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# Modul 2

## Tekanan Statik Fluida

(Fluid Static Pressure)

Mekanika FLUIDA

Fluid Statics

Outline

Overview
Pressure at a Point
Basic Equations for the Pressure Field
Hydrostatic
yd ostat c Co
Condition
dto
Standard Atmosphere
Manometry and Pressure Measurements
Example Problems

1
Fluid Statics

## By definition, the fluid is at rest.

Or, no there is no relative motion between adjacent particles.
No shearing forces is placed on the fluid.
There are onlyy pressure
p forces, and no shear.
Results in relatively simple analysis
Generally look for the pressure variation in the fluid

Pendahuluan
tekanan permukaan.
p
Aturan Secara umum aplikasi fluida p
2. Berbagai gaya diantara fluida dan batasnya harus diberikan perlakuan
pada batas sudutnya (normal dibagian permukaan).

F F

## 2 (dua) prinsip penting tentang tekanan :

fluida.
garis yang tegak lurus.
Prinsipnya disebut dengan Pascals Law,

Fluid surfaces

## Figure 2.3: Batas bagian tekanan pada fluida yang

Figure 2.2 Tekanan bekerja secara seragam tegak lurus

2

Pascals Law

## Tekanan adalah Gaya Normal yang dikerjakan dalam unit

Blaise Pascal (1623-1662)

## Bagaimana perlakuan tekanan pada suatu titik ?

Pressure Forces
FB D
F.B.D. Gravity Force Wedged Shaped Fluid
Mass

## p is average pressure in the x, y, and z direction.

Ps is the average pressure on the surface
is the plane inclination
is the length is each coordinate direction, x, y, z
V = (1/2yz)*x
s is the length of the plane
is the specific weight

## Pressure at a Point: Pascals Law

For simplicity in our Free Body Diagram, the x-pressure forces cancel and do not need
to be shown. Thus to arrive at our solution we balance only the the y and z forces:

## Pressure Force Rigid body

Pressure Force motion in the y-
in the y-direction
on the plane in direction
on the y-face
the y-direction

## Pressure Force Pressure Force Rigid body

in the z-direction in the plane in Weight of the
motion in the z-
on the z-face the z-direction Wedge
direction

Now, we can simplify each equation in each direction, noting that y and z can
be rewritten in terms of s:

3
Pressure at a Point: Pascals Law

## Substituting and rewriting the equations of motion, we obtain:

Math

Now, noting that we are really interested at point only, we let y and z go to zero:

## Pascals Law: the pressure at a point in a fluid at rest, or in motion, is independent of

the direction as long as there are no shearing stresses present.

## Pressure at a Point: Pascals Law

p1xs
p2xs psxs

ps = p1 = p2

Note: In dynamic system subject to shear, the normal stress representing the
pressure in the fluid is not necessarily the same in all directions. In such a case the
pressure is taken as the average of the three directions.

## Pressure Field Equations

How does the pressure vary in a fluid or from point to point when no shear stresses are
present?

## Consider a Small Fluid Element

p is pressure
is specific weight
Surface Forces

Taylor Series

Body Forces

V = yzx

## For simplicity the x-direction surface forces are not shown

4
Pressure Field Equations

## Looking at the resultant surface forces in the y-direction:

Similarly, looking at the resultant surface forces in the x and z-direction, we obtain:

Then,

## Now, rewriting the surface force equation, we obtain the following:

Now, we return the body forces, and we will only consider weight:

## Pressure Field Equations

Use Newtons Second Law to Sum the Forces for a Fluid Element:

## Most General Form

for No Shear

5
Hydrostatic Condition: a = 0

0
Writing out the individual vector components:

This leads to the conclusion that for liquids or gases at rest, the Pressure gradient in
the vertical direction at any point in fluid depends only on the specific weight of the
fluid at that point. The pressure does not depend on x or y.

