each group member then returns to his / her original group and teaches what she/he
has learned

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Inside-Outside Circle
Students stand in two concentric circles, facing a partner. The inside circle faces
out; the outside circle faces in.
Students use flash cards to ask questions of their partner, or they may take turns
responding to a teachers question(s).
Partners switch roles: outside circle students ask, listen, then praise or coach.
After each question or set of questions, students in the outer or inner circle rotate
to the next partner. (Teacher may call rotation numbers: Rotate three ahead.)

Simulations and games


Provide a real world opportunity for rehearsal in the safety of a group

Simulate a bus crash and respond with the appropriate first aid

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Learning teams
Students are divided into groups at the beginning of the term. When teacher wants to
incorporate small group discussion or teamwork in class, Direct the students to get into these
term-long learning groups. Groups of four work well, because each foursome can be
subdivided into pairs, depending on the activity. Using learning teams eliminates the time it
takes to organize students into groups each time you wish to use group work. However,
because students will be working with each other over an extended time period, be very
careful about how you assign them to groups. You might want to ask them also to suggest the
names of two or three classmates with whom they would and would not like to work.

Three-step interview
Three-step interview is an effective way to encourage students to share their thinking,
ask questions, and take notes. It works best with three students per group, but it can be
modified for groups of four. The Steps are:
Place students into groups of three.
Assign each student a letter and a role. Example: A = Interviewer, B =
Interviewee, C = Reporter.
Rotate roles after each interview.
Have students do a Round Robin and share the key information they recorded
when they were person C.

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Fan-N-Pick
Students play a card game to respond to questions.

Student 1 holds question cards in a fan and says, Pick a card, any card!
Student 2 picks a card, reads the question out loud and allows five seconds of think
time.
Student 3 answers the question.
Student 4 restates the answer. a. For right or wrong answers, Student 4 checks and
then either praises or coaches. b. For higher-level thinking questions which have no
right or wrong answer, Student 4 does not check for correctness, but praises and
paraphrases the thinking that went into the answer.
Students rotate roles one clockwise for each new round.

Formations

The teacher announces a formation and the ground rules to all teams.
Each team puts their heads together to discuss how they will form the task (the
shape, letter, number, etc.), making sure they follow the ground rules, involve
everyone in their team, and use only their bodies to form the shape.
The team then creates the formation.

Students are divided into groups of 5.


Teacher then asks the group leaders to pick 5 alphabet letters from a bag of alphabet
letters, names of nature shapes and polygons, pictures of road signs, or household
objects.
Once each group has 5 shapes to form, they are given practice time to rehearse the
formations.
Next they are required to come in front of the class and show it to their friends.

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Numbered Heads Together
Teammates work together to ensure all members understand; one is randomly selected to be
held accountable.

Students count off numbers in their groups.


Teacher poses a problem and gives wait time (Example: Everyone think about how
rainbows are formed. [Pause] Now make sure everyone in your team knows how
rainbows are formed.)
Students lift up from their chairs to put their heads together, discuss and teach.
Students sit down when everyone knows the answer or has something to share or
when time is up.
Teacher calls a number. The student with that number from each team answers
question individually, using: a. Response cards b. chalkboard response c.
manipulatives d. slate share

Dialogue activity

On the bulleted lines provided , ask students to write six lines of conversation between
two characters. The more one student writes, the better, and easier, the story will be for
his/her partner. The other lines are reserved for a partner to continue the story. The rule
for both partners, is that no more conversation can be added, and the writer or partner can
not write he said, she said, they replied, etc.

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Find the Fiction
Students pick out the fictitious statement from a set of three statements.

Teammates write 3 statements: two true, one false.


One student on each team stands, then reads his or her statements to teammates.
Without consulting teammates, each student writes down his or her own best guess as
to which statement is false.
Teammates discuss and reach consensus on their best guess.
Teammates announce their guess.
The standing student announces the false statement.
Students celebrate: If the team guessed correctly, the standing student claps for
teammates. If the team was stumped and didnt guess correctly, teammates clap for
the standing student.
The next teammate stands to share. The process is repeated from Step 2.

A writing game
A student passes a message to another student who builds upon it, and then passes it
on to another student. Like a collage a story emerges.
Student 1 passes student 2 a description of a person.
Student 2 adds a context, and passes to student 3 who adds an event.
All three students concur on the writing. This can be continued until a complete story
is formed or a pre-determined time frame.
The story parts will be written on poster sheets

Student Debate
Four speakers in each team (for and against the motion)
First speaker introduces all the ideas that team has generated
Second speaker outlines two or three more ideas in some depth
Third speaker outlines two or three ideas in some depth
Fourth speaker criticises the points made by the other team
Each individual speaker has two minutes to speak (or more of course), with protected
time of thirty seconds at the beginning or the end
The rest of the team is the Floor and can interject at any time by calling out Point of
Information and standing. The speaker can accept or reject an interjection.

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Build an Outline for developing an argument on the topic given


Advantages and disadvantages of using collaborative learning strategy in
classrooms

More suitable for secondary school students


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4.11 SUGGESTED
ACTIVITIES

Sparkle, a spelling activity. Sparkle is a game to practice spelling words


from the word list. Everybody in the group stands in a circle to play. The
caller says a spelling word. The next person uses the word in a sentence.
Then players go around the circle to spell the word, adding one letter at a
time. If the group spells the word correctly, the person who finishes
spelling it says "sparkle" to the next person in the circle. The person who
gets "sparkled" gently floats into his or her chair like sparks falling from
the sky. If a student makes a mistake along the way, he or she "sparkles"
and sits down when the caller or another student notices the error.

Guess the Word is a vocabulary activity. An index card with a word


written on it is taped to a students back. The rest of the group members
give three clues to help the student guess the word. If the student guesses
correctly after hearing the three clues, another student stands and has a
word taped to his/her back. If the student guesses incorrectly, she/he can
ask for three more clues.

Vocabulary words must be familiar to the students

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Match-Up is usually used as a reading activity. Match-Up requires


some preparation on the teachers part. Print a poem, or a text on a
sheet of paper. Make copies of the page and cut it into strips with one
line on each strip. Shuffle the strips, then distribute them, one per
child.
A child stands and reads from his/her strip. Other children who have
The same strip raise their hands and these children form a small
group.
Continue until all children are in small groups. Then each group of
children reads their strips aloud, presenting the poem or text in
sequence.

Map Quest - Students are both given a map (can be authentic or


teacher made). One student asks for directions to a particular place
on the map and the other student gives directions. Students switch
roles and repeat activity.

