Anda di halaman 1dari 11

DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH Direct speech atau kalimat langsung adalah kalimat yang digukan untuk menirukan

kalimat/kata-kata yang diucapkan oleh pembicara apa adanya atau tanpa adanya perubahan/pengurangan. Dalam penulisannya menggunakan tanda kutip. Contoh: Feby said, I am student. Sedangkan indirect speech atau kalimat tidak langsung adalah kalimat yang menceritakan kembali atau mengukang/melaporkan oleh pembicara tanpa adanya perubahan arti/maksud perkataan pembicara. Contoh: feby said that he was student.
1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. 1. 1.
Ada tiga (3) bentuk kalimat yang diucapkan: Statement (kalimat pernyataan) Pohibition/Command (larangan/perintah) Question (kalimat Tanya) Statement

Untuk mengubah direct speech menjadi indirect speech yang berasal dari bentuk statement di syaratkan:
1. Memakai reporting verbs: say, tell, explain, inform etc. 2. Menggunakan That yang mempunyai arti bahwa. 3. Ubahlah pronoun siapa yang berbicara dan yang diajak bicara. Biasanya orang pertama dan orang ke dua diganti orang ke tiga dan berlaku pula pada possessive adjective kecuali jika pembicara menirukan perkataan sendiri. Contoh:

Direct: I said, I love all my teachers. Indirect: I said that I loved all my teachers. Direct: He said, I have sent a letter. Indirect: He said that he had sent a letter. Direct: the lecturer said, you can read this book, Indirect: the lecturer told John that he could read that book.

1. Jika reporting verbs nya dalam bentuk present tense, maka tidak terjadi perubahan tenses di anak kalimat. Contoh:

Direct: Yunida says, I always like my activities. Indirect: Yunida says that she always likes her activities. Direct: Yunida says, You are my best boy friend. Indirect: Yunida tells me that I am her best boyfriend.

NB: Perbedaan say dan tell

Say: tidak diikuti oleh objek (boleh ada objek asal di kasih to) Tell: diikuti objek.
1. Jika reported speech nya dalam bentuk past tense, maka terjadi perubahan tenses:
Direct speech Indirect speech

1. Simple present tense 2. Present continuous tense 3. Present perfect tense 4. Present perfect continuous tense 5. Simple past 6. Past continuous 7. Future

1. simple past tense 2. past continuous tense 3. past perfect tense 4. past perfect continuous tense 5. past perfect 6. past perfect continuous 7. past tense

8. present

8. past

f. Perubahan keterangan waktu dan keterangan tempat/kata ganti penunjuk


Direct Speech Indirect Speech

1. now 2. today 3. yesterday 4. the day before yesterday 5. the day after tomorrow 6. next week/month/year 7. last week/month/year 8. a week/month/year ago 9. ..ago 10. Last night 11. Tomorrow 12. Here 13. This 14. these

1. at the moment/then 2. that day 3. the day before 4. two days before 5. in todays time 6. the following week/month/year 7. the previous week/month/year 8. a week/month/year atau the previous week/month/year 9. ..before 10. The night before 11. The day after/the following day/the next day 12. There 13. That 14. those

Contoh:
Direct: Dony said, My mother is listening now. Indirect: Dony said that his mother was listening at that time. Direct: Febby said, I visited Australia last year. Indirect: Febby said that she had visited Australia the previous year. NB:

Perubahan tenses atau adverb tidak harus, tetapi dilakukan untuk menyesuaikan situasinya. Contoh:
Direct: My girl friend said, Surabaya is bigger than Kediri Indirect: my girl friend said (that) Surabaya is (was) bigger than Kediri.

Pada contoh diatas perubahan tidak selalu di perlukan (is manjadi was). Should, ought, had better, would, used to, could, must, biasanya tidak mengalami perubahan. Contoh:
Direct: Jony said, I would help you if I could. Indirect: Jony said that he would help me if he could.