Hydrostatic Equation

## Pressure changes with elevation

Pressure does not change in the horizontal x-y plane
The pressure gradient in the vertical direction is negative
The pressure decreases as we move upward in a fluid at rest
Pressure in a liquid does not change due to the shape of the container
Specific Weight does not have to be constant in a fluid at rest
Air and other gases will likely have a varying
Thus, fluids could be incompressible or compressible statically

## Hydrostatic Condition: Incompressible Fluids

The specific weight changes either through , density or g, gravity. The change in g is
negligible, and for liquids does not vary appreciable, thus most liquids will be
considered incompressible.

## We can immediately integrate since is a constant:

where the subscripts 1 and 2 refer two different vertical levels as in the schematic.

6
Hydrostatic Condition: Incompressible Fluids

## h is known as the pressure head. The type of pressure distribution is known

as a hydrostatic distribution. The pressure must increase with depth to hold
up the fluid above it, and h is the depth measured from the location of p2.

## Physically, it is the height of the column of fluid of a specific weight, needed

to give the pressure difference p1 p2.

## Hydrostatic Condition: Incompressible Fluids

If we are working exclusively with a liquid, then there is a free surface at the liquid-gas
interface. For most applications, the pressure exerted at the surface is atmospheric
pressure, po. Then the equation is written as follows:
Berat jenis = .g

## The Pressure in a homogenous, incompressible fluid at rest depends on the depth of

the fluid relative to some reference and is not influenced by the shape of the
container.
Lines of constant Pressure

p = po
h1
p = p1
p = p2

For p2 = p = h + po
For p1 = p = h1 + po

## Hydrostatic Application: Transmission of Fluid Pressure

Mechanical
d t can b
be gained
i d with
ith equality
lit off pressures
A small force applied at the small piston is used to develop a large force at the large
piston.
This is the principle between hydraulic jacks, lifts, presses, and hydraulic controls
Mechanical force is applied through jacks action or compressed air for example

A2
F2 = F1
A1

7
Hydrostatic Condition: Compressible Fluids

Gases such as air, oxygen and nitrogen are thought of as compressible, so we must
consider the variation of density in the hydrostatic equation:

dp
Note: = g and not a constant, then = g
dz
p R is the Gas Constant
By the Ideal gas law: Thus, = T is the temperature
RT is the density

Then,

## Hydrostatic Condition: U.S. Standard Atmosphere

Idealized Representation of the Mid-Latitude Atmosphere

## Standard Atmosphere is used in

the design of aircraft, missiles
and spacecraft.

Stratosphere:
Isothermal, T = To

Troposphere:
Linear Variation, T = Ta - z

Starting from,

## Now, for the Troposphere, Temperature is not constant:

is known as the lapse rate, 0.00650 K/m, and Ta is the temperature at sea level,
288.15 K.

## Substitute for temperature and Integrate:

pa is the pressure at sea level, 101.33 kPa, R is the gas constant, 286.9 J/kg.K

8
Pressure Distribution in the Atmosphere

## Tekanan Absolut dan Tekanan Pengukuran

Secara umum Tekanan diukur pada tekanan absolut dan
tekanan pengukuran.
Tekanan Pengukuran (Gauge pressure)
Adalah diukur diatas atau dibawah tekanan atmosfir (i.e.
Tekanannya bisa positiv or negativ.
Tekanan ppengukuran
g negatif
g diketahui sebagai
g tekanan
vakuum.
Tekanan Absolut
Nol absolut, yaitu terletak paling terbawah.
Tekanan absolute selalu positiv.
Persamaan sederhana hubungan dua pengukuran tekanan

## Measurement of Pressure: Schematic

-
+

9
Tekanan Atmosfir
Mengacu pada tekanan tekanan disekelilling udara.
berubah dengan perubahan altitude.
Dari permukaan laut, rata-rata tekanan atmosfir adalah
101.3 kPa (abs), 14.7 psi (abs), or 1 atmosphere (1 bar =
1x105 Pa).
Acuan ini merupakan tekanan atmosfir.

