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2011

NAME:................................................................

CLASS:.........................

MODUL TEMBAK 32
@Version 4

Modul ini mengandungi 2


bahagian iaitu kertas 2 dan
kertas 3. Diharapkan selepas
menggunakan modul ini dengan
bimbingan guru, pelajar-pelajar
akan dapat mengusai teknik
menjawab soalan SPM FIZIK
(4531).
Berusaha la dengan gigih bagi
memastikan A+
Dalam Genggaman.
Pecahkanlah Kepompong Jadilah
Kepupu,
Pecahkanlah Ruyung Nikmatilah
Sagu
1 |Modul Tembak 32 - SAKTI

Mohd Ahir Bin Samsuri


Mazlena Bt Murshed
Guru Cemerlang Fizik
SM Sains Kota Tinggi
18 JUL 2011
(019-7356656)
http://fizsakti.blogspot.
com

OBJEKTIF MODUL INI

Understand construct
(Memahami konstruk))
To know the questions with their construct
(Mengenali soalan dengan konstruknya)
To explore sample question based on the construct
(Meneroka contoh soalan berdasarkan konstruknya).
Understand the method of answering the question.
(Memahami kaedah menjawab)
Error done by the candidates
(Kesilapan calon)

What is construct? (Apakah Konstruk?)


Anything that is tested or assess. ( Perkara-perkara yang ditaksir atau diuji)
Type Of Construct
BIL

CONSTRUCT

SCOPE CONSTRUCT

Knowledge(Pengetahuan)

Facts, Concept, Principle, Theory, Law

Understanding (Pemahaman)

Translation, Interpretation, Extrapolation


Concept & Principle

Application Of knowledge
(Aplikasi Pengetahuan)

Qualitative & Quantitative

Problem Solving
(Penyelesaian Masalah)

By using qualitative and quantitative


Scientific Investigation (Penyiasatan Saintifik)

Conceptualized
(Mengkonsepsi)

Based on common characteristics (Ciri Sepunya)


Relation of variables (Hubungan Pemboleh ubah)

Decision Making)
(Membuat keputusan)

Based on specific criteria


(Berdasarkan kriteria tertentu)

2 |Modul Tembak 32 - SAKTI

Physics Examination Format


ITEM

KERTAS 1

KERTAS 2

KERTAS 3

Type of Instrumen

Objectives

SUBJECTIVE

Written experiment

Type of item

Multiple choice

SECTION A STRUCTURE
SECTION B ESSAY
SECTION C ESSAY

SUBJECTIVE &
ESSAY

No.Of Option

3 Options (6 Items)
4 Options (36 Items)
5 Options (8 Items)

No.of question

50 Question

SECTION A 8 QUESTION
SECTION B 2 QUESTION
(CHOOSE 1 ONLY)
SECTION C 2 QUESTION
(CHOOSE 1 ONLY)

Total Marks

50 Marks

100 MARKS

40 MARKS

Time Of
Examination

1 Hour 15 Minutes

2 HOURS 30 MINUTES

1 HR 30 MINUTES

KNOWLEDGE
11%
UNDERSTANDING 16 %
APPLICATION
18%
PROBLEM SOLVING 22%
CONCEPTUALIZE 16%
DECISION MAKING 17%

PROBLEM
SOLVING
(EXPERIMENTING)

ANALITIC (Point)

ANALITIC &
HOLISTIC

Construct

Knowledge 28%
Understanding 40 %
Application 32%

Marking

Dicotomus 1 or 0

Context area
(Cakupan konteks)

ALL TOPICS ARE TESTED

LEVEL OF
DIFFICULTY

LOW 60%
(30 Q)
MEDIUM 24% (12 Q)
HIGH 16% (8 Q)

LOW
MEDIUM
HIGH

38%
35%
27%

Q 1 : Knowledge, understanding
& application (4m)
Q 2 : Knowledge, understanding
& application(5m)
Q 3 : Knowledge, understanding
& application (6m)
Q 4 : Knowledge, understanding
& application (7m)
Q 5 : KUA and Conceptualize
(8m)
Q 6 : KUA and Conceptualize
(8m)
Q 7 : KUA and Problem Solving
(10m)
Q 8 : KUA and Decision Making
(12m)

3 |Modul Tembak 32 - SAKTI

SECTION A: 2 Q
(Compulsory)
SECTION B: 2 Q
(Choose 1)

LOW 50%
MEDIUM 30%
HIGH 20%
Q1
Q2
Q3

(16 m)
(12 m)
(12 m)

TARGET 2011
BIL

TOPIC (TINGKATAN 4)

RATING

1.2 Measurement

XX

2.1 Linear Motion

2.2 Inertia

2.3 Momentum

2.4 The Effect of a Force

2.5 Impuls/Impulsive Force

2.6 Gravity

3.1 Pressure

3.3 Gas and Atmospheric Pressure

10

3.6 Bernoulli Principle

XX

11

4.3 Specific Latent Heat

12

4.4 The Gas Laws

13

5.3 Total Internal Reflection

14

5.4 Lenses

BIL

TOPIC (TINGKATAN 5)

MSG/VC

XX

XXX

XXX
X
XX
RATING

15

1.2 Refraction of waves

16

1.3 Difraction of waves

17

1.7 Electromagnetic waves

18

2.4 EMF and Internal Resistance

19

2.5 Electrical energy and power

20

3.3 Electromagnetic induction

21

3.4 DC and AC

22

3.5 Transformers

23

4.1 Cathode ray oscilloscope

24

4.3 Transistors

25

5.2 Radioisotopes

26

5.4 Nuclear energy

XX

4 |Modul Tembak 32 - SAKTI

CATATAN

XX

XXX
X
XX
X
XXX

CATATAN

KERTAS DUA-SOALAN ESEI


A. SOALAN BAHAGIAN B.
Konstruk yang diuji dalam bahagian B adalah seperti di bawah:
QUESTION NO.
9
10

ELEMENT/CONSTRUCT

MARKS

KNOWLEDGE ( pengetahuan)
CONCEPTUALISE (mengkonsepsi)
UNDERSTANDING (kefahaman)
PROBLEM SOLVING (penyelesaian masalah
qualitative)

KNOWLEDGE
1. Menyatakan definasi dengan ayat penuh dan beserta syaratnya sekali
2. Menulis formula dengan simbol dan menyatakan maksud setiap simbol.
Contoh Soalan
i) What is meant by spring constant?

[1 mark]

Contoh Jawapan:
Force perunit of extension of the spring OR
k = F/x, where k=spring constant, F = force, x = extension of the spring
LATIHAN [KNOWLEDGE]
1. What is meant by elasticity?
Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan kekenyalan?

[1 mark]

2. What is meant by electromagnet?


Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan elektromagnet?

[1 mark]

3. What is meant by refraction?


Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan pembiasan?

[1 mark]

4. What is meant by thermal equilibrium?


Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan keseimbangan terma?

[1 mark]

5 |Modul Tembak 32 - SAKTI

1
5
4
10

5. State one factor that affect the pressure in liquid.


Nyatakan satu faktor yang mempengaruhi tekanan dalam cecair.

[1 mark]

CONCEPTUALISE (MENKONSEPSI)
1. Membuat & menyatakan pemerhatian Kemahiran Memerhati & Berfikir secara Kritis.
2. Membuat perbandingan iaitu menyatakan persamaan atau perbezaan
3. Menyatakan hubungan daripada persamaan/perbezaan atau menyatakan prinsip/
hukum Fizik yang terlibat.
4. Markahnya 5, justeru perlu beri isi sekurang-kurangnya 5 isi.
5. Jawapan ditulis dalam bentuk point form
Contoh Soalan

DIAGRAM 9.1

DIAGRAM 9.2

(a) Diagram 9.1 and Diagram 9.2 show two springs M and N. Both springs are of the same material and
same wire thickness but have different spring constant.
Using Diagram 9.1 and Diagram 9.2, compare the mass loaded by the spring, the diameter of the
spring and the extension of the spring.Relate the diameter of the spring and the extension of the spring
with the spring constant.
[5 marks]
Contoh Jawapan:
- mass in diagram 9.1 is equal to the mass in diagram 9.2
- diameter of the spring in diagram 9.1 is smaller compare to the diagram 9.2
- extension of the spring in diagram 9.1 is shorter compare to the diagram 9.2
- the bigger the diameter of the spring the lower the value of spring constant
- the higher the value of spring constant the shorter the extension of the spring

LATIHAN [CONCEPTUALISE]
1.

6 |Modul Tembak 32 - SAKTI

Diagram 10.1

Diagram 10.2

(i) Using Diagram 10.1 and Diagram 10.2 compare the current flow, the amount of iron
filing and the magnetic field strength of the two electrodes. Relate the current flow and amount
of iron filing attracted by the electromagnet and the magnetic field strength.
Menggunakan Rajah 10.1 dan Rajah 10.2 bandingkan pengaliran arus, kuantiti serbuk besi
dan kekuatan medan magnet kedua-dua elektrod. Hubungkait pengaliran arus dengan
kuantiti serbuk besi yang tertarik kepada elektromagnet dan kekuatan medan magnet.
[ 5 marks ]

2.

n = 1.2

Diagram 9.1

n = 1.8

Diagram 9.2

Based on Diagram 9.1 and Diagram 9.2, compare the refractive index, the refracted angle and the
density between medium A and medium B.
Relate the refractive index with the refracted angle and the refractive index with the ratio of sin of
incident angle, i to the sin of the refracted angle, r to deduce a physics law that is involved.
Berdasarkan Rajah 9.1 dan Rajah 9.2, bandingkan indeks biasan, sudut biasan dan ketumpatan
medium A dan medium B.
Hubungkaitkan indeks biasan dengan sudut biasan dan indeks biasan dengan nisbah sinus sudut
tuju,i kepada sinus sudut biasan,r bagi menghasilkan hukum fizik yang terlibat.
[5 marks]

7 |Modul Tembak 32 - SAKTI

3.