Past tense yang dipakai sesudah wish dan would rather tidak mengalami perubahan. Contoh: Direct: She said,I wish I understood. Indirect: she said that she wished she understood.
2. a. Command dan negative command Command (kalimat perintah)

Indirect speech yang berasal dari kalimat perintah,reporting verb nya harus mempunyai arti dasar memerintah. Contoh: invite, command, warn, order, ask, tell, advise, urge. Contoh: Direct: Nisa said, wait for me, Siska! Indirect: Nisa asked Siska to wait for her.
b. Negative command/prohibition (kalimat larangan)

Indirect speech yang berasal dari kalimat larangan (negative command) mempunyai hal yang harus di perhatikan yaitu;
1. Indirect speech yang berasal dari kalimat perintah, gunakanlah to-infinitive sesudah orang yang diperintah. 2. Indirect speech yang berasal dari kalimat perintah (negative command), maka pakailah not to-infinitive sesudah orang yang diperintah. 3. Perubahan pronoun tergantung pada siapa yang disuruh dan yg menyuruh.

Contoh:
Direct: Nisa said to Bebby, Dont come to my room. Indirect: Nisa warned Bebby not to come to her room. 3. Question (Kalimat Tanya)

Indirect speech yang berasal dari kalimat Tanya, tanda Tanya (?) nya dihilangkan, sehingga menjadi kalimat pernyataan. Dengan ketentuan:
1. Jika bentuk pertanyaan terdapat Question Words (when, where, what, how, why etc.) kata tersebut harus di sebutkan lagi. Contoh:
Direct: she said, why did you go to the campus? Indirect: she asked (me) why I had gone to the campus.

2. Jika bentuk pertanyaan dimulai dengan kata kerta bantu (auxiliary), maka berilah whether atau if yang mempunyai ari apakah setelah reporting verbs. Contoh:
Direct: Febby said, Do you love me? Indirect: Febby asked (me) if I loved her.

Direct and Indirect speech


Direct and indirect Direct speech adalah kalimat yang digunakan untuk menyempaikan kata-kata yang diucapkan seseorang apa adanya (original sentence), tanda mengubah structur gramatikalnya direct speech biasanya ditempatakan dalam tanda kutip . Direct speech terdiri dari dua bagian Direct verb/introductory verb/main clause (kata kerja yang memberitakan) Reported speech/sub clause (kata yang diberikan)

Indirect speech adalah kalimat yang digunakan untuk menyampaikan isi pokok kata-kata yang diucapakan seseorang (bukan original sentence) dengan beberapa perubahan didalamnya. Indirect speech mengunakan conjuction (kata penghubung) dan tidak mengunakan tanda kutip. Conjuction that biasanya dipakai untuk kalimatt

berita atau pertanyan (statement) dan tidak digunakan untuk kalimat Tanya dan perintah (interrogative and imperative sentence) Dalam ilmu bahasa kalimat yang diucapkan seseorang dapat dibedakan menjadi beberapa jenis

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Statement (pernyataan) Question (perntayaan) Imperative (kalimat perintah) Exclamation (kaliamat seru) Statement (pernyataan)

Ada dua peraturan utama mengenai perubahan waktu dalam reported speech a) Kalau reporting verb berbentuk present tense dan future tense, bentuk waktu kata kerja dalam reported

speech sama sekali tidak berubah Reporting verb Simple present tense Present perfect tense Simple future tense Present tense reported speech any tense (bentuk waktu apapun)

Reporting verb yang mengunakan simple present tense manakala @ mengutip sebuah percakapan yang sedang berlangsung Contoh Rizal (yang sedang menelpon astrid dari kampusnya) I am studying now. Astrid (mengutip pembicaraan rizal) berkata pada shinta (yang sedang bersama dengannya) Rizal says that he is studying now. Indirect speech @ membaca surat, majalah, Koran, dll lalu mengutip isinya @ membaca surat intrupsi lalu mengutipnya @ mengutip pembicaraan yang sering diucapkan Contoh You have to study hardour lecturer often says to us Indirect speech: our lecturer often says to us that we have to study hard