10
Units for Pressure

## Unit Definition or Relationship

1 pascal (Pa) 1 N.m-2 = 1 kg m-1 s-2
1 bar 1 x 105 Pa
1 atmosphere (atm) 101,325 Pa
1 torr 1 / 760 atm
760 mm Hg 1 atm
14.696 pounds per sq. in. (psi) 1 atm

Contoh A :
Berapa tekanan pengukuran dan tekanan absolut pada air dikedalaman 12m dari
bawah permukaan ? jika air = 1000 kg/m3 dan Patm = 101 kN/m2

Jawab :

Pgauge = gh
= 1000 x 9.81 x 12
= 117.7 kN/m2 (kPa)
Pabs = Pgauge + Patm
= (117.7 + 101) kN/m2
= 218.7 kN/m2

Example 2.1
Tekanan terbaca 155 kPa (gauge) pada
tekanan absolut.
Tekanan terbaca 31 kPa (gauge) pada
tekanan absolut.
Tekanan
T k atmosfir
t fi llokal
d l h 101 kP
kPa
(abs).
Solution:
Pabs = Pgauge + Patm
Pabs = 155 + 101 = 256 kPa
Pabs = -31 + 101 = 70 kPa

11
Variasi Tekanan dan Elevasi (Ketinggian)

Gambar 2.
2 Variasi tekanan fluida
perm kaan bebas
Jika h diukur pada perbedaan elevasi z2 - z1 yang merupakan kedalaman yang diukur
Dari p2, jenis tekanannya disebut sebagai distribusi tekanan hydrostatika.

## Perbedaan tekanan diantara dua titik adalah :

p1 p2 p p
h= atau h= = Persamaan 2.6
g

P2, A
Area, A

Fluid h
Density
Z2

Z1
P1, A
Reference/datum

Figure 2.4:
2 4: Small cylindrical element of fluid

Carilah variasi tekanan dengan elevasi, jika silinder pada fluida mempunyai
luas A, dan tinggi (h = Z2 Z1), sekelingnya terdapat fluida dengan masa
jenis (density), .

yang dihitung dari titik nol (datum).

## Gaya tekanan pada P1 (upward) = P1A

Gaya tekanan pada P2 (downward) = P2A
Gaya berat pada elemen = mg = g (Z2-Z1) A

## P1A P2A - gA(Z2-Z1) = 0 Tekanan pengaruh gaya berat benda

P1 P2 = g (Z2-Z1) = gh (2.3)

or P2 P1 = - g(Z2-Z1) = - gh (2.3a)

an increase in elevation causes a decrease in pressure. (elevasi, Tekanan
a decrease in elevation causes an increase in pressure.(sebaliknya)

12
Contoh B :
pengukuran 200 kN/m2. Berapa ketinggian tekanan pada 2 jenis fluida
berikut :
head of water ( =1000 kg/m3)
Dan jika tekanan atmospheric, Patm = 101.3 kN/m2, berapa tekanan
absolut.

Jawab :
h= P/g
a) for water: h = 200x103/(1000x9.81)
= 20.39 m of water.
b) for mercury h = 200x103/(13.6x1000x9.81)
= 1.5 m of mercury
Absolute pressure = Patm + Pgauge
= 101.3 + 200 = 301.3 kN/m2.

Contoh C.
Gambar dibawah memperlihatkan sebuah tangki dengan satu sisi
terbuka pada permukaan atmosfir dan sisi lain tertutup dengan
udara diatas minyak (SG=0.90).
Hitung tekanan pengukuran pada titik A,B,C,D,E.

1m A

3m
Oil (SG = 0.90)

B D

2m
C

Jawab :
titik A, Permukaan terbuka pada minyak (atmosfir), bahwa :
PA= Patm = 0 (gauge)

## titik B, berada 3 m dibawah titik A, bahwa :

PB = PA + oil g h
= 0 + (998x9.81x3)
= .. kPa (gauge)

## titik C, berada 5 m dibawah titik A, bahwa :

PC = PA + oil g h
= 0 + (998x9.81x5)
= kPa (gauge)

PD = P B
= kPa (gauge)

## titik E, adalah lebih tinggi 1 m dari titik A, bahwa

PE = PA - oilgh
= 0 (998x9.81x1)
= - kPa (gauge).