(b) Using Diagram 10.1 and Diagram 10.2 , compare the connection of diode to the dry cell, the lighting of
bulbs and the reading of ammeter. Relate the lighting of bulbs with the connection of diode to the dry cell to
make a deduction regarding the relation between the current flowing in the circuits and the connection of
diode to the dry cell..
Menggunakan Rajah 10.1 dan Rajah 10.2, bandingkan sambungan diod kepada sel kering, nyalaan mentol
dan bacaan ammeter. Hubungkaitkan nyalaan mentol dengan sambungan diod kepada sel kering untuk
membuat satu kesimpulan tentang hubungan antara arus yang mengalir di dalam litar -litar itu dengan
sambungan diod kepada sel kering.
[5 marks]

8 |Modul Tembak 32 - SAKTI

UNDERSTANDING (concept explanation)


1. Kenalpasti konsep
2. Terangkan perkara sebelum sesuatu konsep berlaku
3. Terangkan konsep dan kaitannya
4. Terangkan perkara selepas konsep
5. Markahnya 4, justeru perlu beri sekurang-kurangnya 4 isi.
[kalau boleh beri 6 isi]
6. Jawapan ditulis dalam bentuk point form
Contoh Soalan
The springs in Diagram 9.1 and 9.2 (page 6) will return to its original length when the load is removed.
Explain how the forces between molecules cause the elasticity.
[ 4 marks]
Contoh Jawapan:
- the forces between molecule are attractive and repulsive force
- when the spring is stretched attractive force between molecule acts
- when the spring is compress the repulsive force between molecule acts
- when the forces is released, the spring return to its original position due to the force
LATIHAN [UNDERSTANDING]
1.

Explain why a softball player moves his hand backwards while catching a fast moving ball.
Terangkan kenapa pemain softball mengerakkan tangan kebelakang sewaktu menangkap bola softball
yang bergerak laju.
[ 4 marks ]

2.

Explain how the generator works to produce alternating current.


Terangkan bagaimana penjana berfungsi untuk menghasilkan arus ulang alik.

9 |Modul Tembak 32 - SAKTI

[ 4 marks ]

3. Explain why the roof of a house being lifted by strong winds.


Terangkan mengapa bumbung sebuah rumah terangkat oleh angin yang kencang(ribut).

[ 4 marks ]

PROBLEM SOLVING (Qualitative)-Modification


1. Mengenalpasti Masalah
2. Menganalisis Masalah Kemahiran M/analisis
3. Mencari kaedah penyelesaian masalah
4. Mencadangkan kaedah Penyelesaian
5. Menulis jawapan dalam bentuk jadual
6. Kalau 10 markah, perlu nyatakan 5 aspek dan penerangannya. Penerangan atau alasan yang
dibuat mestilah berkaitan dengan konsep fizik.
[boleh bagi lebih dari 5 aspek. Bagi setiap aspek boleh bagi lebih dari satu alasan. JANGAN
BERBEZA FAKTA]
7. Jika soalan memerlukan lukisan, pastikan lukisan dilabelkan atau ditulis apa perkara yang
berlaku.
Contoh Soalan
spring in suspension
system

DIAGRAM 9.3

(c)

Diagram 9.3 shows a spring of the suspension system in an ordinary motorcycle.


(i) State two functions of the spring in the suspension system ?
[2 marks]
(ii) Using the suitable physics concepts, you are required to give some
suggestions on designing a racing motorcycle of 500cc. Explain your suggestions based on
the following aspects ;
-

density of motorcycle parts


engine power
spring in suspension system
size of tyre
[ 8 marks]

Contoh Jawapan
(i)

to absob the shock

10 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

to make the rider feel more comfotable


to reduce vibration
Aspect
Low density of motorcycle part
High engine power
High spring constant
Wide tyre

Explanation
Lighter
-To produce high ecceleration
-High resultant force
-The spring more stiffer
-Less vibration
-increase stability
- reduce pressure

(ii)

LATIHAN [ PROBLEM SOLVING (Qualitative)]


1.

You are required to give some suggestions to design a hang glider for recreation. Using an appropriate
physics concept on motion, forces and the properties of materials, explain your suggestions based on the following
aspects :

Anda dikehendaki member cadangan untuk mereka bentuk glider untuk tujuan rekreasi. Menggunakan konsep fizik
yang sesuai, cadang dan terangkan pengubahsuaian atau cara yang boleh dilakukan untuk meningkatkan keberkesanannya
berdasarkan kepada aspek-aspek berikut :

Size of the sail.


Saiz layer digunakan.
Supporting cable.
Kabel penyokong.
Material use for the sail.
Bahan yang digunakan untuk layer.
Assembly and transportation.
Pemasangan dan pengangkutan.
Materials use for structure like masterframe and safely bar.
Bahan untuk struktur seperti rangka utama den 'safety bar,

11 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

[10 marks]

2.A car needs an efficient hydraulic brake system for safety purposes. Suggest and explain how to build a
hydraulic brake system which can function effectively, based on the following aspect:
Sebuah kereta memerlukan sistem brek hidrolik yang cekap bagi memastikan keselamatan di tahap yang
tinggi. Cadangkan dan jelaskan bagaimana untuk membina sistem hidrolik yang dapat berfungsi dengan
cekap berdasarkan aspect berikut:
-The type and characteristic of the brake fluid
Jenis dan sifat bendalir brek
-The size of the master piston and slave piston
Saiz omboh utama dan saiz omboh kedua
-The material used for the fluid transmision pipe
Bahan yang digunakan untuk paip penghantaran cecair

12 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

(10 marks)

QUESTION NO.
11
12

ELEMENT
KNOWLEDGE
UNDERSTANDING
APPLICATION
DECISION MAKING

MARKS
1
4
5
10

3.An earth-monitoring satellite falls into the earths atmosphere at a high velocity and reaches a high
temperature. This is caused by the earths gravitational force and air resistance.
Using the appropriate physics concepts, suggest and explain suitable designs or ways to protect the satellite
and its equipment:
Satelit pengawasan bumi telah jatuh ke dalam atmosfera bumi dengan halaju yang tinggi dan mencapai suhu
yang sangat tinggi. Perkara ini adalah disebabkan oleh tarikan daya graviti dan rintangan angin.
Menggunakan konsep fizik yang sesuai, cadang dan terangkan pengubahsuaian atau care yang boleh dilakukan untuk meningkatkan
keberkesanannya berdasarkan kepada aspek-aspek berikut :

(i)

from extreme heat ;


daripada haba yang tinggi

(ii)

from breaking up on landing


daripada pecah sewaktu mendarat

B. SOALAN BAHAGIAN C.
Konstruk yang diuji dalam bahagian C adalah seperti di bawah:

13 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

[ 10 marks]

KNOWLEDGE
Sama seperti dalam Section B
UNDERSTANDING
Sama seperti dalam Section B

APPLICATION (quantitaive)
-

Menulis maklumat dlm btk simbol + unit S.I/gariskan


Memilih dan menulis rumus
Membuat gantian dlm. rumus
Jawapan akhir + unit betul

Contoh Soalan
Sebuah kuali elektrik mempunyai spesifikasi 240 V, 1000 W. Hitungkan masa yang digunakan oleh kuali itu
untuk memanaskan 1000 cm3 minyak masak dari suhu 30 oC sehingga minyak itu mencapai suhu 120 oC.
Anggapkan semua tenaga elektrik digunakan untuk menaikkan suhu minyak sahaja dan tiada haba hilang ke
persekitaran.
[Muatan haba tentu minyak ialah 2000 J kg1 oC1, ketumpatan minyak masak ialah 800 kg m-3]
[5 markah]
Contoh Jawapan
1 Menukar unit bagi V dengan betul
1000 x 10-6 m3
2

Menghitung jisim, m, dengan betul


m
=xV
= 800 x 1000 x10-6
= 8 x 10-1 kg

Menyatakan hubungan haba yang dibekalkan oleh pemanas dengan haba yang diterima oleh
minyak
Haba dibekal oleh pemanas = Haba diterima oleh minyak / pt = mc

Gantian dalam rumus yang betul


1000(t) = (8 x10-1)x 2000 x 90

Jawapan dengan unit yang betul


t = 144 s

LATIHAN [APPLICATION (quantitaive)]


1. Diagram 12.3 shows a manometer with arms of different
cross section. Liquid Y of density 1200 kg m-3 is poured into
the manometer. The level of liquid Y is found to be the same
at both arms of the manometer.
14 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

Rajah 12.3 menunjukkan sebuah manometer dengan lengan


yang berbeza keratan rentasnya. Cecair Y dengan ketumpatan
1 200 kgm-3 diisi ke dalam manometer. Paras cecair Y
didapati sama pada kedua-dua lengan manometer.
DIAGRAM 12.3

DIAGRAM 12.4

i. Explain why the level of liquid Y in both arms of the manometer are equal.
Terangkan mengapa paras cecair Y pada kedua-dua lengan manometer adalah sama.
ii.

2.

(i)
(ii)

[2 marks]

Diagram 12.4 shows the condition of liquids when another immiscible liquid, X, is poured into
the right arm of the manometer. Calculate the density of liquid X.
Rajah 12.4 menunjukkan keadaan cecair apabila sejenis cecair yang tak bercampur, X, dituang
ke dalam lengan kanan manometer tersebut. Hitung ketumpatan cecair X.
[3
marks]

Diagram belows a circuit containing a transformer ammeter and two bulbs. The reading of the ammeter is
0.5 A and the two bulb lights up with normal brightness.
Gambarajah di bawah menunjukkan litar yang mengandungi transformer, ammeter dan 2 mentol. Bacaan
ammeter adalah 0.5 A dan dua mentol tersebut menyala dengan kecerahan yang normal.
What is the output voltage of the transformer?
Apakah voltage aoutput transformer?
Calculate the efficiency of the transformer.
Kira kecekapan transformer tersebut?