Present perfect tense

@ contoh Direct sentence: I have told you kiftiah is reading a novel Indirect sentence: I have told you that kiftiah is reading a novel Direct sentence : she has said to me kiftiah will go to Australia Indirect sentence: she has said to me that kiftiah will go to Australia Contoh Fact: lisa is known as s very beautiful girl in her campus Temannya lisa mempekirakan orang yang baru melihat lisa dikampus itu mungking mengatakan bahwa lisa itu sangat cantik. Temannya berkata (indirect sentence): many people say that she (lisa) is very beautiful girl b) Kalau reporting verb berbentuk past tense, bentuk waktu kata kerja dalam reported speech harus diubah Future

kedalam salah satu bebtuk past tense (simple, continuous, perfect, dan perfect continuous) sesuai dengan bentuk tense yang dipakai Selain bentuk tense yang mengalami perubahan pronoun dan adverb nya juga mengalami perubahan Perubahan ini terjadi pada reported speechnya Penting untuk di ingat bahwa perubahan ini terjadi singkat alami dan logis dan tidak begitu dibutuhkan

untuk mempelajri semua aturan-aturan yang rumit dalam menguasainya @ perubahan tense Direct Simple present Present continuous Present perfect Present prefect continuous Simple past Past continuous indirect past simple past continuous past perfect past perfect continuous past perfect past perfect continuous

Past perfect Past perfecontinuous Simple future Future continuous Future perfect Future perfect continuous

past perfect past perfect continuous past future past future continuous past future perfect past future perfect continuous

@ perubahan auxiliary catatan saja Cuma dijadikan bentuk past Contoh Direct speech Am/is/are Will/shall May Have to/has to Must @ perubahan adverb Direct Now Ago Last week Yesterday Last night Yesterday morning Next indirect speech then before the previous week the day before the previous night/ the night before the morning day the following indirect speech was/were would/should might had to had to

Next week Tomorrow morning Here This These Thus Come Contoh dalam kalimat Simple present

the following week the following morning there that those so go

Direct: she said, the man calls Indirect: she said that the man called Present continuous Direct: She said, the man is calling now

1.

Question (pertayaan)

Ada dua aturan utama dalam memahami direct and indirect speech dalam bentuk question atau kalimat pertanyaan

1.

Aturan umum

@ apabila reporting verb adalah berbentuk present (simple present, present perfect, dan future) maka tidak ada perubahan reported speech-nya kecuali pada subject pronoun @ apabila reporting verb adalah berbentuk past, maka terjadi perubahan pada reported speech-nya yaitu pada subject pronoun, tenses, and adverb-nya

1.

Aturan khusus

@ jika reporting verb-nya pada direct speech mengunakan say atau tell, maka ketika dalam indirect harus berubah menjadi inquiry, wonder, dan want to know (jika tidak mengunakan object) @ direct speech yang berbentuk interrogative di ubah menjadi affirmative ketika dalam bentuk indirect speech dan tanda Tanya tidak digunakan lagi Ada dua bentuk question (kalimat Tanya)

Yes/no question

Conjunction yang dipakai pada direct and indirect speech-nya adalah if/whether @ apabila reporting verb-nya berbentuk present, maka indirect tidak mengalami perubahan kecuali subject pronoun. Contoh: Direct speech: she asks me, are you sick? Indirect speech: she asks me If I am sick, atau she asks me whether I am sick atau she asks if I am sick atau she wonder/want to know if I am sick atau she inquires whether or not I am sick Direct Indirect : ayu asks him, are you fine? : ayu asks him if he is fine, atau ayu asks him whether he is fine, atau ayu asks if he is fine, atau ayu

wonder/wants to know if he is fine, atau ayu inquired whether or not he is fine. @ apabila reporting verb-nya berbentuk past, maka indirect speech-nya mengalami perubahan pada subject pronoun, tenses, dan adverb-nya: Direct: she asked me, are you sick? Indirect: she asked me if I was sick Direct: ayu asked me, do you speak English? Indirect: ayu asked me if I spoke English Direct: lisa asked mizan, can you fix the broken car? Indirect: lisa asked mizan if he could fix the broken car W-H question/question word

Conjunction yang digunakan adalah W-H Question (disesuaikan W-H question yang digunakan pada reported speech-nya) @ apabila reporting verb-nya berbentuk present, maka indirect tidak mengalami perubahan kecuali subject pronoun. Contoh: Direct speech: she asks me, where are you now? Indirect: she asks me that where I am now.