Guess my secret - Each student receives a secret identity taped to their


back by the teacher. The identity may be an illustration, picture of a
famous person, quotation, math problem or proof, vocabulary word, or
a significant event. Students must wander around the room asking
yes/no questions of their classmates to determine their secret identity.
Each student that is asked a question must sign the students identity
page. (Optional: Teachers can provide a set of interview questions that
students may ask.) Teachers may limit the number of questions that
can be asked or the time provided to discover ones identity.

Four Corners Put up a different topic in each corner of the room


and ask students to pick one, write their ideas about it down, then head
to their corner and discuss opinions with others who also chose this
topic.

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Pass me the snowballs - Students will have fun locating the answers to
questions after tossing wads of paper across the room.
Half the students in the class receive questions to answer or terms to
define written on a colored sheet of paper.
The other half of the students receives answers to the questions or a
definition for a vocabulary term written on a different color of paper.
All students with the same color of paper line up and face the others
who have a different color.
The teacher draws an imaginary line down the center and instructs the
students to wad up their papers and toss them over the imaginary line.
Each student collects one of the snowballs that falls on their side of
the line and then tries to find the student who is holding the match.

Whats next - Select a story appropriate to the proficiency level of the


students. Cut up a copy for each team into 4 strips. Mix up the strips and
place them in an envelope. Team members each take one strip out of the
envelope at a time and read it to the team. The teams then decide the
sequence of the parts in the story. Each team member can read his or her
part of the story as a team presentation

To increase the difficulty of the activity, select a longer story and


cut the story into 8 or 12 strips, or choose a story in which the order of
events could vary without changing the outcome.

Describe me - Students work in partners and compete to draw the most


accurate image. One partner holds an image in their hand and describes
the image to the other partner who tries to draw the image. Once the
image is competed partners can switch roles and repeat activity.

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Blindfold me - In partners, one student leads the blind-folded partner through an


obstacle course by giving verbal directions. Students can switch roles and repeat
activity.

Am I different? - Spot the difference is a name given to a puzzle where two


versions of an image are shown side by side, and the player has to find
differences between them. For this partner activity the pair has to figure out
what those differences are by asking each other questions. For second language
learning it is important to choose or create images that incorporate vocabulary
known by the student. By asking students to work in stages (5 differences at a
time) they will be less likely to get overwhelmed and find the task more
motivating.

Write-me-a-story-Write six lines of dialogue on the bulleted lines. When finished


with the dialogue, pass your paper to the person sitting behind you to complete the
story. (Your partner will write three sentences before each spoken word and three
sentences after.) Do not offer any suggestions to your partner, or hint at what direction
you had in mind when writing the dialogue. Both of you will take turns to repeat these
steps till theres no more to write.

If students are practising a two-person dialogue, each student should have a


turn with each role. To take pair work one step further, the teacher should have
students work on the same activity in different pairs

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CHECKLIST FOR SUCCESSFUL GROUPWORK

The students should rate each criterion as "not at all," "some," or


"very much.")

Listen:
. We listened to each person's ideas each time we met. _____
. We used at least one idea from each person. _____

. We encouraged every participant to share. _____

Define responsibilities:
. We invited volunteers for each task. _____
. Every person chose a meaningful part. _____

. We took turns facilitating the others' input. _____

Value each person's gifts:


. We can describe the strengths of each person in the group. _____
. We can identify what each enjoys doing most. _____

. We give encouragement where people show weakness. _____

Model excellence:
. Each person had opportunities to show his or her
best work to the group. _____
. We encouraged everybody to bring his or her
very best work. _____

. Together we set goals for excellence. _____

Promote humor
. We laughed together. _____
. We did not laugh at each other's efforts. _____

. We worked together to enjoy our entire group. _____

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My Personal Action Plan
Name
Date

My goal is to

To achieve this I
will

What I did
(give details of your
actions)

What was successful?


(give details of your
actions)

What were the


challenges?
(give details of your
actions)

Next, I am going to
(create a new
personal action for
your next steps)

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Program Pembangunan Kualiti


Pengajaran Guru Di Bawah Program
Transformasi Daerah
(Dtp)

MODUL ASAS PENGAJARAN DAN PEMBELAJARAN


ABAD 21
(MAPPA 21)

PILLAR 5



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PILLAR 5: QUESTIONING & THINKING SKILLS

A. QUESTIONING SKILLS

1. Learning Objectives and Success Criteria


2. Purposes of Questioning
3. Types of Questions
4. Questioning Techniques
5. Approaches in Questioning
6. Strategies for Questioning
7. Tools for Questioning
8. Reflection

B. THINKING SKILLS

1. Learning Objectives and Success Criteria


2. Teaching Thinking
3. Thinking Skills in The Classroom
4. Thinking Tools
5. Reflection

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QUESTIONING SKILLS

Objec^ves Teachers will be able to:


recognise and iden^fy the importance of ques^oning

iden^fy and use dierent types of ques^ons, strategies and approaches in


ques^oning

Success Criteria You will be successful if you can:


list dierent type of ques^ons for various purposes

recognise a good ques^oning strategies for eec^ve teaching and learning


session

Reec^on Write your reec^on in the space provided.


Did you achieve the learning objec^ves?

How could you use the learning points here in your lesson planning?

INTRODUCTION
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Questioning is one of the most important skills for teachers. This is where the heart of
thinking and learning lies. It is a valuable tool in helping students learn and make sense of
their world. It encourages deeper thinking and creativity.

1. The purposes of questioning:


Teachers use questioning as part of their teaching for many reasons, but often for the purpose
of:
Assessing cognition
Verification
Creative thinking
Evaluating
Productive thinking
Motivating
Instructing

Look at the list below, which describes ten reasons for asking questions. Tick () next to the
ones you think are most directly related to monitoring progress?

No. Purpose
1 To arouse interest and curiosity about a topic.

2 To focus attention on a particular issue or concept.

3 To develop an active approach to learning.

4 To stimulate children to ask questions of themselves and others.

5 To structure a task in such a way that learning will be maximised.

6 To diagnose specific difficulties that prevent children from learning.

7 To communicate to the class that they are expected to be involved in the lesson.

8 To provide an opportunity for children to assimilate and reflect upon information.

9 To help the development of thinking skills.

10 To express a genuine interest in the ideas and feelings of children.

Note: The ones unpicked are related to helping students learn and to better understand how
they learn.
2. Types of questions:

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The kind of question asked will depend on the reason for asking it. Questions are often
referred to as open or closed.
CLOSE-ENDED QUESTIONS

CLIP 1:
Did you watch the television
yesterday?
(Question offering two
choices Eg. Yes / No)
CLIP 2:
Which of these shops do you
prefer?
(Question offering three or
more choices)
CLIP 3:
How far (to the nearest
kilometre) did you travel
today to reach this
supermarket?
(Question specifies a
particular value / fact)

OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS

CLIP 1:
Why did you join the English
Club?
(Question that respondents
can answer in an unlimited
number of ways)
CLIP 2:
What is the first thing that
comes to mind when you hear
the word ENTERTAINMENT?
(Question involving word
association)
CLIP 3:
I wonder what would happen
if people can breath
underwater?
(Question which reflects)

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Classify the following questions into two different categories according to the types of
responses that they require:

No. Question Types of questions

1 How many days are there in one week?

Look at this photograph of oil tankers. Why do you think some are
2
smaller than others in the picture?