13
Free surface
P2 = Patm

ya h

P1
y

Pada cairan yang terletak pada tekanan permukaan bebas dengan kedalam h diukur
dari permukaan bebas maka tekanan dapat dicari dengan persamaan (2.3) (figure).

Dari p ) P1 P2= g (y
persamaan ((2.3): (ya-y)
y) But yya-yy = h , and
P2 = Patm (atmospheric pressure)

## since it is at free surface), Thus,

.
P1 Patm= gh
P1 = Patm + gh (abs) (2.4)
or in terms of gauge pressure (Patm= 0),:

P1 = gh = h (2.5)

## Persamaan Tekanan pada Ketinggian yang sama dalam fluida statik

Fluid density,

A A
PR
Figure 2.7
PL Horizontal element
cylinder of fluid

W = mg

Elemen Silinder horisontal dengan luas penampang A didlam fluida dengan densitas
(
(masa i ) , Tekanan
d sisi
i i ujung
j ki
kirii d
d sisi
i i ujung
j kkanan.

x = 0.

() F = 0.
PLA PRA = 0
PL = PR (2.7)

## Measurement of Pressure: Barometers

The first mercury barometer was constructed in 1643-1644 by Torricelli. He
showed that the height of mercury in a column was 1/14 that of a water barometer,
due to the fact that mercury is 14 times more dense that water. He also noticed
that level of mercury varied from day to day due to weather changes, and that at
Evangelista Torricelli the top of the column there is a vacuum.
(1608-1647)

## Torricellis Sketch Schematic:

Animation of Experiment:

## Note, often pvapor is very small,

0.0000231 psia at 68 F, and
patm is 14.7 psi, thus:

14
Measurement of Pressure: Manometry

## Manometry is a standard technique for measuring pressure using liquid columns in

vertical or include tubes. The devices used in this manner are known as manometers.

## 1) The Piezometer Tube

2) The U-Tube Manometer
3) The Inclined Tube Manometer

The fundamental equation for manometers since they involve columns of fluid at rest
is the following:

## h is positive moving downward, and negative moving upward, that is pressure in

columns of fluid decrease with gains in height, and increase with gain in depth.

## Measurement of Pressure: Piezometer Tube

1)The pressure in the container has to
be greater than atmospheric pressure.
2) Pressure must be relatively small to
maintain a small column of fluid.
Move Up the 3) The measurement of pressure must
Tube
Closed End Container be of a liquid.
pA (abs)

## Moving from left to right: pA(abs) - 1h1 = po

Rearranging: p A po = 1h1
Gage Pressure

## Note: in the same fluid we can

Closed End jump across from 2 to 3 as
Container they are at the sam level, and
thus must have the same
pA pressure.

## The fluid in the U-tube is known

as the gage fluid. The gage fluid
type depends on the application,
i.e. pressures attained, and
whether the fluid measured is a
gas or liquid.

## Since, one end is open we can work entirely in gage pressure:

Moving from left to right: pA- patm = 2h2 - 1h1

## pA + 1h1 - 2h2 = P F=0

atm

Then the equation for the pressure in the container is the following:

15
Measurement of Pressure: U-Tube Manometer

## Measuring a Pressure Differential

Closed End
pB Container
Final notes:
1)Common gage fluids are Hg and
Closed End Water, some oils, and must be
Container immiscible.
pA 2)Temp. must be considered in very
accurate measurements
measurements, as the gage
fluid properties can change.
3) Capillarity can play a role, but in
many cases each meniscus will cancel.

## Moving from left to right: pA + 1h1 - 2h2 - 3h3 = pB

Then the equation for the pressure difference in the container is the following:

## This type of manometer is used to measure small pressure changes.

pB
pA
h2

l2 h2

h2
sin = h2 = l2 sin
l2
Moving from left to right: pA + 1h1 - 2h2 - 3h3 = pB
Substituting for h2:
Rearranging to Obtain the Difference:
If the pressure difference is between gases:
Thus, for the length of the tube we can measure a greater pressure differential.