[5m]

DECISION MAKING
1. Mengenalpasti ciri-ciri yang diberikan.
2. Menerangkan sifat setiap ciri yang dipilih dan sebab dipilih.
3. Menentukan bahan yang paling sesuai berdasarkan ciri yang dinyatakan menggunakan
15 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

kaedah ranking ..
4. Memberi sebab mengapa bahan itu dipilih.
5. Menulis jawapan dalam bentuk jadual.
Contoh Soalan
Diagram 11.2 shows an ice cream container used by an ice cream seller using his motorcycle.

Diagram 11.2
Table 11.3 shows the specification of four types of ice cream containers P, Q, R and S, that can be
used by an ice cream seller to carry ice cream.
Box
P
Q
R
S
Kotak
Specific heat capacity of ice cream
High
High
Low
Low
box
Size of ice cream box
Large
Small
Small
Large
Material of outer box

Copper

PVC plastic

PVC plastic

Aluminium

Colour of outer box

Dark
Bright
Bright
Dark
Table 11.3
You are required to determine the most suitable ice cream container to carry ice cream. Study the
specification of the four types of ice cream container based on the following aspects:
- Specific heat capacity of ice cream box
- Size of ice cream box
- Material of outer box
- Colour of outer box
Explain the suitability of the aspects
Contoh Jawapan
Aspect
Low specific heat capacity of ice
cream box
Smaller size of ice cream box
Plastic PVC
Bright colour of outer box
R is chosen

Reason
Easy get cold // becomes cool quickly
Easier to carry // easy too become cool
Poor conductor of heat
Does not absorb heat from surrounding quickly
because Low specific heat capacity of ice cream box,
Smaller size of ice cream box, Plastic PVC, Bright
colour of outer box

LATIHAN [DECISION MAKING]


1.Table 12 shows the specifications of four water storage tanks, P, Q, R and S, that can be used to
water in a housing estate.
Jadual 12 menunjukkan speksifikasi empat tangki penyimpan air, P, Q, R dan S, yang digunakan
untuk menyimpan air untuk sebuah rumah dalam suatu kawasan perumahan.
16 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

store

Water storage tank


Tangki penyimpan air
Material used
Bahan yang
digunakan
Density
Ketumpatan

metal
logam

concrete
konkrit

concrete
konkrit

metal
logam

low
rendah

high
tinggi

low
rendah

low
rendah

low
rendah

high
tinggi

high
tinggi

low
rendah

Shape
Bentuk

Height from the


ground
Tinggi daripada bumi

TABLE 12
You are required to determine the most suitable water storage tank. Study the specifications of all the
four water storage tanks based on the following aspects :
Anda diminta untuk mengenal pasti tangki penyimpan air yang paling sesuai. Kaji spesifikasi keempatempat tangki penyimpan air itu berdasarkan aspek :
- The material used. Bahan yang digunakan
- The density of the tank. Ketumpatan tangki
- The shape of the tank. Bentuk tangki
- The height of the tank from the ground. Ketinggian tangki daripada bumi
Explain the suitability of the aspects.
Terangkan kesesuaian aspek-aspek tersebut.
[10 marks]

2.As a researcher you are assign to investigate the properties of the metal in the table to be used as the
material to make a quality frying pan.
Sebagai seorang penyelidik anda ditugaskan untuk menyelidik sifat bahan yang digunakan untuk membina
kuali yang berkualiti.

17 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

Metal/Baha
n

Specific heat
Melting
capacity /muatan
Density/ketumpatan
point /takat lebur
haba tentu
kg m-3
o
C
J kg1 oC1

Rate of
Rusting/ kadar
pengaratan

450

1540

7873

High

880

660

2698

High

510

1620

7800

Do not Rust

398

961

10500

Medium

377

978

8400

Do not rust

For every metal properties in the table above, explain the suitability of the properties tobe used as a material to
make a frying pan. Hence determine the most suitable metal to make the frying pan. Give the justification for
your choice.
Bagi setiap sifat bahan di atas jelaskan kesesuaian bahan yang akan digunakan untuk membina kuali.
Seterusnya memilih bahan yang paling sesuai. Berikan justifikasi di atas pilihan tersebut.
[10 marks]

3. You are asked to investigate the features of cooling material and the design of a car engine radiator as in
Diagram 11.2
Anda dikhendaki menyiasat cirri-ciri bahan dan rekabentuk radiator enjin kereta yang akan digunakan.

18 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

Explain the suitability of each features in Diagram 11.2 and then determine the most suitable car engine
radiator to be used.Give a reason for your choice.
Jelaskan kesesuaian cirri-ciri yang dipilih dan kemudian memilih radiator kereta yang paling sesuai.
Berikan alasan di atas setiap pilihan anda tersebut.
[10 marks]

SOALAN STRUKTUR.
19 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

5/6
7
8

- MENGKONSEPSI
- MODIFICATION
- MAKING DECISION

CARA MENJAWAB SAMA SEPERTI SOALAN ESEI - CUMA LEBIH PENDEK DAN MUDAH
Contoh Soalan Menkonsepsi - Terengganu 2010
Diagram 5.1 shows a water jet spurts out from a hole in a tall vessel at a distance , d1.
Diagram 5.2 shows an oil jet spurts out from a hole at the same depth in a tall vessel at a distance , d2.
Rajah 5.1 menunjukkan suatu pancutan air keluar dari satu lubang pada satu bekas tinggi sejauh di.
Rajah 5.2 menunjukkan suatu pancutan minyak keluar dari satu lubang pada satu bekas tinggi pada
kedalaman yang sama sejauh d2.

(a) What is the meaning of density? Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan ketumpatan?
............................................................................................................................................................................... [1 mark]
(b) Observe Diagram 5.1 and Digaram 5.2. Perhatikan Rajah 5.1 dan Rajah 5.2.
Compare: Bandingkan:
(i) Density of water and oil. Ketumpatan air dan minyak.

............................................................................................................................................................................. [1 mark]
(ii) The distance d1 and d2. Jarak d1, dan d2.
............................................................................................................................................................................. [1 mark]
(iii) The pressure produced by the water jet and the oil jet.
Tekanan yang dihasilkan oleh pancutan air dan pancutan minyak itu.

............................................................................................................................................................................. [1 mark]
(c) Based on your answer in (b), state the relationship between the density and the pressure of liquid.
Berdasarkan jawapan anda di (b), nyatakan hubungan antara ketumpatan dan tekanan cecair.
............................................................................................................................................................................. [1 mark]
(d) Diagram 5.3 shows the location of a house water tank.
Rajah 5.3 menunjukkan kedudukan tangki air pada sebuah rumah.
Explain why the water tank should be located on top of the roof.
Terangkan mengapa tangki air diletakkan di atas burn bung rumah.
.
.
[3marks]

20 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

Contoh Soalan Modification - SBP 2010


Diagram 7 shows a fixed coil is placed in between an iron rod and a bar magnet.
Rajah 7 menunjukkan satu gegelung yang tetap diletakkan di antara sebatang rod besi dan sebuah magnet bar.

When the switch is closed, both of the iron rod and the bar magnet are attracted towards the coil.
Apabila suis dihidupkan, kedua-dua rod besi dan magnet bar tertarik kepada gegelung.

(a)

State the polarity at X. Nyatakan kutub di X.


..[1 mark]
Suggest two modifications that can be done in Diagram 7 in order to increase the force of attraction
between the coil and the iron rod. Cadangkan dua pengubahsuaian yang boleh dilakukan dalam Rajah
7 bagi menambahkan daya tarikan antara gegelung dan rod besi.

(b)

.
.[2 marks]
(i) What will happen to the iron rod and the bar magnet when the connections to the terminals

(c)

of the battery are reversed?

Apakah akan berlaku kepada rod besi dan magnet bar jika sambungan kepada terminal bateri diterbalikkan.
.
[2 marks]

(ii) Explain your answer in 7(c)(i). Terangkan jawapan anda di 7(c)(i).


.
[2 marks]

(d) The battery is then replaced by a low alternating current power supply. The switch is then closed.
Bateri kemudian ditukar dengan bekalan arus ulang-alik yang berkuasa rendah. Suis dihidupkan.
(i)

(ii)

(e)

Describe the motion of the iron rod. Jelaskan pergerakan rod besi.
..[1 mark]
Describe the motion of the bar magnet. Jelaskan pergerakan magnet bar.
..[1 mark]
Using your answers in 7(c) and 7(d),state one application of iron rod with the coil in
everyday life. Dengan menggunakan jawapan anda dalam 7(c) dan 7(d), nyatakan satu
aplikasi rod besi bersama gegelung dalam kehidupan harian.

..[1 mark]
Contoh Soalan Making Dicision - Selangor 2009
8. Diagram 8.1 and 8.2 show a filament bulb and an energy saver bulb. These two bulbs gives the same
21 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

amount of light intensity.


Rajah 8.1 dan 8.2 menunjukkan mentol berfilamen dan mentol jimat tenaga. Kedua-dua mentol ini
menghasilkan keamatan cahaya yang sama

Filament bulb 240 V. 75Wer bulb


240 V, 20 W
Mentol berfilamen 240V 75 W
tenaga 240V 20 W
Diagram 8.1
Rajah 8.1

Filament bulb 240 V. 20W er bulb


240 V, 20 W
Mentol berfilamen 240V 20 W tenaga
240V 20 W
Diagram 8.2
Rajah 8.2

(a) The filament bulb uses 75 W of power. What is meant by electrical power?

Mentol berfilamen menggunakan kuasa sebanyak 75 W. Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan kuasa elektrik ?
....[1 mark]
(b) State the energy transformation that occurs in both bulbs.
Nyatakan perubahan tenaga yang berlaku dalam kedua-dua mentol.