3 Is Manila the capital city of Philippines?

4 Explain the best way of drawing a square.

FURTHER EXAMPLES ON QUESTION TYPES:

Types of Questions

Asks for information


Soliciting
Which of the materials conduct energy?

Proposes the course of action to take


Guides one in thinking of an alternative
Directing
How can you reach the town one hour earlier?
How can an electromagnet be made stronger?

Calls for weighing evidences or assessing the effect of some factors or


condition
Evaluating
Why did the insects die in a tightly-closed container?
Why do wet clothes dry faster on a sunny day?

Asks for something be done

Responding Which part of a book will you consult for the meaning of some terms?
What should you do so that you will get the correct answer in doing math
word problems?

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ACTIVITY 1: 20 QUESTIONS

Objective : To understand how limiting yes and no questions are.


Procedure :
1. Coach think of a famous person.
2. Teachers try to establish and identify the person by asking yes or no questions.
3. If the teacher cant guess after 20 questions then he/ she loses.
Discussion Questions :
Why is it hard to find the identity of the person using only yes and no questioning?

What types of questioning would make it better?

ACTIVITY 2: THE USE OF QUESTIONING

Objective : To understand how useful questioning can be.


Procedure :
1. Put the teachers into pairs.
2. Give one person a picture and explain that they have to explain to their partner
who has to draw it. The person doing the drawing is not allowed to speak or
show their drawing to their partner.
3. Repeat the task again with the same picture. However, this time the person
doing the drawing is aloowed to ask the person describing the picture questions.
Discussion Questions :
When was the most accurate picture produced?

Why do you think this is?

How do questions help us get more information and understanding?

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ACTIVITY 3: OPEN AND CLOSED QUESTIONS

Objective : To be able to use open instead of closed questions.


Procedure :
1. Coach explains that each teacher is given 3 lives.
2. Coach elicits the difference between open (why, how) and closed questioning
(who, what, when).
3. Coach explains that they are going to tell a story but it will depend on the
questions asked.
4. Begin a story such as Once upon a time, get the teachers to ask questions
about the story so as to developing it into an interesting story.
5. If the teacher ask a closed question they use 1 life . They will continue to play/
ask questions until they are out of their three lives.

Discussion Questions :
What happens to the story if closed questions are asked?

Which questions are harder to ask?

Why is it important to use open questions?

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3. Questioning Techniques:

In order to help students learn better, we need to think whether the responses that we receive
from students in class are those expected from the questions that we ask. Students learn better
if the questions they are asked are demanding but within their capabilities.

Effective Ways of Asking Questions:


Research (Borich 1996; Muijs and Reynolds 2001; Morgan and Saxton 1994;
Wragg and Brown 2001) suggests that lessons where questioning is effective are
likely to have the following characteristics:

i) Questions are planned and closely linked to lesson objectives.


ii) The learning of basic skills is enhanced by frequent questions, followed by the
exposition of new content that has been broken down into small steps.
iii) Closed questions are used to check factual understanding and recall.
iv) Open questions predominate.
v) Sequences of questions are planned so that the cognitive level increases as the
questions go on.
vi) Pupils have opportunities to ask their own questions and seek their own answers.
They are encouraged to provide feedback to each other.
vii) The classroom climate is one where pupils feel secure enough to take risks, be
tentative and make mistakes.
viii) Prompts are provided to give pupils confidence to try an answer;
ix) There is a no-hands approach to answering, where you choose the respondent
rather than have them volunteer;
x) Wait time is provided before an answer is required.

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4. Approaches in asking a question:
APPROACH STEPS USE

Ask a question Master this technique and use

A THE DEFAULT Pause it as your standard

Call on a student

Ask a question Use for conceptually


THE VOLUNTEER
B Pause challenging questions.

Wait for a raised hand

Use for conceptually


Ask a question
challenging questions and
C THE JUMP BALL Pause
when you need a fast answer
Call Any body

Use for simple but important


Ask a question
points that everyone should
D THE CHOIR Pause
know
Call Every body

Note: The most common approach used by teachers when questioning students is still the
hands up approach. However, using too many questions of a similar style can leave students
disengaged.

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Water Safety Page 2 of 2


Swimming at the beach Key Messages:
Always swim between the flags
Watch out for yourself and others
Always pay close attention to children
you are supervising in or near water
Read the safety signs/listen to the
life guards
Watch out for hazards: tides, waves,
rips and currents, holes.
order thinking skills.

Fishing off the rocks Key Messages:


Wear a life jacket
Wear shoes
Check swell and tide information
Never fish in rough or large sea
Never turn your back on the sea
Read warning signs.

Boating Well be back at the Key Messages:


boat ramp in an hour
Wear life jackets
The skipper is responsible for the safety
of everyone on board
Communications take two separate

MAPPA21
waterproof ways of communicating
Marine weather Check the local marine
each stage of the lesson in the spaces provided below. Make sure that
the questions formed are open questions which could generate higher

weather forecast before you go


Look at the pictures and study the information provided. Imagine you
are using this material for your reading lesson, prepare 3 questions for
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119
No alcohol.
ENGLISH LANGUAGE PARTNERS NEW ZEALAND
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PLANNED QUESTIONS:

1.


BEFORE
READING 2.

3.

1.


WHILE
READING 2.

3.

1.


AFTER
READING 2.

3.


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5. Various strategies for questioning.
We need to use a variety of styles that engage the whole class and elicit responses from all
students. Below are some of the strategies which you could adopt in your classroom.

Study the strategies / approaches below and complete the Gains &
Benefits column by discussing them with your coach.

NO. STRATEGY/APPROACH PROCESS GAINS & BENEFITS

Those who cannot answer are Encourages whole-class


allowed to nominate a fellow listening and participation.
student to suggest an answer Removes stress to enable those
1 Phone a friend on their behalf, but they still who cannot answer to
have to provide their own participate and builds self-
answer, perhaps building on esteem.
this.