## Contoh : Sebuah tangki berisikan udara tekan

dan Minyak (SGoil = 0,90), seperti terli
Sebuah U-Tube manometer berisikan
air raksa (SG hg) disambungkan ke tangki
tersebut. Tinggi kolom h1 = 36 inch,
h2 = 6 inch, dan h3 = 9 inch.

## Hitung tekanan pengukuran dalam psi.

(3) Tekanan dititik 1 :

p1 = pudara + pminyak
= pudara + miyak (h1+h2)

Tekanan dititik 2 :
p2 = patm + pHg
= patm + h
Hg 3
Tekanan di dititik 1 ini sama dengan dititik 2 :

p1 = p2 pudara + (h +h ) = patm +
miyak 1 2 Hg
h3
pudara = patm +
Hgh3 -
(h +h )
miyak 1 2
Patm = 0

16
Differential Manometer
Didalam beberapa kasus, perbedaan
tekanan antara dua titik diinginkan nilai
tekanan aktual lebih dari tekanan ditiap
titiknya.
Sebuah manometer menentukan
perbedaan tekanan yang disebut
perbedaan manometer (see figure).
tekanan akan naik atau turun pada
bagian ujungnya (dikedua ujung) dari
tube yyang
g berubah.
1
In the above figure:
P1 = PA + 1ga
P2 = PB + 1g(b-h) + mangh Figure 2.13: Differential manometer
But P1 = P2 (same horizontal level)
Thus PA + 1ga = PB + 1g(b-h) + mangh
or PA - PB = 1g(b-h) + mangh - 1ga
PA- PB = 1g(b-a) + gh(man - 1)
(2.10)

Pressure Gauges

## The pressure to be measured is applied to

a curved tube, oval in cross section.
Pressure applied to the tube tends to
cause the tube to straighten out, and the
deflection of the end of the tube is
communicated through a system of levers
to a recording needle.
This gauge is widely used for steam and
compressed gases.
gases
Figure 2.16: Bourdon tube pressure gauges
The pressure indicated is the difference
between that communicated by the
system to the external (ambient)
pressure, and is usually referred to as the
gauge pressure.

Example 2.6
Determine the pressure at point A in the figure below
if h1 = 0.2 m and h2 = 0.3 m. Use water = 1000 kg/m3.
Solution:

P2 = P1 + Hggh2

## But P1 = Patm (open to atmosphere) ==>P1 = 0 (gauge)

P2 = Hggh2
P3 = PA + waterg(h1+h2)

## We know that P2 = P3 (same horizontal level)

Thus
Hggh2 = PA + waterg(h1+h2) Points to be selected:

## 1 at the open end of the manometer

2 at the right leg of the manometer
PA = Patm + Hggh2 - waterg(h1+h2) 3 same level with point 2 but at left leg of
the manometer
PA = 13.54x1000x9.81x0.3 1000x9.81x(0.2+0.3) 4 same level as point A

## PA = 39, 848 - 4905 Pressure at the points:

P1=Patm
PA = 34.9 kPa (gauge) P2 = P3
P4 = PA

17
Measurement of Pressure: Mechanical and Electrical Devices

Spring
Bourdon Gage:

Diaphragm:

Modul 3

G
Gaya Hidrostatik
Hid t tik
(Hydrostatic Force)

18
Outline
Layer Fluid
Hydrostatic Force on a Plane Surface
Pressure Prism
Hydrostatic Force on a Curved Surface
Buoyancy, Flotation, and Stability
Rigid Body Motion of a Fluid
Example Problems

## Gaya Hidrostatik pada fluida berlapis

z=0
pa
Fluida 1 1 < 2
p = pa .g.z

p1 , z1
p1 = pa 1.g.z1

Fluida 2

p2 , z2
p = p1 2.g.(z-z1)

p2 = p1 2.g.(z2-z1)

## Gaya hidrostatik total : F = Fi = pCGi.Ai

19
Example 2.7
A 6-m deep tank contains 4 m of water and 2-m of oil as shown in
the diagram below. Determine the pressure at point A and at the
bottom of the tank. Draw the pressure diagram.