Direct: she asks me, why did you come late yesterday? Indirect: she asks me why I came late yesterday @ apabila reporting verb-nya berbentuk past, maka mengalami perubahan pada subject pronoun, tenses, dan adverb-nyaa Contoh: Direct: Lisa asked him, where did you go to last night? Indirect: lisa asked him where he went/had gone the night before (boleh tetap mengunakan simple past atau past perfect) Direct: tina asked her, why do you work so hard? Indirect: tina asked her why she worked so hard

1.

Imperative (kalimat perintah)

Bila reported speech-nya berbentuk kalimat perintah (imperative) kata say pada reporting verb pada direct speech-nya harus diubah dan disesuaikan dengan kalimat perintah Dibawah ini daftar kata-kata kerja yang bisa dipakai untuk menganti kata say

pala yang digunakan: verb+pro(noun) object+ to infinitive Advise someone to Ask someone to Encourage someone to Invite someone to Order someone to Permit someone to Remind someone to Tell someone to Warn someone to Allow someone to Beg someone to Challenge someone to Convince someone to Direct someone to Expect someone to Instruct someone to Persuade someone to Urge someone to Forbid someone to Recommend someone to Entreat someone to Command someone to Implore someone to Request someone to Mengunakan dari kata-kata tersebut diatas digunakan dibagian reporting verb-nya pada indirect speech untuk mengati kata say dan harus disesuaikan dengan beberapa kalimat perintah dibawah ini:

Command ( perintah), misalnya order, command, instruct, etc Precept (petunjuk, bimbingan, atau nasehat) misalnya: advise, persuade, encourage, etc Request (permohonan) misalnya ask, invite, request, etc Entreaty (permohonan dengan mendesak) misalanya beg, entreat, implore Prohibition (larangan) forbid, warn, remind, etc

Penting: baik berbentuk present ataupun past, reported speechnya tidak mengalami perubahan pada kata kerjanya (karena mengunakan to infinitive, tetapi apabila reported speecnya terdiri atas dua clause, maka sub clause mengalami perubahan, hal ini berlaku pada bentuk past 1. I. Positive imperative Pola: subject+verb+object+to infinitive Dibagi dua: @ nominal sentence Contoh:

Reported speech terdiri dari satu clause D: she asked him, be patient, please! ID: she asked him to be patient

Reported speech yang terdiri dari dua clause D: our lecturer said, be diligent if you want to get success in your study! ID: our lecturer advised us to be diligent if we wanted to get success in your study @ verbal noun

Reported speech terdiri dari dari satu clause D: she said to her office boy, go away at once ID: she ordered her office boy to go away at once

Reported speech yang terdiri dari 2 clause D: she said to fauzan, please fix the computer which gave you last night ID: she asked fauzan to fix the computer which she had given him the night before

1.

II.

Negative imperative

Pola: S+V+O+NOT+To infinitive Dibagi dua @ nominal sentence Satu clause

Our lecturer said, dont be late Our lecturer asked us not to be late Dua clause Our lecturer said, dont be lazy if you want to get a good a score Our lecturer adived us not to be lazy if you wanted to get good a score @ verbal sentence Satu clause She said her son, dont leave the room She forbade her son not to be leave the room Dua clause His mother said, dont do what your father does His mother forbade him not to do what his father did

1. 1) 2)

Exclamation (kalimat seru)

Exclamatory Optative sentence