A pupil is placed in the hot-


seat to take several questions
2 Hot-seating from the class and teacher.

A wears the cloak of the expert


to answer questions from the
3 Mantle of the expert class.

Previewing questions in
advance. Questions are
shared/displayed before being
4 Preview asked, or the start of the
lesson.

Answers or questions are


rehearsed in pairs

5 Pair rehearsal Pairs of pupils are able to


discuss and agree responses
to questions together.

Deploying specific targeted Facilitates informed


questions. Listen in to group differentiation.
Eavesdropping discussions and target specific
6 questions to groups and
individuals.

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Teacher models the use of Encourages students to
Who, What, Where, When rehearse enquiry and
and Why to set out a simple comprehension, can extend
5Ws:
information gathering into reasoning and
Modeling simple response based on the hypothesis.
7
exploratory questions to information provided.
Creates an inquisitive
gather information
disposition and a thinking/self
reflective approach to
learning.
Questions must be pre- Provides high challenge
planned, as very difficult to thinking, requiring more
High Challenge:
invent during a lesson. careful thought, perhaps
Phrasing questions Focus questions to address collaborative thinking and
8 carefully to concentrate analysis, synthesis, certainly longer more detailed
on Blooms Taxonomy evaluation and creativity, answers. For Able, Gifted
higher challenge areas based on Blooms and Talented.
Taxonomy.

Increasing the level of


Staging or
challenge with each
sequencing questions
9 question, moving from low
with increasing levels of
to higher-order questioning
challenge

Big questions cannot be These questions develop


easily answered by students deeper and more profound
when the question is posed. thinking. Big Questions are
They are often set at the often moral issues or
beginning of the lesson and speculative questions such
can only be answered by as, Where are we from? How
Big questions: the end of the lesson, using big is the universe? What is
all of the thinking based on the meaning of life?
The setting of a
10 all of the contributions to the
substantial and thought
lesson.
provoking question
They require extended
answers and usually rely on
collaborative thinking and a
personal interpretation of the
information provided.

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6. Tools for questioning to engage and encourage thinking and the exploration of
ideas.

a POSE, PAUSE, POUNCE & BOUNCE

b SA TIP

A strategy to engage with Reading text. The questions develop in order for the reader, to
form a sense of meaning from the text, to develop understanding and before the teacher might
use Blooms Taxonomy to set more challenging questions.

S SENSE meaning what is it about?

A AUDIENCE tone who is it intended for?

T TECHNIQUE what are the techniques that have been used - what is their effect?

I INTENTIONS What was the writers purpose?

P PERSONAL OPINION what is your reaction what do you start to conclude?

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c Creative questioning using SCAMPER


SCAMPER is a useful technique to extend all student's thinking and can provide real
imaginative opportunities for students to extend their work. The SCAMPER technique uses
a set of directed questions which students answer in order to come up with new ideas. The
stimulus comes from answering questions that you (as a teacher) and students (as learners)
would not usually ask. It helps pupils to ask questions that require them to think 'out of the
box', helping to develop their critical thinking skills. It's also a useful tool for creative writing
and a stimulus for role play.

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d 6 thinking hats De bono

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THINKING SKILLS

Objec^ves Teachers will be able to:


recognise and understand the cogni^ve domain of Blooms taxonomy (revised)

iden^fy thinking skills which could be incorporated in the lesson

Success Criteria You will be successful if you can:


list higher order thinking skills using Bloom's Taxanomy (revised)

Iden^fy 1-2 instruc^onal strategies that facilitate higher order thinking in


classroom sepngs.

Reec^on Write your reec^on in the space provided.


Did you achieve the learning objec^ves?

How could you use the learning points here in your lesson planning?

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1. TEACHING THINKING
Students need to be taught the content of the subjects they learn but they also need to be
taught the thinking processes which they can use to think about the content or make good use
of the content. One of the ways is to ask good questions themselves. It is important to frame
the questions so as to develop into higher levels of thinking. Below are the six question levels
as defined by Benjamin Bloom (from the lowest to the highest).

BLOOMS TAXONOMY
Competence Skills Demonstrated Question Cues:
Remembering observation and recall of information list, define, tell, describe, identify,
knowledge of dates, events, places show, label, collect, examine,
knowledge of major ideas tabulate, quote, name, who, when,
mastery of subject matter where, etc.

Understanding understanding information summarize, describe, interpret,


grasp meaning contrast, predict, associate,
translate knowledge into new context distinguish, estimate, differentiate,
interpret facts, compare, contrast discuss, extend
order, group, infer causes
predict consequences

Applying use information apply, demonstrate, calculate,


use methods, concepts, theories in new complete, illustrate, show, solve,
situations examine, modify, relate, change,
solve problems using required skills or classify, experiment, discover
knowledge:

Analysing seeing patterns analyze, separate, order, explain,


organization of parts connect, classify, arrange, divide,
recognition of hidden meanings compare, select, explain, infer
identification of components

Evaluation compare and discriminate between ideas assess, decide, rank, grade, test,
assess value of theories, presentations measure, recommend, convince,
make choices based on reasoned select, judge, explain,
argument discriminate, support, conclude,
verify value of evidence compare, summarize
recognize subjectivity

Synthesis use old ideas to create new ones combine, integrate, modify,
generalize from given facts rearrange, substitute, plan, create,
relate knowledge from several areas design, invent, what if?, compose,
predict, draw conclusions formulate, prepare, generalize,
rewrite
Adapted from: Bloom, B.S. (Ed.) (1956) Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational
goals: Handbook I, cognitive domain. New York; Toronto: Longmans, Green.

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2. THINKING SKILLS IN THE CLASSROOM

In planning a unit of a lesson, based on the Blooms framework, teachers have four choices of
thinking skills as the purpose or outcome of the lessons. Study the table below and discuss
the items with your coach.