.[2 marks]
Filament bulb
Energy saver bulb
Mentol berfilamen

Mentol jimat tenaga

Tenaga digunakan per saat

75 J

20 J

Useful work per second


Tenaga berguna per saat

11.25 J

10 J

Energy consumed per second

Table 8/Jadual 8
(i) The filament bulb consumes 75 J of energy in one second but it only delivers 11.25 J of useful
energy per second. Name the wasted energy released by the bulb?

Mentol berfilamen menggunakan tenaga 75 J dalam satu saat tetapi cuma mengeluarkan
11.25 J tenaga berguna setiap saat. Namakan tenaga yang dibazirkan oleh mentol itu.
..[1 mark]
(ii) Calculate the efficiency of the filament bulb and the energy saver bulb from Table 8. Hitung
kecekapan mentol berfilamen dan mentol jimat tenaga dari Jadual 8.

(4 marks)
(iii) Which bulb is more economical to be used? Give a reason for your answer.
Mentol yang manakah lebih jimat untuk digunakan? Berikan satu alasan untuk jawapan anda.
.
[2 marks]
(d) Name one electrical appliance used at home and state one way to make it more efficient.
Namakan satu alat elektrik yang digunakan di rumah dan nyatakan satu cara untuk
meningkatkan kecekapannya.

...
[2 marks]
KERTAS TIGA
Construct- Problem Solving (Experementing)-40 markah
22 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

Contoh Soalan No 1-Section A-16 markah


Trial Selangor 2009
1. A student carries out an experiment to investigate the relationship between the length, of a constantan wire
and the potential difference across it, V. The wire is connected to a steady direct current power supply
provided by an accumulator. The set up of the apparatus is shown in Diagram 1.

Diagram 1

The jockey is placed at the points where l = 20.0 cm, 40.0 cm, 60.0 cm, 80.0 cm and 100.0 cm. The readings
of the voltmeter are as shown in Diagram 1.2, Diagram 1.3, Diagram 1.4, Diagram 1.5 and Diagram 1.6
below.
(a) For the experiment described above, identify
(i) the manipulated variable
................................................................................................................................................ [1 marks]
(ii) the responding variable
................................................................................................................................................ [1 marks]
(iii) the constant variable
............................................................................................................................................... [1 marks]
Note:
1. Untuk menjawab 3 soalan ini, jawapannya berada pada soalan yang
diberikan seperti yang digariskan.
2. 2 variable telah diketahui dan untuk menentukan manipulated V,
tengok ulangan yang dibuat pada soalan.Ulangan tersebutlah
manipulatednya dan variable yang satu lagi atomatik akan menjadi
responding.
3. Bagi fixed variable kadang-kadang dalam soalan ada diberitahu
tetapi jika tiada ia memerlukan sedikit knowledge tentang
eksperiment ini.
4. Jangan menggunakan perkataan type(contohnya type of wire/type of
power supply)

23 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

Note:
1. Lihat betul-betul skala bagi setiap alat pengukur.
2. Jika alat pengukur boleh membaca 2 tempat perpuluhan,
pastikan dalam ruangan tabulated the data ada 2 tempat
perpuluhan.Begitu juga kalau satu tempat perpuluhan.

1
2
3 (b) Determine the voltage, V when the length of the constantan wires,l =20.0 cm, 40.0 cm, 60.0 cm, 80.0
cm and 100.0 cm respectively. Tabulate your results for l and V in the space below.
0

[5 marks]
Note:
1. Lihat khendak soalan apa yang hendak dijadualkan. Seperti
Note: soalan di atas hanya 2 sahaja l and V
2.
setiap
column
simbol
dan unit
1. Pastikan
Tengok tajuk
graf
yang ada
diberi,
Perkataan
yang dulu adalah
3. Pastikan
tempat
perpuluhan
betul mengikut
alatadalah
paksi Y dan
seterusnya
paksiyang
X. Biasanya
responding
pengukur.
paksi Y dan manipulated adalah paksi x
4.
setiap
columnada
consistency
yang
sama (tempat
2. Pastikan
Setiap paksi
pastikan
simbol dan
unit.
sama)
3. perpuluhan
Pastikan sekala
seragam, no tidak ganjil
5.
yangtanda
seterusnya
secondary kotak
value, kecil).
pastikan
4. Jika
Plotcolumn
titik denga
X, buatadalah
besar-besar(2x2
(c) On the5.
graph
paper
on
page
25,
plot
a
graph
of
V
against
l
[5
marks]
nilai
perpuluhan
satuhampir
berbanding
value.
Garistempat
guna pembaris
jikalebih
nampak
lurus,primer
gunakan
freehand jika lengkung. Biasanya lurus.
6. Garis mesti sentuh paksi Y
24 | M o7.d u
l T graf
e m bmesti
a k 3memenuhi
2 - S A K Tkertas
I
Saiz
graf. Jangan Buat kecil.(70%
saiz kertas graf)

(d) Based on the graph, state the relationship between V and l


[1 marks]

Note:
1. Gunakan ayat seperti yg telah diajar berdasarkan bentuk graf
yang diperolehi.
y

y is directly
propotional to x

x
y

x
y increase
linearly to x

x
y

y decrease
linearly to x

y is inversely
propotional to x
x

As y increase x
also increase
x

(e) The experiment is repeated using thicker constantan wire.


(i) What happens to the voltmeter readings when the jockey is placed at l = 20 cm? Assume the current that
flow through the wire is constant.
. .......................................
(ii) Give a reason for your answer.
............................ [2 marks]
Note:
2. Kadang2 ada soalan tambahan seperti ini..

25 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

LATIHAN 1-Q1:SBP 2009

26 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

A student carries out an experiment to investigate the relationship between the object distance, u, image
distance, v, and focal length, f, of a convex lens. The apparatus is set up as shown in Diagram 1.1

Diagram 1.1
At the beginning, the object is placed at the distance of 40.0 cm from the lens. The screen is adjusted to
find the sharp image. The image distance is then measured by using the metre rule.
The above procedure is repeated by varying the values of u to be 35.0 cm, 30.0 cm, 25.0 cm and 20.0 cm.
Diagram 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5 and 1.6 show the end of the metre rule when the image distance, v, is measured.
( Note : For each diagram, the measurement of the image distance, v is started from the zero mark
of the metre rule.)

27 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

(a) For the experiment described above, identify:


(i)

The manipulated variable

(ii)

..............................................................................
[ 1 mark]
The responding variable

...................................................................
[ 1 mark]
(iii) The constant variable
....................................................................
[ 1 mark]
(b) Based on diagram 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5 and 1.6, determine image distance, v when the object distance, u.
is equal to 40 cm, 35 cm, 30 cm, 25 cm and 20 cm.
Tabulate the values of u, v,

1
1
and
in the space below.
u
v

[6 marks]

(c) On the graph paper, plot a graph of

1
1
against
v
u
[ 5 marks]

28 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

(d) Based on your graph, state the relationship between

1
1
and
v
u

.....................................................................
[ 1 mark]
(e) State one precaution that should be taken to improve the results of this experiment.
.....................................................................
[ 1 mark]

29 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

Graph of

30 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

1
1
against
v
u

Contoh Soalan No 2-Section A-12 markah


Trial Selangor 2009
2. An experiment to investigate the time taken, t by a metal sphere falling from a height, h was conducted. The
graph of h against t 2 is in Diagram 2.1.

31 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

(a) Based on the graph h against t2 on page 29,


(i) state the relationship between h and t,
..........................................................................................................................................[1marks]
Note:

1. INGAT, soalan relationship based on graf pastikan gunakan


ayat seperti directly propotional, increse linerally dsb. Ayat
Penuh

1
(ii) determine the time taken, t by the sphere when dropped from a height,
h = 44.0 cm. Show on the graph how you determine the value of t

t =
[3 marks]
Note:

1. Pastikan ade garisan yang dibuat bermula dengan h=44 terus


ke garisan dan kemudian ke paksi x. Tunjukkan nilainya dalam
kertas graf.
2. Tulis nilai t2 dalam ruangan jawapan dan Kira nilai t dalam
ruangan jawapan juga.
3. Pastikan Unit ditulis.
b) Calculate the gradient of the graph.
Show on the graph, how you calculate the gradient.

[3 marks]
Note:

1. Pastikan ada segitiga bersaiz sekurang-kurangnya 8 x 8 cm


2. Tunjukan koordinat pada hujung segitiga.
3. Tunjukkan jalan pengiraan mencari kecerunan.(show
substitution)
4. Tuliskan jawapan berserta dengan UNIT.

(c) The motion equation of a falling object with an initial velocity, u is given as

1
(i) State the initial velocity, u of the sphere.
......................................................................................................................................................................
[1 marks]

32 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

(ii) By using the gradient of the graph in (b) and equation in (c), calculate the gravitational acceleration, g .