Patm
2m
oil
A water = 1000 kg/m3

SG of oil = 0.98
water
4m

Solution:
Pressure at oil water interface (PA)
PA = Patm + Poil (due to 2 m of oil)
= 0 + oil g hoil = 0 + 0.98 x 1000 x 9.81 x 2
= 15696 Pa
PA = 15.7 kPa (gauge)

## Pressure at the bottom of the tank :

PB = Patm + PA + water g hwater
PB = 0 + 15.7x1000 + 1000 x 9.81 x 4
= 54940 Pa
PB = 54.9 kPa (gauge)

## 2m oil PA=15.7 kPa

A

water
4m

PB = 54.9 kPA

Contoh 2 :
Sebuah tangki yang tingginya 20 ft dan lebarnya 7 ft, berisi lapisan-lapisan minyak setebal 8 ft, air
setebal 6 ft dan air raksa setebal 4 ft. Hitunglah :

## a. Gaya hidrostatik total di pusat tekanan

Penyelesaian :
Tekanan di pusat berat :

## CG1 Gaya total hidrostatik :

(1)
8ft F = pCG3 . A3 = 2506 . 16 . 7 = lbf
CG2

(2)
6ft CG3
(3)
4ft

20
Hydrostatic Force on a Plane Surface: Tank Bottom

## Simplest Case: Tank bottom with a uniform pressure distribution

p - h = patm - patm

p = h

## Now, the resultant Force:

FR = p A
Acts through the Centroid

## The origin O is at the Free

Surface.
is the angle the plane makes
with the free surface.

surface.

## A is the area of the surface.

dA is a differential element
of the surface.
dF is the force acting on
the differential element.

## C is the centroid. General Shape: Planar

View, in the x-y plane
CP is the center of Pressure

## FR is the resultant force

acting through CP

We note h = ysin

## With and taken as constant:

We note, the integral part is the first moment of area about the x-axis

## Where yc is the y coordinate to the centroid of the object.

hc

21
Hydrostatic Force on a Plane Surface: Location

Now, we must find the location of the center of Pressure where the Resultant Force Acts:
The Moments of the Resultant Force must Equal the Moment of the Distributed Pressure Force

And, note h = ysin
We note, Second moment of Intertia, Ix

Then,

## Substituting the parallel Axis thereom, and rearranging:

We, note that for a submerged plane, the resultant force always acts below the centroid of the
plane.

## Moments about the y-axis: FR xR = xdF

A
And, note h = ysin

We note,
Second moment of Intertia, Ixy

Then,

## Parallel Axis Thereom:

I xy = I xyc + Axc yc Ixc is the second moment of inertia through the centroid

## Centroid Coordinates Areas Moments of Inertia &

22
Contoh soal 1 :
Diketahui sebuah pintu air yang berbentuk lingkaran dengan diameter 4 m, diletakan
dengan kenaikan pada sisi lebar dari reservoar air Kedalaman air 10 m dari
permukaan bebas, tentukan :
a. Letak resultan gaya yang diterima oleh pintu akibat beban air
b. Letak momen dipusat

a. Letak resultan gaya yang diterima oleh pintu akibat beban air
Gaya yang diterima akibat tekanan air :

## Jarak titik tangkap gaya dari pusat tekanan :

Jarak titik tangkap gaya pada koordinat sistem xR, dan inertia momen pada potong A-A :

Maka :

23
Contoh soal 2 :

dan :

maka :

## dan untuk koordinat x :

dan :

Maka pusat tekanan dan titik tangkap gaya resultan terletak di sebelah kanan 0,0278 ft
dan 0,0556 ft dibawah titik pusat berat (centroid)