THE THINKING SKILLS


BLOOMS TAXANOMY
(The Four Choices)
CHOICE 2: CREATING/ DESIGNING
Acting like an INVENTOR SKILLS
- experiencing light bulb Largely aimed at more in-depth investigation,
moments to generate new exploration, and research. Students need to show
products, ideas or ways
HIGHER ORDER THINKING

more in-depth understanding, based on their


of doing things efforts.
CREATE
CHOICE 3: EVALUATING SKILLS
Acting like a SCALE OF Largely aimed at more in-depth investigation,
JUSTICE exploration, and research. Students need to show
- to weight the evidence to more in-depth understanding, based on their
make and justify a efforts.

decision
EVALUATE
CHOICE 2: ANALISING SKILLS
Acting like A Largely aimed at more in-depth investigation,
MAGNIFYING GLASS exploration, and research. Students need to show
- to identify the component more in-depth understanding, based on their
parts of an issue, situation efforts.

or object
ANALYSE
CHOICE 1: FOUNDATION THINKING
Acting to APPLY SKILLS
new skills, rules and
concepts, to related or new Largely skills-based. The purpose is for students
situation to show they can apply the materials taught, e.g.:

FOUNDATION THINKING

Write a basic letter to the editor


APPLY Comprehension skills

Data obtain for processing: Article or Charts


Acting like an EXPERT containing information on flies.
- showing understanding of
words, concepts, cause
& effect and reasons
for?
UNDERSTAND FOR EXAMPLE:

Acting like an INTERNET TOPIC / TITLE: FLIES
DATABASE The Big Question : To what extent
- to recall information, facts would we better of if we eliminate all
and data flies?


REMEMBER

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Based on what we have covered, plan the activities which will
incorporate the thinking skills on the topic Safety. Write your plan in
the table below. Insert the appropriate thinking tools for the activities
planned (you may refer to the notes under item 3 in this module).

CHOICE OF
ACTIVITIES THINKING TOOLS
THINKING SKILLS

FOUNDATION
SKILLS

ANALYSING
SKILLS

EVALUATING
SKILLS

DESIGNING
SKILLS

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We regularly use about twenty thinking processes to connect and make sense of
information in our lives for purposes like solving problems, making enquiry,
justifying actions, giving reasons or creating something. The thinking processes
are as follows which falls under 4 broad categories.

Crea`ve Thinking
- crea^ve consequences

- Analysing Designs
- Visual Crea^vity
- Crea^ve Thinking about Uses

Evalua`ve Thinking
- Dis^nguishing Facts from Opinion
- Dis^nguishing Denite from Indenite Conclusion
- Challenging Reliability of a Claim
- Dis^nguishing Relevant from Irrelevant Informa^on
- Decision Making
- Asking Beder Ques^ons

Analy`cal Thinking
- Analysing Rela^onships
- Analysing Paderns in Sequences

Organisa`onal Thinking
- Observing Proper^es
- Obseving Similari^es
- Observing Dierences
- Categorising
- Ordering in Terms of Size and Time
- Generalising

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3. THINKING TOOLS

Beside questing strategies, there are many thinking tools that a teacher could utilise in a
lesson. The following list will give you ideas for lesson .

3.1 iTHINK MAPS

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3.2 KWHL or KWL Chart

KWHL Charts (also called "What I Know" Charts, KWL charts, and Know-Wonder-Learn
charts), a graphic organizer that help the student organize what they know and what they
want to learn about a topic. A KWHL chart should be used before, during, and after a student
reads about a new topic.

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3.3 T Chart
T-Charts are a type of chart, a graphic organizer in which a student lists and examines two
facets of a topic, like the pros and cons associated with it, its advantages and disadvantages,
facts vs. opinions, what does it look like sound like etc.

3.4 Y Chart
Y-Charts are a type of three-part chart, a graphic organizer. For example, a student can use a
Y-Chart to help organize what they know about a topic by writing and/or drawing what the
topic looks like, feels like, and sounds like. The student must think about a topic with respect
to three of their senses, sight, and hearing.

3.5 X Chart
X Charts are a further extension of the T and Y Charts. They get us to the quality, or
dimension related to the topic

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3.6 THINKING KEYS

Seen below are the different types of thinkers keys and its application on the topic of internet
safety.

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The following is a template on the lesson components for a thinking
lesson. Plan a lesson based on the topic My School using this template.

Lesson Objectives :
(The main thinking skills to be
developed/ practised)

TUNE IN :
T (Connect & Prepare, a
cognitive ice-breaker)

HEADS TOGETHER :
(Think, Do, Review
H Introduction to The
Activity/ Task definition/
clarification/ exploration)

INVESTIGATE :
(Transfer and Compare
I whole class/ small groups
transfer their knowledge
& skills to another task)

NOW REFLECT! :
(Thinking about thinking -
N
to reflect upon how they
went about the task)

KEEP THINKING :
(Students are encouraged
to link these thinking skills
activities to their everyday
K
life and explore ways they
might use specific thinking
skills in a variety of
situations)

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Program Pembangunan Kualiti


Pengajaran Guru Di Bawah Program
Transformasi Daerah
(Dtp)

MODUL ASAS PENGAJARAN DAN PEMBELAJARAN


ABAD 21
(MAPPA 21)

PILLAR 6

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PILLAR 6 : DIFFERENTIATION IN THE CLASSROOM

A. GETTING TO KNOW THE LEARNERS

1. Learning Objectives and Success Criteria


2. Affective Attributes
3. Observational Tool
4. Multiple Intelligences
5. Student Survey
6. Teacher Self Evaluation
7. Action Plan
8. Reflection

B. DIFFERENTIATION

1. Learning Objectives and Success Criteria


2. Key Principles of Differentiation
3. Group Activity
4. Differentiation Approaches:
5. Differentiation by Content
6. Differentiation by Process
7. Differentiation by Product
8. Activity
9. Planning a Differentiated Lesson
10. Action Plan
11. Reflection

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GETTING TO KNOW THE LEARNERS

Objec^ves Teachers will be able to:


recognise the importance of posi^ve teacher-student rela^onships

iden^fy learner needs in order to group for dieren^a^on

Success Criteria You will be successful if you can:


list aec^ve apbutes which contribute to posi^ve teacher-student
rela^onships

recognise a good dieren^ated lesson based on students' mul^ple inteligences

Reec^on Write your reec^on in the space provided.


Did you achieve the learning objec^ves?

How could you use the learning points here in your lesson planning?

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Affective Attributes

The way teachers interact with students is important. It influences the students motivation
for learning. When a teacher shows positive behaviour, it is known as affective attributes.
Affective attributes are the values, attitudes and behaviours one demonstrates. Students
desire to learn is closely connected to the ways teachers care for, treat and respect the
students they teach. These attributes include:

the way the teacher interacts with


the students;

the level of respect the teacher


demonstrates towards the students;

the care the teacher demonstrates


towards students' learning progress

These behaviours are repeatedly cited by students as key attributes of a good teacher.
Students want their teacher to know them, like them and to set high expectations for their
learning.

Think back of your schooling years. Recall your favourite teacher.
What qualities did your teacher demonstrate that drew your attention to the
lesson?