[3 marks]
Note:

1. Soalan ini lebih kurang sama macam soalan linear law dalam
addmate.
2. Gunakan persamaan yang diberi untuk bandingkan dengan
graf. Biasanya kesamaan yang perlu dicari adalah pada
(d) Statekecerunan
one precautiondan
that should
taken in this experiment to improve the accuracy of the readings in the
juga be
y-intercept.
experiment
. ....................
.......................................
[1 marks]
Note:
Gunakan 2 ayat ini sahaja....
1. The position of eye must be pependicular to the scale reading to
aviod parallax error(tak boleh guna kalau measuring instrument
adalah digital stopwatch)
2. Repeat the experiment twice, then calculate the everage to get
accurate reading.
LATIHAN 1- Midterm T5 SBP 2011

2. A student carries out an experiment to investigate the relationship between pressure, P and depth,
h of a liquid X at sea level.
Seorang pelajar menjalankan eksperimen untuk menyiasat hubungan diantara tekanan, P dan
kedalaman, h bagi cecair pada aras laut.
pressure P is determined using the formula :
Tekanan P ditentukan dengan mengunakan rumus:
P = P liquid + Patm
Where P liquid = pressure by column of liquid X, P atm = atmospheric pressure

Dimana P cecair = Tekanan oleh turus cecair X, P atm = Tekanan atmosfera


(a) Based on the graph in Diagram 2.1, determine the atmospheric pressure, Patm when h = 0 m.
Berdasarkan graf pada rajah 2.1, tentukan tekanan atmosfera, Patm bila h = 0 m.
Show on the graph, how you determine the value of the atmospheric pressure.
Tunjukkan pada graf, bagaimana anda menentukan nilai tekanan atmosfera.
P atm = ........
33 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

[2 marks]

(b) The density of the liquid can be determined from the formula
Ketumpatan cecair boleh ditentukan dengan mengunakan rumus
= 0.012 k where k is the gradient of the graph P against h
Dimana k ialah kecerunan bagi graf P lawan h
(i) Calculate the gradient, k of the graph P against h. Show on the graph how you determine k.
Hitung kecerunan, k bagi graf P lawan h.Tunjukkan pada graf bagaimana anda menentukan k.

k = ........
[4 marks]
(ii) Determine the density of liquid,
Tentukan ketumpatan bagi cecair, = .... kgm-3
[1 mark]
(c) Based on the graph on Diagram 2.1, determine the pressure, P exerted on the liquid when the
depth of liquid, h = 0.4 m
Berdasarkan kepada graf pada gambarajah 2.1, tentukan tekanan, P yang dikenakan di atas cecair
bila kedalaman, h = 0.4 m

P = ........
[2 marks]
(d) (i) If the liquid X is replaced with a denser liquid Y, what will happen to the value of k?
Jika cecair X digantikan dengan cecair Y yang lebih tumpat, Apakah yang akan terjadi pada nilai k?
...........................................................................................................
[1 mark]
(ii) Explain your answer.
Terangkan jawapan anda.
....................................................................................
[1 mark]
(e) State one precaution that should be taken to improve the results of this experiment.
Nyatakan satu langkah berjaga-jaga yang patut diambil untuk meningkatkan keputusan eksperimen.
............................................................................................................
[1 mark]

34 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

35 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

LATIHAN 2-Q2: Terengganu 2010


A student carries out an experiment to investigate the relationship between potential differeence
V across the terminal of the battery and the current, I. The result of the experiment is shown in the graph of V against I below.

(a) Based on the graph in Diagram 2;


(i) State the relationship between V and I
....
[1 mark]
(ii) Determine the value of E, when I = 0.0 A
Show on the graph how you obtained the value of E
.....
[2 marks]
(i) Name the physical quantity that is represented by the value of E in (a)(ii)

36 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

....
[1 mark]
(b)

Calculate the gradient, r of the graph.

Show on the graph how you determine r.

=..............................
[3 marks]
(c)

From the graph, state the value of V when I = 0.60 A. Show on the graph how you
obtained the value of V.

....
[2 mark]
(d)

The external resistance, R is given by the formula E = I (R + r) . By using the


value of E in a(ii), r in (b) and 1= 0.60 A, calculate the value of R.

R=

[2 marks]
(e)

State one precaution that should be taken to improve the results of this experiment.
....
[1 mark]

Contoh Soalan No 3/4-Section B-12 markah


Note:

1. Pastikan menggunakan ayat seperti di bawah.


dan
37 | M 2.
o dBentuk
ul Tem
b asusunan
k 3 2 - seperti
S A K T Idi bawah.

Item
1. Inference
2. Hypothesis
3. Aim
4. Variable

Catatan

Markah

. depends on
The higher the ...the higher.....
To investigate the relationship between.and.
a) manipulated V: ..

1
1
1
1

b) Responding V:
pastikan variable yang digunakan sama seperti dalam hypothesis dan juga aim
c) Fixed V:. (j angan guna perkataan type)
5. Apparatus
6. Arrangement
of apparatus
7. Prosedur

tulis semua apparatus yang diberi dalam soalan dan lain2 apparatus

lukis gambarajah berlabel,guna pembaris

a) controlling manipulated V: beritahu nilai pertama yang digunakan

b) controlling Responding V: beritahu apa yang diukur, alat pengukur


1

apa? Jika secondary value tunjukkan formulanya


c) Repeated Exp. ulang eskperiment sekurang-kurangnya 4 bacaan lagi.
8. Tabulating of
Data

- buat jadual dan pastikan ada symbol dan unit. pastikan sama dengan variable
di atas
Manipulated/Simbol/unit

Responding/Simbol/unit
1

9.Analyzed the
data

buat graf paksi y mesti responding dan paksi x-manipulated


-pastikan ada symbol dan unit pada setiap paksi
Simbol/unit
1
Simbol/unit
TOTAL

12 M

(ada 9 item yang perlu ditulis. Prosedur 3 markah dan variable 2 markah yang membawa jumlah markah
keseluruhan 12 markah)

CONTOH SOALAN DAN JAWAPAN.


Trial Perlis 09
Diagram above shows a plastics bottle containing hot water. The plastic bottle is then put into a basin of ice.
The found that the plastic bottle crumpled as shown in diagram 3.2

38 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

Based on the observation on diagram 3.1 and diagram 3.2 and using your knowledge of the gas law
Based on the information and observation above :
Berdasarkan maklumat dan pemerhatian di atas:
(a)
(b)
(c)

State one suitable inference.


Nyatakan satu inferens yang sesuai.
State one suitable hypotesis.
Nyatakan satu hipothesis yang sesuai.

[1 marks]
[1 marks]

With the use of apparatus as capilarry tube,tall beaker,thermometer and other apparatus, describe
an experiment framework to investigate the hypothesis stated in 4(b). In your description, state
clearly the following :
Dengan menggunakan radas seperti capilarry tube,tall beaker,thermometer dan lain-lain radas,
terangkan satu rangka kerja eksperimen untuk menyiasat hipotesis yang anda nyatakan dalam
4(b)
Dalam penerangan anda jelaskan perkara berikut :
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)

vi)
vii)

Aim of the experiment.


Tujuan eksperimen.
Variables in the experiment.
Pembolehubah yang terlibat.
List of apparatus and materials.
Senarai radas dan bahan
Arrangement of the apparatus.
Susunan radas.
The procedure of the experiment which include the method of controlling the manipulated
variable and the method of measuring the responding variable.
Prosedur eksperimen termasuk kaedah mengawal pembolehubah dimanipulasikan dan
kaedah mengukur pembolehubah bergerak balas.
The way you would tabulate the data.
Penjadualan data.
The way you would analyse the data.
Cara menganalisis data.
[10 marks]

Jawapan
(a)
(b)
(c)(i)

Inference
the volume depend on the temperature
Hypothesis
the higher the temperature the higher the volume
Aim

39 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

1
1
1

(ii)

(iii)
(iv)

To investigate the relationship between temperature and volume


Variables
Manipulated : Temperature
Responding : volume/length of air column
Constant : pressure/ mass of air trap
List of apparatus and materials
capilarry tube,tall beaker,thermometer,bunsen burner,tripod stand,wire gouze,restord
stand,mercury or concentric acid sulfuric acid,strirre, ruler and ice
Arrangement of the apparatus

1
1
1

(v)

Procedure of the experiment which include the method of controlling the


manipulated variable and the method of measuring the responding variable.
1
o

1. The water is stirred until the water temperature fall to 0 C.


2. The length of the air column, x is measured using meter rule and recorded
3. Repeated the experiment using temperature of 10,20,30 and 40 oC

1
1

(vi)

(vii)

Tabulate the data


T( 0C)
0
10
20
30
40

l/cm

Analyse the data

l/cm
1

T( C)
o

TOTAL

Set 1-8, soalan no 3 dan 4 section C


Based on the diagrams in Questions 1- 8,
(a)
make one suitable inference
.
(b)
state one appropriate hypothesis that could be investigated.
(c
describe how you would design an experiment to test your hypothesis
In your explanation, state clearly the following :
(i)
aim of the experiment
40 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

12

(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(vii)

variables in the experiment


list of apparatus and materials
arrangement of the apparatus
the procedures of the experiment, which includes the method of controlling the manipulated
variable and the method of measuring the responding variable
the way you would tabulate the data
the way you would analyse the data
[12 marks]
Trial Melaka 09

1. Diagram 3 shows air bubbles formed by an air pump in an aquarium. The size of the air bubbles are smaller
as they emerged from the air pump at the bottom of the aquarium. The size become bigger as they approached
the surface of the water.

2. Diagram 4 shows the telephone ear piece which receives a varying current from the telephone line. The
permanent magnet attracts the magnet alloy diaphragm. The varying current in the coils of the electromagnet
changes the strength of the magnetic field .

Trial Kelantan 09
3. Diagram shows a worker using a piece of straight long and uniform wood to determine the depth of a hole
filled with water.

41 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

When the is pushed a bit into water as in Diagram 1 , he feel that a small force is needed, when the wood is
pushed further down as in Diagram 2 , he found that a larger force is needed.
4 .The figures 4.1 and 4.2 show two electric bells are connected to the similar batteries.

When the switches of the two bells are on, the bell in figure 4.2 rings louder than the bell in figure 4.1
Trial Mrsm 09
5. Diagram 3.1 shows two identical lorries which are at rest when the traffic light is red. When the red light
turns green, both lorries start to accelerate with the same forward thrust. Digram 3.2 shows the positions of
both lorries after two minutes.

6. Diagram 4.1 and 4.2 show the electric circuits which connects an electric bell to an
ammeter and a power supply. When the switch is closed, it is observed that the bell in Diagram 4.2 rings
louder than the bell in Diagram 4.1.

42 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

Trial N9 09
7. Diagram 3.1 shows an aluminium foil which has been shaped into a boat and put into a water container.
Diagram 3.2 shows the same piece of aluminium foil that has been crumpled and put into the same water
container.