Contoh soal 3 :
Air diketinggian E dalam pipa yang dipasang
E ketangki ABCD (gambar disamping). Dengan
0
mengabaikan berat tangki dan pipa penaik tentukan
A = 0,1 m2
3,7 m a. Besar dan letak gaya resultan yang bekerja
pada luas AB yang lebarnya 2,5 m.
b. Gaya total didasar tangki
A D c. Berat total air

2,0 m

B C
6m

Jawab :
a. Kedalaman pusat berat atau luas AB adalah 4,7 m dibawah permukaan bebas air di
E, maka :
= . g . h . A = 1000 . 9,81 (3,7+1) . (2 . 2,5) = 230 kN,

## bekerja pada suatu jarak, 2,5( 23 )

= 12 + 4,7 = 4,77 m dari 0
4.7(2.2,5)
b. Tekanan didasar BC merata, maka gayanya : = 1000 . 9,81 (3,7+2) . (6 . 2,5) = 839 kN,
c. Berat total air : W = 1000 . 9,81 (6 . 2 . 2,5 + 3,7 . 0,1) = 298 kN

24
Hydrostatic Force: Vertical Wall

## Pressure varies linearly with depth by the hydrostatic equation:

The magnitude of pressure at the bottom is p = h

## The depth of the fluid is h into the board O

The width of the wall is b into the board
yR = 2/3h

## By inspection, the average pressure

occurs at h/2, pav = h/2

## The resultant force act through the center of pressure, CP:

y-coordinate: 1 3 bh 3 h
I xc = bh yR = +
12 h
h 12 (bh ) 2
yc = 2
2 h h 2
A = bh yR = + = h
6 2 3

I xyc = 0 xR = +
h
b (bh) 2 b 2h
yc = 2 ,
2 2 3
b
xR =
A = bh 2

## Now we have both the resultant force and its location

Now, location.

The pressure prism is a second way of analyzing the forces on a vertical wall.

## Pressure Prism: A graphical interpretation of the forces due to a fluid acting on

a plane area. The volume of fluid acting on the wall is the pressure prism and
equals the resultant force acting on the wall.
Resultant Force:

1
O Volume
FR = (h )(bh )
2
1
FR = (h )A
2
Location of the Resultant Force, CP:
The location is at the centroid of the volume of the
pressure prism.

Center of Pressure:
b 2h
,
2 3

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Pressure Prism: Submerged Vertical Wall

Trapezoidal

The Resultant Force: break into two volumes Location of Resultant Force: use sum of moments

## F1 = (h1 )A Solve for yA

1
F2 = ( (h2 h1 ))A
2 y1 and y2 is the centroid location for the two
A = b(h2 h1 ) volumes where F1 and F2 are the resultant forces of
the volumes.

## Now we have an incline trapezoidal volume. The methodology is the

same as the last problem, and we affix the coordinate system to the
plane.
The use of pressure prisms in only convenient if we have regular
geometry, otherwise integration is needed

## Gage Pressure Analysis Absolute Pressure Analysis But,

So, in this case the resultant force is the same as the gag pressure analysis.
It is not the case, if the container is closed with a vapor pressure above it.
If the plane is submerged, there are multiple possibilities.

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Contoh :

## General theory of plane surfaces does not apply to curved surfaces

Many surfaces in dams, pumps, pipes or tanks are curved
No simple formulas by integration similar to those for plane surfaces
A new method must be used
Then we mark a F.B.D. for the volume:

Isolated Volume
Bounded by AB an AC F1 and F2 is the hydrostatic force on
and BC each planar face
FH and FV is the component of the
resultant force on the curved surface.

## W is the weight of the fluid volume.

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Hydrostatic Force on a Curved Surface

## Now, balancing the forces for the Equilibrium condition:

Horizontal Force:

Vertical Force:

Resultant Force:

## The location of the Resultant Force is through O by sum of Moments:

Y-axis: F1 x1 + Wxc = FV xV
X-axis: F2 x2 = FH xH

Contoh :

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Thank You
Coy

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