(Adapted from Differentiatedd Teaching and learning: Teacher Tool Kit KPM)

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Observational Tool

Ask a fellow teacher or your SISC+ to use the observation tool below when you are teaching
in the class. This tool may bring some insights in identifying ways to improve teacher-student
relationships.

Affective attributes: Observational Tool


The teacher: How often? Comments
Always/Ocassionally/Rarely
greets the class with a smile

uses eye contact when talking


to the class

smiles when teaching

knows the each childs name


and calls the child by the
name
demonstrates a friendly
demeanour

engages the students on a 1


1 basis

relates to students interest

gives praises

acknowledges students when


they participate in class
activities
reprimands when the need
arises

(Adapted from Teacher Tool Kit: Differentiatedd Teaching and learning, ELTC, KPM)

How has the data help in your teacher-student relationship?


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Multiple Inteligences


We know our students are individuals. They do not learn at the same pace, neither do they
perform the same in a lesson. Knowing more about your students the type of intelligence
your students have will help you plan a lesson suited to their level, hence enhance
performance.

The theory of Multiple Intelligences (MI) was first proposed by Howard Gardner of Harvard
University in 1983. He developed a specific set of strict criteria to verify that intelligence
exists. Initially, there were seven identified intelligences but of late we see nine. Gardner
stresses that educators must realise the existence of these intelligences and states that
students learning would improve when information is presented in multiple ways in
accordance to their level of intelligence. Assessment should also be carried out in a variety of
means as it reflects the different ways students preferred to review instruction.

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Responding to Students Interests

Use the survey tool below to find out more about your students.

Student Survey

1. I like English when

2. I dont like it in English when

3. My favourite activity at school is

4. Once out of school, my favourite activity/activities is/are

5. The clubs I join in school are

6. The sports I enjoy include

7. From the above sports, my favourite is because

8. If I am given a chance to choose the topic to learn during the English lesson is
because

9. The hero in my life is because

10. At home, I have the responsibilities of

11. When I am with my friends, we will

12. Something about me that I want to share with you:

(Adapted from Teacher Tool Kit: Differentiatedd Teaching and learning, ELTC,KPM)

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The responses to the above survey is important to me as a teacher because

This is just a tip to include all MI in the teaching of a reading class. Please do
bear in mind that it is not a must to have all nine different activities in each
lesson. We may differentiate three to four activities accordingly.

After students have completed a reading text, teachers may devise the following activities
according to the MI chart:

Linguis^c Write as cri^que to the ar^cle read.

Logical Count how many words start with w in the


text and calculate the percentage to all words.

Visual Design a poster based on the informa^on


from the text.

Musical Create a jazz chant about the ar^cle read.

Kinesthe^c Perform a pantomime based on the


informa^on from the rext.

Interpersonal Group discussion on the main ideas for


summary wri^ng.

Reect why is the leder w read as double u


Intrapersonal and not double v
Students are led to the eld to collect items
Naturalis^c related to the text (with help of another teacher).

Recall the info from the text and how you can oer
Existen^al to help make the world a beder place to live.

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Teacher Self-Evaluation
Teachers name: ___________________________________
Date: _____________________

Adributes Do you have posi^ve rela^onship with your students?


Evidence...

Interest Do you know your students' interest?


Evidence...

M.I. Are you aware of the dierent intellingeces of your students?


Evidence...

Styles Do you know your students' learning styles?


Evidence...

Achievement What are your evidence to show students' achievement?


Evidence...

Planning What are your considera^on when planning a lesson?


Evidence...

(Adapted from Teacher Tool Kit: Differentiatedd Teaching and learning, ELTC,KPM)

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Action Plan
Teachers name: ___________________________________
Date: _____________________

My goal is
to ...

To achieve
this I will ...

What I did

What was
successful ..

The
challenges ...

Next, I am
going to ...
(Adapted from Teacher Tool Kit :Differentiatedd Teaching and learning, ELTC, KPM)

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DIFFERENTIATION

Objec^ve Teachers will be able to:


understand the importance of dieren^a^on in lesson planning

dieren^ate lesson planning to meet students' learning needs

Success Criteria You will be successful if you can:


say the key principles of dieren^ated learning

create a lesson plan following the three dieren^a^on approaches

dieren^ate for the dierent levels


Reec^on Write your reec^on in the space provided.
Did you achieve the learning objec^ves?

How could you use the learning points here in your lesson planning?

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What is differentiation?

Content Process Product

Knowing the Knowing the Knowing how


curriculum to students' learning is
plan a lesson abili^es to demonstrated
execute the
lesson

Differentiation simply means a framework for effective teaching that involves using the
current curriculum to provide different students with different avenues to learning.
Differentiated classrooms have also been described as ones that respond to student variety in
readiness levels, interests and learning profiles. Teachers can differentiate through the
content, process and product for a more meaningful lesson.
(Tomlinson, 1995)

Key Principles of Differentiation

Equal
Interest

Challenge
& Extend Relevance

Key Principles

Flexible
Purposeful Grouping

Individual
capacity

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In your group, trade these cards in the Quiz-Quiz-Trade activity (Kagan, 2009).

Equal Interest Relevance

Differentiated activities should be of Differentiation needs to be relevant and


equal interest for students. It will be fair appropriate according to the interest of the
for all students to learn what they enjoy. students.

Challenge and Extend Flexible Grouping

All students can be challenged and Groups can be change day by day depending
extended regardless of ability if the work on the learning needs. Groups can be of mixed
is at the appropriate level. ability, ability groups or of interests.

Purposeful Develop Students Individual Capacity

Differentiation needs to be purposeful The essential reason for differentiation is to


planned for only when a need is develop every students potential.
established.

How do you plan your lesson for your students?


Do you consider their interests and levels in your planning? List your
considerations. What are some of the strategies you use in planning?






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Differentiation by Content

The content of lessons may be differentiated based on what students already know. The most
basic content of a lesson should cover the standards of learning set by the ministry. The
teacher may differentiate the content by designing activities for groups of students that cover
different areas of Blooms Taxonomy. For example, students who are unfamiliar with the
concepts may be required to complete tasks on the lower levels of Bloom's Taxonomy:
knowledge, comprehension, and application. Students with partial mastery may be asked to
complete tasks in the application, analysis and evaluation areas, and students who have high
levels of mastery may be asked to complete tasks in evaluation and creation.


Simplified content: Simplify the written text for less able learners and provide more
challenging texts for able learners. This means you may need to use more than one type of text
in a lesson, e.g. two different reading comprehension texts.

Accessible text: Make the text more accessible for learners by highlighting key ideas. This
means you can use the same text for all learners, but for the less able, highlight the important
ideas in their text in advance of the lesson.