Trial sbp 09
8.Diagram 4.1 shows the interference pattern of monochromatic light after passing through a double slit. Same
experiment is repeated by using longer wavelength of monochromatic light. The result is shown in Diagram
4.2
Rajah 4.1 menunjukkan corak interferens cahaya monokromat selepas melalui satu dwicelah. Eksperimen
yang sama diulang dengan menggunakan cahaya monokromat yang mempunyai panjang gelombang yang
lebih panjang. Keputusannya ditunjukkan dalam Rajah 4.2.

End Of Module
GOOD LUCK
LAMPIRAN 1
PHYSICS SPM PAPER 3 QUESTION ANAYLISIS
SECTION B

43 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

Variable
C

TOPIC

NO
Responding

FORM 4
INTRODUCTION
1

1.1 Based, Derived, Scalar


&Vector Quantities
1.2 Measurement
1.3 Scientific Investigations

44 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

Manipulated

29 EKSPERIMENT

Fixed

FORCES AND MOTION


2.1 Linear Motion

accelaration

height

mass

period (S3-2006,S1-2007)

mass

length of jigsaw blade

time to stop

mass

force applied

acceleration( S2-2008)

force

mass

acceleration

mass

force

2.5 Impulse And Impulsive


Force

depth

height of mass

mass

2.6 Gravity

time taken

weight

height

2.7 Forces In Equilibrium

2.8 Work, Energy, Power and


Efficiency

work done

distance

mass

2.9 Elasticity

10

extension of spring (S1-2005)

force

spring constant

11

extension of spring (S2-2007)

diameter
spring/wire/length of
spring

force/weight

2.2 Inertia

1
2

2.3 Momentum
2.4 The Effect of a Force

3
4

FORCE AND PRESSURE


3.1 Pressure

12

depth (2004/2008)

area of metal block

weight

3.2 Pressure in Liquids

13

water distance

depth

density of water

14

length difference

depth

density

15

depth of water lavel

density

depth of thistle funnel

3.3 Gas and Atm Pressure

16

pressure

time

density of mercury

3.4 Pascal Principle

17

height of big piston

area og big piston

force/area small piston

3.5 Archimedes Principle

18

weight/volume of water displace

mass/weight object

density of water

19

weight/volume of water displace

density

mass/weight object

20

water lavel

speed

density of water

4.1 Thermal In Equilibrium

20

rise in temperature

time

mass of water

4.2 Specific Heat Capacity

21

4.3 Specific Latent Heat

22

4.4 The Gas Laws

23

pressure(2005)

volume

temperature

24

pressure/volume (S1-2006:
Charles Law)

temperature

pressure/volume

3.6 Bernoulli Principle


HEAT

rise in temperature (S2-2004)


rise in temperature

mass
density material

time
time

LIGHT
5.1 Reflection Of Light

25

angle of reflection

angle of incident

light intensity

5.2 Refraction Of Light

26

angle of refraction

angle of incident

light intensity

45 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

27

apparent depth(2007)

real depth

size of an object

5.3 Total Internal Reflection

28

angle of refraction/reflection

angle of incident

density of block

5.4 Lenses

29

image distance

object distance

focal length

Variable
TOPIC

NO

Responding

Manipulated

Fixed

FORM FIVE
WAVES
1.1 Waves

25 EKSPERIMENT
1

frequency(2006)

period

size of spring

wavelength/time taken

frequency/length of
pendulum

size of spring/mass

1.2 Reflection of waves

same like form 4

1.2 Refraction of waves

wavelength

depth

density of water

wavelength

distance/x

frequency

1.6 Sound waves

distance/x

frequency

1.7 Electromagnetic waves

wavelength

colour(diffraction)

thickess

current(2008)

speed vandegraff

size vandegraff

10

temperature(2007)

current

voltage

6
1.3 Difraction of waves
1.5 Interference of waves

ELECTRICITY
2.1 Electric fields and charge
flow

2.2 Ohm Law


7
2.3 Series and parallel circuits
2.4 EMF and Internal
Resistance
2.5 Electrical energy and
power
8

11

potential difference (S2-2006)

12

resistance (S4-2004, S2-2005


(Diameter), S1-2007)

length/crosssectional
area/temperature
no of resistor(2 ohm
each)

length of constatant
wire
length/crosssectional
area/temperature
voltage supply(Siries
Circiut)

electric current

13

voltage across resistor

14

voltage across cell

time

same baterry

15

power

voltage

current

current

height

mass load

16

strength of electromagnet

number of turn of coil

current

17

strength of electromagnet

current

number of turn

18

distance travel/force

magnetic strength

current

19

distance travel/force(2008)

current

magnetic strength

20

current(2005)

speed

magnetic strength

ELECTROMAGNETISM
3.1 Magnetic effect of CCC

3.2 The Force on a CCC in a


magnetic field
3.3 Electromagnetic induction

46 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

no of turn/magnetic
strength

magnetic strength/ no
of turn

no of turn for secondary


coil
no of turn for
primary/secondary coil

no of turn for primary


coil

angle of deflection

magnetic strength

voltage supply

thikness of aluminium

count rate

radioactice source

21

current

22

induced current/voltage

23

frequency

24

25

3.4 DC and AC
3.5 Transformers

soft iron/seloinoid

3.6 Generation and transm


ELECTRONICS
4.1 Cathode ray oscilloscope
9

4.2 Semiconductor diodes


4.3 Transistors
4.4 Logic gates
RADIOACTIVITY
5.1 Nucleus of an atom
5.2 Radioactive decay

10
5.3 Radioisotopes
5.4 Nuclear energy
5.5 Management of
radioactive

LAMPIRAN 2
SKEMA CHARACTERISTIC ATAU PROPERTIES
BAGI SOALAN MODIFICATION DAN MAKING DICISION
BI
L
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

Chapter 1/2/3 (FORCES AND MOTION/PRESSURE)


ASPECT/CHARACTERISTIC/MODIFI
REASON/EXPLANATION
CATION
More sensitif/more accurate/suitable to measure a
The small reading of scale 0.01 cm
small length
Front and rear crumple zones
to increase time of impact //to reduce impulsive force.
will inflate during collision/to prevent driver and
Air bags
passenger colliding with steering wheel and
dashboard.
to lengthen the time of impact so as to reduce
Dashboard - made of soft material
impulsive force.
Seat belt
to prevent passengers thrown foward due to it inertia
Headrest
to prevent head thrown back due to it inertia
To withstand greater pressure at the bottom as the
Thicker wall at the base
pressure increases with depth
The wall is constructed using stronger
To avoid the wall from breaking / To increase the
materials / Using reinforce concrete
strength of the wall / To avoid leaking
To avoid flooding / To channel away the overflow
Equipped with the water overflow system
water
The mass must be high
so that the vehicles becomes more stable
the types of engine is diesel
so the cost is low
the diameter of the tyre must be bigger
so the pressure is low // more stable
Streamline / larus
reduce the resistance of water/ kurangkan rintangan air
Low Density /ketumpatan rendah
higher buoyant force/ daya apungan tinggi

47 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

16
17
18

Specific heat capacity high / muatan haba


tentu tinggi
High strength / Kekuatan tinggi
Material made from glass
Small diameter of capillary tube

19

High density of shots/added more

20
21
22
24
25
26
27
28

Big diameter of bottom bulb


Aerodynamics / cone shape at top
Small mass
Less than half of the bottle filled with
water(water roket)
3 or 4 wings
Angle of projection = 45 degree
Low density of an object
Higher density
High engine power

29

High spring constant // stiffer spring

30
31

Wide tyre // smooth tyre


use a spring with a bigger diameter
the spring is made from steel
a larger k(spring constant)
spring is greatly compressed
slope of inclined plane is 45 degrees
The melting point should be high
The material must be very strong
Shaped with a curved surface at the top and
a flat surface at the bottom(aerodynamic)
Run with higher speed
Bend pole greater // jump when the pole is
maximum bend

15

23

32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

Elastic pole // strong material // low density

41

Wear fit attire

42

Use mattress/soft material

43

Made of concrete

44
45

thicker wall at the bottom


height from ground is high(dam)

46

Wide base cross section area

47
48
49

High volume of air space in the ship


Spring arrange in parallel
Spring with thicker wire

50

Spring with smaller diameter of coil

51
52
53
54
55
56
57

Rope with small diameter(parachute)


Long stem(for hydrometer)
Stem with smaller diameter
Low rate of rusting
Semicircular curve shaped(for slope)
Smooth surface
Synthetic material

absorbs heat slowly/serap haba dengan perlahan


Difficult to damage / sukar rosak
Glass does not corrode with acid
To increase the sensitivity of the hydrometer
Makes the hydrometer stays upright/lower center of
gravity
To obtaine a bigger upthrust/stability
Reducing of air friction
Higher rate of acceleration/easy to carry
Enough space for increasing air pressure/ Big buoyant
force
The stability of the rocket
Increase the flight distance
So that it is lighter/accelerate faster
Bigger inertia/stability
To produce high acceleration// high resultant force
So that the spring is stiffer // motorcycle bounce less //
less vibration
To increase stability // to reduce friction
so that k is bigger
the type of material influences k produces a bigger
elastic PE. elastic P E changes to K E
so that elastic Potential Energy is bigger
so that distance is maximum
To be able to withstand high
To be able to withstand very strong force
To achieve an upward lifting force when moving at
high speed
To increase kinetic energy
Increase elastic potential energy
So that the pole can return to it original shape // So
that it will not break // light
Reduce air resistance
increase time of collision // reduce impulsive
force//increase landing time
Stronger / Not easy to break
// metal can rust easily
able to withstand the higher pressure at the bottom
to produce a greater difference in pressure
So that ship can float//prevent from overturn // ship
more stable // ship not sink deeper
Produce air buoyant force// ship can float
The spring sistem is stiffer/less extension/less elastic
The spring is stiffer/wire not easily break
Increase the stiffness of the spring//can with stand
higher force
Accupy less space/less mass
Cover a wider range of densities
Sink more and increase the sensitivity
To ensure tha material last longer
Exchange between KE and GPE easily
Easily to move/reduce frictional force
Light weight/air-proof material

Chapter 4 (HEAT)
48 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

BI
L

ASPECT/CHARACTERISTIC/MODIFI
CATION

49 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

REASON/EXPLANATION

the lid of the pan designed to lower the


air pressure inside the pan
the lid of the pan made of substance which
has weak conductivity of heat
Made from material with low specific heat
capacity
Made from a low density material
Made from material that is not easily
corroded or oxidized
The handle of the pot is made from material
with high specific heat capacity
The pot is designed to have vertical
compartments which can be added or
removed

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

High melting point

8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
BI
L
1
2
3
4
5

Liquid that difficult to compress.


High degree of hardness
Large numbers of fin blade Big size of fan
High boiling point
High specific heat capacity
Increase the length/area of cooling coil
A storage tank must be place at a higher
level
Pipe embedded in plate must be long
The pipe inside the plate must be made of
metal
thermometer is made from strong
transparent glass
the thermometric liquid chosen is mercury
the capillary tube is made narrow and thin
the shape of the thermometer is round
the thermometer is placed in melting ice
the thermometer is placed in steam
Low specific heat capacity of ice cream box
Smaller size of ice cream box
Plastic PVC
Bright colour of outer box
Use insulator behind the absorber panel
Use an absorber panel which is painted
black.

the boiling point of water decreased


heat will not absorbed by the the lid,so heat will not
lost to surrounding
Temperature in the pot can be increased quickly when
heated. This saves fuel / cooking gas.
Pot is light and more portable
Pot is more durable and will not contaminate the food
with dangerous material
The handle becomes hot slower and can be held
without scorching the hand
This makes the pot versatile because different food
can be cooked at the same time
Does not melt easily if there is an increase in
temperature.
Pressure will be transmited uniformly in all directions/
flows easily
Can withstand great force / does not break easily
Increase surface area // release heat quickly // engine
cools quickly
Can suck more air // more air can be blow to the
engine /Can cool down a larger area
Not easily to vaporize // the volume of liquid reduce
slowly // takes a longer time to boil
Takes a longer time to become hot // the rise in
temperature is slow
increase the resistance/Can transfer the heat faster to
the surrounding
To give higher pressure
will enlarge surface area will absorbs heat faster
Metal is a good heat conductor,so it will transmit heat
to water easily/resistance hih
so that it is not easily broken
because it easily expands uniformly
so that it is more sensitive
so that it has a magnifying effect
to obtain the lower point
to obtain the upper point
Easy get cold // becomes cool quickly
Easier to carry // easy too become cool
Poor conductor of heat
Does not absorb heat from surrounding quickly
To prevent the loss of heat energy
A black surface is a good absorber of radiation so it
will absorb heat faster

Chapter 5 (LIGHT)
ASPECT/CHARACTERISTIC/MODIFI
REASON/EXPLANATION
CATION
Allow more light to involve in total internal
Small critical angle.
reflection
strong material
not easily broken.
flexible material.
Can easily change the shape.
fine diameter
can enter small holes.
High refractive index
Total internal reflection can occur easily

50 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

Optical fibre in a bundle


Material with weak rigidity
Material with great strength
A plane mirror mounted on an adjustable
arm
Use a converging mirror instead of plane
mirror
Place the filament at the centre of curvature
of the converging mirror // use high
powered lens
Use heat filter
Electric fan operates during and after the
lamp is switched on
Shorter // smaller size of binocular
Use prism to make the total internal
refleclection occur
Higher density
Ojective lens with larger diameter
Eyepiece with higher power
Shorter focal length
Convex lense
u a bit bigger than f
periscope
2 plane mirror/prism
Casing to hold the mirror
Convex mirror
Optcal fibre with higher densities/ refrative
index inner compare than outer

Large number of signal/higher intensity of light can


propagate
The optical fibre can be bent easily
The optical fibre can last longer/not easily spoil
Reflects light to the vertical screen, corrects lateral
and vertical inversion
Focus the light directly to the lens // increase the
intensity of light.
Light goes directly from the lamp and reflect back on
the same path // increase the intensity of light
towards the transparency // to get brighter image
To absorb excess heat to the transparency
Cooling system to stabilize the temperature (heat
energy produced by filament bulb)
easy to carry
Produce upright image
Higher refractive indeks
More light passes through the lens
Shorter focal length
Higher power/increase the magnification
Can produce real image
Produce maximum magnification
Cheaper than cctv
Can reflect light from object
Easier to handle periscope
Wider field view
To ensure total internal reflection occur

Chapter 6 (WAVE)
BI
L

ASPECT/CHARACTERISTIC/M
ODIFICATION

Build near bay

Build retaining walls

Concrete barrier structure with a gap


in between

4
5
6
7
8

Build high retaining wall


Thick area at the base of the wall
Long wavelength
Short Slit
Ultrasonic wave

REASON/EXPLANATION
Waves are calmer due to divergence of energy/ Convergence
of waves at the cape/The bay is shallower .
The speed of waves decreases./The amplitude of waves at the
bay is small.
Reduce direct impact of the waves on the shore. To reflect the
waves from the shore./Protect the area from large waves
/avoid erosion
Waves passing through the gap will be diffracted in the
childrens area/the smaller amplitude of the diffracted waves
causes the sea to be calmer there energy of waves decreases.
To ensure the water not overflow.
To withstand high pressure at the base
Easy to diffract
Diffraction more obvious
Can transfer more energy

Chapter 7/8 (ELECTRIC & ELECTROMAGNET)


ASPECT/CHARACTERISTIC/MO
REASON/EXPLANATION
DIFICATION
Allow each electric appliances to be switched on and off
The electric appliances are connected
1
independently/Higher voltage
in parallel
One appliaces damage the another can still function
2
Fit fuse at the live wire in the fuse
To stop the flow of current by melting when a high voltage
51 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I
BI
L

box/Use miniature circuit breakers


(mcbs)
3

Earth connection to the metal case of


electrical appliances

Use low power lamps / install


fluorescent lamp
Regularly cleaning and removing dust
from the air filters of air conditioners
Low power lamp

High efficiency

8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

Long life span


Low price/cost
Smaller surface area
High melting point
Long (coiled) metal
Low rate of oxidation
Low resistance
Low resistivity
Low rate of thermal expansion
use thin diaphragm
Use strong material

19

More number of turns of coil

20

Thicker diameter of wire of coil


Using more powerful magnet to
increase the strength of the magnetic
field

4
5

21
22

Change slip rings with commutator

23
25

Use stronger magnet


Use more number of turn for the coil/
Increase the speed of rotation
Diameter should be large

26

The rate of expansion should be low

27
28
29
30

Use capacitor
Using concave surface soft iron
Using a laminated iron core
Thick copper wire
Using soft iron for the core

24

31
32

BI
L
1
2
3
4
5

Winding the secondary and primary


coils on top each other.

of electric current flows through the circuit // switches itself


off very quickly if the current exceeds
Earth wire connected to earth, so that when a fault occurs
and a current flows through the live wire and the earth wire,
the fuse in the live wire will blow and cut off the supply.
To reduce the energy use/do not waste the electrical energy
To make sure the appliaces function effectively
Safe cost//electric bill
The room looks brighter//high output power//less power
wastage
No need to replace often
Save money/cost
the resistance is higher
not easy to melt
to increase the resistance
Does not oxidize easily / can be used for a longer period
Current will increase / more heat will be produced
To reduce heat loss in the cables
The cables will not expand under hot weather
Easy to vibrate
Not easy to break
Increase the rate of change of magnetic flux linkage // The
magnitude of the induced current or is also increased
reduce the resistance of the coil
Increase the rate of change of magnetic flux linkage //The
magnitude of the induced current or induced electromotive
force is also increased
To reverse contact with brushes so that the current flow in
same direction in external circuit
To increase the magnetic field strength
Increase the rate of change of magnetic field/increase the
induced current
to reduce the resistance of the cables
So there is less expansion and less sagging in the cables
during hot days
To smoothen the current produced/to store electric charge
Produce radial magnetic field to ensure smooten rotatation
Reduce Eddy current in iron core
reduce the resistance of the coil
Reduce the hysterisis loss.
Easy to magnetize and demagnitize
Reduce Leakage of Magnetic Flux

Chapter 9 (RADIOACTIVE)
ASPECT/CHARACTERISTIC/MO
REASON/EXPLANATION
DIFICATION
The half-life should be a few days
This allows for the location to be detected and thereafter the
long
radioactive contamination is reduced
The source should emit particles
This enables the radiation to be detected above the
ground/high penetrating power
The detector should be able to detect High ionising particles like and particles are absorbed by
particles (low ionising particles)
the ground
Has a long half-life
Can be used for a long time hence save cost
Can penetrate box and liquid and is less
Emits beta
dangerous than gamma

52 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

6
7
8

Solid form
Low ionising power
Higher ionising power

Easy to handle and contain.