Link content to student interests: Choose content which matches the students interests.
Students are more willing to read about what interests them. A mathematics genius would
prefer to read a complex maths text, but would you?

Multiple Intelligences: Teach content in different ways to meet the needs of students
preferred learning styles, e.g., visual, auditory, kinaesthetic. This doesnt mean that you need
many different types of learning activities in one lesson, but over time you should aim to
include multiple intelligences in your lesson plans. This will make your lessons more
interesting and engaging.

Vocabulary Lists: Provide a list of new vocabulary for the less able students. Translations
are helpful.

Word Walls: display words and definitions relevant to the topic on the walls.

Pictures: Use pictures to help the less able students understand the content.

Dictionaries: Provide dictionaries for all students. Provide different levels of dictionaries for
different levels of students.

Global connections: Bring the outside world into the classroom through trips.

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Differentiation by Process

The process of how the material in a lesson is learned may be differentiated for students
based on their learning styles, taking into account what standards of performance are required
for the age level. This stage of differentiation allows students to learn based either on what
method is easiest for them to gain knowledge or what may challenge them most. Information
may be presented in multiple ways by the teacher, and may be based on any available
methods or materials. Many teachers use areas of Multiple Intelligences to provide learning
opportunities. After teaching a lesson, a teacher might break students into small ability
groups based on their readiness. The teacher would then give each group questions, based on
each group's appropriate level of readiness-skills, related to the objectives of the lesson.
Another way to group the students could be based on the students learning styles. The main
idea behind this is that students are at different levels and learn in different ways, so a teacher
cant teach them all the same way.


Flexible grouping: Use flexible grouping (mixed ability groups, ability groups, interest
groups) depending on the task you want the students to do.
Mixed ability groups: students learn from each other in mixed ability groups. The
more able learn by teaching the less able, and the less able benefit. They often feel
more comfortable asking questions of their peers.
Ability Groups: When necessary, place students in ability groupings. This way
students can work on different levels of tasks and the teacher can provide extension and
support where needed.
Interest Groups: motivation will increase when students can choose a group
according to a common interest.

Tiered activities: all learners work with the same important understandings and skills, but at
different levels of support, challenge, or complexity. For example, students are given the
same content, but three different worksheets, with different levels of scaffolding. They are
called tiered activities as typically tasks are differentiated to 3 levels.

Anchor activities: These are activities students can do when they have completed their work.
They can be projects, additional tasks, games or puzzles. The activities should relate to the
learning objective/s. They are often referred to as enrichment activities. There should always
be a place in the class where students can get an anchor activity to work on when they have
finished their work.

Time: Some students are given more time to complete tasks. Other students are given less
time and can move on to extension or an anchor activity.

Translation: Provide first language translation for students who may need it.

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Instructions: Write written instructions on the board, as well as giving oral instructions. This
will help both visual and auditory learners.

Differentiation by Process

The product is essentially what the student produces at the end of the lesson to demonstrate
the mastery of the content: tests, evaluations, projects, reports, or other activities. Based on
students' skill levels and educational standards, teachers may assign students to complete
activities that demonstrate mastery of an educational concept (writing a report), or in a
method the student prefers (composing an original song about the content, or building a 3-
dimensional object that explains mastery of concepts in the lesson or unit). The product is an
integral component of the differentiated model, as preparation of the assessments determines
both the what and how of instruction delivery.

When an educator differentiates by product or performance, they are affording students


various ways of demonstrating what they have learned from the lesson or unit. It is done by
using menu unit sheets, choice boards or open-ended lists of final product options. It is meant
to allow students to show what they learned based on their learning preferences, interests and
strengths.

Examples of differentiated structures include Layered Curriculum, tiered instruction, tic-tac-


toe extension menus, Curry/Samara models, RAFT writing activities, and similar designs.

In differentiated instruction, teachers respond to students readiness, instructional needs,


interests and learning preferences and provide opportunities for students to work in varied
instructional formats. A classroom that utilizes differentiated instruction is a learner-
responsive, teacher-facilitated classroom where all students have the opportunity to meet
curriculum foundation objectives.

Differentiating the Product


Consider different ways students can demonstrate their learning.
They could:
talk about their learning
write (creative writing and factual writing)
use pictures
use mind maps and other graphic organisers
use software tools for presentations, such as PowerPoint
use drama
build models
use multi-media tools e.g., You Tube videos
make posters
use songs
write journal prompts
create role-plays
build word walls and/or vocabulary lists
participate in highly structured and interactive games

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State whether the following strategies are differentiated by Content, Process or Product.
Justify your answer.

Differentiation
No Activity Justification
(Content/Process/Product)

1 Vocabulary

2 Choice

3 Choice Board

4 Instructions

5 Pre-assessment

6 Levelled reading

7 Interests

8 Resources

9 Assessment Options

10 Time Allocation

11 Anchor Activity

12 Grouping

13 Adapting Reading
Texts
14 Tiered Activity

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Differentiate a lesson:

1. Choose your topic based on the theme for the week.


2. Write an outline of the lesson.
3. Choose your learning outcomes, then write your objectives.
4. Think of the success criteria to achieve
your objectives.
5. Plan your starter.
6. What are the activities you want to do? At this point, think of
the differentiation (content/process/product).

7. Write the plenary.

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Action Plan
Teachers name: ___________________________________
Date: _____________________

My goal is
to ...

To achieve
this I will ...

What I did

What was
successful ..

The
challenges ...

Next, I am
going to ...
(Adapted from : Teacher Tool Kit Differentiatedd Teaching and learning, ELTC,KPM)

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Program Pembangunan Kualiti


Pengajaran Guru Di Bawah Program
Transformasi Daerah
(Dtp)

MODUL ASAS PENGAJARAN DAN PEMBELAJARAN


ABAD 21
(MAPPA 21)

PILLAR 7

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PILLAR 7 : PROFESSIONAL KNOWLEDGE & REFLECTION

A. THE PROFESSIONAL LEARNING COMMUNITY


1. Learning Objectives and Success Criteria
2. Definition
3. The PLC Concept
4. Purpose of PLC
5. PLC Dimensions
6. The Collaborative Tools
7. Reflection

B. METHOD OF IMPLEMENTATION

1. Learning Objectives and Success Criteria


2. Personal Coaching
3. Group Coaching
4. Action Plan
5. Reflection

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PROFESSIONAL LEARNING COMMUNITY (PLC)

Objec^ve Teachers will be able to:


understand the importance of PLC
understand the purpose, dimensions and the big ideas on PLC
discover the collabora^ve tools in PLC

Success Criteria You will be successful if you can:


say the key principles of PLC

create a lesson plan for a Lesson Study

Reec^on Write your reec^on in the space provided.


Did you achieve the learning objec^ves?

How could you use the learning points here in your lesson planning?

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What is a PLC?

An ongoing process in which educators work


collaboratively in recurring cycles of collective
inquiry and action research to achieve better results
for the students they serve...
A PLC is composed of collaborative teams whose
members work interdependently to achieve common
goals for which members are mutually accountable
from Learning by Doing, 2nd ed

OBJECTIVES OF PLC

Student
Improve Improve Positive
Instructional Student Outcome
Practice Learning

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PLC Strategies



DE- COLLECTIVE FOCUS SHARED NORMS &
REFLECTIVE PRIVATIZATION ON STUDENT COLLABORATION VALUES
DIALOGUE LEARNING
OF PRACTICE

STUDY PEER DATA HORIZONTAL AND VISION


GROUPS COACHING ANALYSIS VERTICAL TEAMS ACTIVITY
USING CRITICAL NEW TEACHER
LESSON GUIDING
DISCUSSION FRIENDS INDUCTION /
STUDY PRINCIPLES
PROTOCOLS GROUPS MENTORING

LEARNING CURRICULUM PROBLEM VALUE


BOOK CLUBS SOLVING GROUPS
WALKS MAPPING ACTIVITIES

VIDEO COMMON
TEACHER INTERDISCIPLINARY
CRITIQUES OF COMMON
TEACHING
SHARING
ASSESSMENTS
UNITS AND RITUALS AND
SESSIONS PROJECTS PLC STRATEGIES
2013
MOMENTS 10

TOOLS FOR
COLLABORATIVE LEARNING
TEAMS
Learning Walk Teacher Sharing
Lesson Study Session
Peer Coaching Data Analysis
Action Research Book Club
Video Critique Others

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Have you ever been involved in a PLC? Why?

Is there any specific skills or knowledge that you would love to share with your
colleagues? List them below.

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elaksanaan PLC bergantung pada perkaitan antara dimensi berikut:
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DIMENSIONS OF

SHARED LEADERSHIP

SHARED VISION & VALUES

COLLECTIVE LEARNING & APPLICATION

SHARING PERSONAL PRACTICES

STRUCTURE

RELATIONSHIP
PPDKU:TOWARDS 21ST CENTURY E

MAPPA21 1

IN PREPARING TEACHING AIDS

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PPDKU:TOWARDS 21ST CENTURY EXCEL

MAPPA21

Soalan Perbincangan: Apakah tindakan-tindakan yang perlu dilakukan untu


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1. Menggerakkan PLC di sekolah?


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1. What are the necessary actions in order to ensure that PLC exists in
schools?

2. How do you make teachers be a part of the PLC?

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UNIT SISC+
PEJABAT PENDIDIKAN DAERAH KINTA UTARA,
SK SERI MUTIARA,
JALAN TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN,
30010 IPOH
PERAK DARUL RIDZUAN

POST TEST

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Answer the questions below:
1. How can a teacher play the role of a facilitator in class?

2. Have you gained any new knowledge or skill after using this module? Explain briefly.

3. Are you a 21st century teacher? Briefly describe the characteristics of a 21st century
teacher.

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UNIT SISC+
PEJABAT PENDIDIKAN DAERAH KINTA UTARA,
SK SERI MUTIARA,
JALAN TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN,
30010 IPOH
PERAK DARUL RIDZUAN

EVALUATION

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Pejabat Pendidikan Daerah Kinta Utara

EVALUATION OF THE MODULE MAPPA 21


SECTION A: RESPONDENTS PROFILE
Fill in the particulars and answer the questions below

Name of school
1 SMK
Type of school 2 SK
3 SJKC
Grade (DG)
Sex
Option
Subject taught

No of years teaching the above


subject

Academic qualification
1 Yes
Are you a master teacher?
2 No

If Yes, how many years of


experience being a master teacher?

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SECTION B: TEACHER QUESTIONNAIRE
Circle the numbers based on your personal view.
1. Dont know
2. Strongly disagree
3. Disagree
4. Agree
5. Strongly agree

BIL ITEM SKALA

1 Suitability of the module in your teaching. 1 2 3 4 5

2 Its informative, and provides the necessary skills 1 2 3 4 5

3 Sharing of knowledge relevant to the task of teaching. 1 2 3 4 5


Good opportunity to be involved in self-evaluation and
4 1 2 3 4 5
development planning.

5 Coaching by SISC+ is clearly defined 1 2 3 4 5

Better understanding of collaborative and cooperative


6 1 2 3 4 5
teaching and learning in the class.

7 Enhances confidence in classroom management. 1 2 3 4 5

8 Encourages creative and critical thinking 1 2 3 4 5


9 Explanation and illustrations are precise and brief 1 2 3 4 5
10 Activities are interesting and easy to carry out. 1 2 3 4 5

SECTION C: COACHING AND MENTORING OF SISC+


1. Have you benefited from your SISC+s coaching on :

a. Pedagogy?

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b. Content knowledge of the subject?

c. Attitude?

SECTION D: ISSUES OR PROBLEMS

1. What are the problems you faced during the coaching and mentoring session?

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SECTION E: SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT
1. Do you have any suggestions to improve on this module?

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REFERENCES

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REFERENCES
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Black, P. et al. (2003). Assessment for learning: Putting it into practice, Open University
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Chappus, S. & Siggins, R.J. (2002). Classroom Assessment For Learning. Educational
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Clarke, S. (1998). Targeting Assessment in the Primary Classroom, Hodder and Stoughton
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Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. New York:
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Glasson, T. 2009. Improving student achievement: A practical guide to Assessment for
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Pettig, K. L. (2000). On the road to differentiated practice. Educational Leadership, 58(1), 14-
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Martinez, Margaret. (2011). An investigation into successful learning measuring the impact
of learning orientation, a primary learner-difference variable, on learning. Brigham Young
University.
Sullivan, A (2002), Enhancing peer culture in a primary school classroom. Paper presented
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Shepard, L. A. (2000). The role of assessment in a learning culture [Electronic version].
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Stiggins, R. (2005). "From Formative Assessment to Assessment For Learning: A Path to
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Taras. M. (2007). Assessment for Learning: understanding theory to improve practice
Journal of Further and Higher Education, 31 (4) (2007), pp. 363371 Teacher Toolkit:
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Watts-Taffe, S., Laster, B., Broach, L., Marinak, B., McDonald Connor, C., & Walker-
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Wiliam, D. (Nov 2000). Integrating Summative and Formative Functions of Assessment


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