Does not change the state and taste of juice
Easy for the medium to conduct electricity

LAMPIRAN 3
SOALAN UNDERSTANDING
TINGKATAN 4
CHAPTER 1
4. Explain the differences between accuracy and
consistency of a measuring instrument by using
suitable examples.
Accuracy is the ability of the instrument to
give readings close to the actual value.
The value determined is accurate if it is near
to the actual value
The consistency of a measuring instrument is
the ability of instrument to record consistent
readings for each measurement with little
deviation among readings.
The measurement is consistent if the values
determined are close to each other.
CHAPTER 2
5. To accelerate 2 objects with the same
acceleration, the heavier object needs a bigger
force. Explain the statement.
Higher mass, higher inertia
To accelerate an object, need to overcome the
inertia first.
53 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

Therefore, more force is needed for heavier


object.
6. Can you explain why the passenger thrown
forward when the bus suddenly stop and the
head of the passenger were thrown back when
the car started moving.
When the bus was moving, the passenger
were also moving at the same speed as the
bus.
When the bus stopped, the passengers
continued moving. Hence, they were thrown
foward.
The people in the car tried to remain in their
state of rest when the car started moving.
Hence, they were thrown back.
In both situations, the passengers were
resisting a change in their state of motion and
also known as Inertia.
The concept of inertia also known as
Newtons First Law of Motion, which states
that an object will remain at rest or continue
with a constant speed in a straight line unless
an external forces acting on it
7. Can you explain why a maximum speed of
supertanker might need to stop its engine over a
distance of about 3 km before it can come to
stop.

A supertanker at a state of motions and have a


maximum velocity.
A supertanker has a larger mass.
A larger mass have a lot/larger inertia.
When the engine stop, the supertanker will
continue it state of motions.
So it take a longer distance/time to stop due to
its has a larger inertia.
8. Explain why a softball player moves his hand
backwards while catching a fast moving ball.
Other situation: bend our knee after jump?
A soft ball has a high velocity.
A soft ball has a high momentum.
The soft ball player move his hand backward
to increase time impact.
The higher the time impact will reduce
impulsive force.
So we will not feel hurt.
9. Diagram (a) shows two identical spherical
plasticine balls before being released from the
same height. Diagram (b) shows the state of
the

plasticine balls when they hit the wood and the


sponge. It was observed that the plasticine
stopped more quickly when it hit the wood.

10. Explain how the forces between the molecules


caused the elasticity when the spring is compressed
and stretched.

There are two types of force; attraction and


repulsive force between the particles of the
solid.
When the solid is stretched, the molecules
displaced away from each other
Attractive forces are acting to oppose the
stretching
When the solid is compressed, the molecules
displaced closer to each other
Repulsive forces are acting to oppose the
compression
11. Terangkan bagaimana anda boleh menentukan
ketumpatan bagi penyumbat gabus.
timbang jisim gabus
ikat gabus dengan pemberat dan masukan
dalam silinder penyukat
perubahan isipadu air bersamaan dengan
isipadu gabus
ketumpatan gabus = jisim perisipadu
12. Using the principle of conservation of
momentum, explain the working principle of
the rocket.
Fuel burns in the combustion chamber
Hot gases expelled at high speed
backwards
A large backwards momentum is produced
The rocket gains forwards momentum of
equal magnitude
13. Why the boy with mass 40kg slides down the
flume when the angle of inclination is 30 o and
remains stationary when the angle of
inclination is 17.5o.(the frictional force is
120N)

Explain the changes in energy that occur from


the moment the plasticine ball is released until
reaches the position in Diagram (b)

Before released, the plasticine has


Gravitational Potential energy .
When falling , Gravitational Potential
energy changes to Kinetic energy
When the plasticine hits the surface of
wood , the Kinetic energy changes to
Heat energy / / Sound energy
The energy / work done is use to changes
the shape of sponge

54 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

Boy slide down when component of


weight parallel to the slope is higher than
frictional force
Resultant force acting to produced
acceleration
Boy remain stationary when component of
weight parallel to the slope is equal to
frictional force
Resultant force is equal to zero make the
boy in force equilibrium

14. Explain why the boat moves away from the


jetty as a boy jumps out of the boat onto the
river bank.

When the boy jumps onto the river bank,


his momentum is forward.
Using the Principle of conservation of
momentum
the total momentum before and after
jumping is equal
The boat moves backward to balance the
forward momentum
15. Explain why the need of steel structure and the
separate compartments to build in lorry
carrying heavy load.

The inertia of lorry and load is very big


when it is moving
The separate compartments make the load
divided into smaller mass, thus reducing
the inertia of each unit.
The momentum of lorry and load is very
big when it is moving and produce a
bigger impulsive force.
The steel structure will prevent the loads
from smashing into the drivers
compartment during emergency braking.

16. Why we feel easier to pull the wheel barrow


compared to push the wheel barrow?
The object on the wheel barrow has a
weight
When we push the wheel barrow there is a
force acting on the ground in the same
direction as the weight.
So the total force acting on the ground is
the weight and the force produced when
we push the wheel barrow.
When we pull the wheel barrow the force
produced is in opposite direction with the
weight.
So the total force acting on the floor is a
weight less the force produced when we
pull the wheel barrow

18. Exlplain how the brake system operates when the


car needs to slow down.

55 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

Valve release air from ballast tank.


Sea water flooded ballast tank
The weight of water displaced is smaller.
Buoyant force < Weight of the
submarine

21. Explain why a balloon filled with helium gas rises up in

17. Explain why the wooden block move upwards


and then float on the water surface when it
release from the above of the water surface.

Force is applied to the toothpaste (tube)


Will produced a pressure
The toothpaste carry the pressure
and apply the pressure of the equal
magnitude to the whole tube

20.Explain how a submarine is able to submerge


into deep sea water

Buoyant force increase when the volume


of water displace increase.
Buoyant force higher than weight of block.
Boyant force pushed the wooden block
upward.
The wooden block then float because the
buoyant force is equal to the weight of the
wooden block

When the brake is pressed ,a force is


applied to the piston and pressure is
exerted.
Pressure is transmitted uniformly
throughout the brake fluid.
Force is exerted on the piston of the brake
pads
Brake pads will press against the brake
discs.

19. The toothpaste flows out of its tube while


squeezing at the bottom end
Explain how the toothpaste flows out and name a
physics principle related to it.

CHAPTER 3

The concept involve is archimedes


principle

The balloon acted by two forces: Upthrust


and the weight of the balloon
The density of helium gas is less than the
density of surrounding air
Upthrust equals to the weight of the air
displaced by the ballloon
Upthrust is higher than the weight of the
balloon

22. Diagram shows a copper block and a bowl


shape
copper
sheet of
same
mass.

difference in pressure occurs/atmospheric


pressure is higher than the pressure inside
the vacuum cleander
forced is exerted in/pushed in the dirt.
Explain why the copper block sink in water
but the bowl shape copper sheet floats on water

two forces act on the copper block and


bowl are uptrust and weight
Uptrust small because small volume // vise
versa
The average density of cooper sheet is
smaller than density of water. Cooper
sheet will float.
Block sink because weight > uptrust
Sheet float because weight = uptrust

23. Diagram shows a cross-sectional of a wing of a


moving aeroplane. The wing of the aeroplane
experiences a lift force. Explain why the lift
force acts on the wing of the aeroplane.

26.Bunsen burner burning with yellow flame .


Explain how a blue flame can be produced.

27.

The roof of a house being lifted by strong


winds. Explain why.

Higher velocity on the upper surface and


lower velocity on the lower surface
Thus produced lower pressure on the
upper surface and higher pressure on the
lower surface
Lift force = difference in pressure x area
of surface

24. Explain the principle of Insect Piston Spray

When the piston is pushed, air is forced


out through the jet of gas at a high speed.
According to Bernoullis Principle , the
pressure of the moving air decreases as the
speed of the air increases .
The higher atmospheric pressure in the
insect poison container will push
the insect poison liquid up through the
narrow metallic tube.

25. Explain how the vacuum cleaner is able to


remove dust from the floor
the fan blow air out of the vent
produce a partial vacuum area in the
vacuum cleaner
56 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

High velocity of gas produce low pressure


at the jet
Higher atmospheric pressure pushes the air
inside and mix with the gas
Complete mixture of combustion will
produce blue flame
Enlarge the orifice to allow more air

the strong wind above the roof is moving very


fast
While the air in the house is at rest
according to bernaoulli principle the higher the
velocity, the lower the pressure
pressure inside the house is higher than the
outside.
a force is generated by the difference in
pressure which is strong enough to lift the roof.

28. Explain why the hovercraft moves with


constant velocity in terms of the force
acting on it
The forward force = friction // forward thrust

= drag
The resultant force is zero
The hovercraft is in force in equilibrium

CHAPTER 4
29. Water is used as a cooling agent in a
radiator. Explain how water is used as a
cooling agent in the radiator.
Water has high specific heat capacity
When water in tube passes through the
engine it can absorb large amount of heat
energy
Once water reach the radiator, the heat of
the water absorbed by the fin blade of the
radiator
The same time the fan in the radiator push the heat
out of the car.

30. Terangkan bagaimana proses sejatan


mengakibatkan suhu cecair berkurang.

Di dalam air terdapat molekul yang


sentiasa bergerak pada halaju berbeza
Dipermukaan air molekul-molekul
berhalaju tinggi memperolehi tenaga
kinetik tinggi
Ikatan antara molekul diatasi dan terbebas
ke udara
Air kehilangan molekul berhalaju tinggi
jadi TK air rendah, suhu berkurang
31. According to the principle of thermal
equilibrium and the working principle of a
thermometer, explain how a doctor can check
his patient temperature during medical
treatment.

Thermometer is placed in the mouth of


patient,
Heat is transferred from patients body to
the thermometer.
Thermal equilibrium between the
thermometer and patients body is reached
when the net rate of heat transfer is zero.
The thermometer and the patients body
are at the same temperature. The
thermometer
reading shows the temperature of the
patients body.

32. Explain the changes which occur in the liquid


naphthalene when it is cooled until it changes
from the liquid to the solid state.

As liquid naphthalene cools, it loses


energy to surroundings
Its temperature begins to fall until it
reaches freezing point 800C
At its freezing point, naphthalene begins to
solidify.
Although it is losing its energy to
surroundings, its temperature remains
constant because the average kinetic
energy remains constant

33. Why the ice cube stick to the wet finger. Not
to dry Finger?

Ice cube melt will absorb the heat


The heat is known as latent heat of fusion
When our finger wet it has a small amount
of heat and it will absorb by the ice cube.
The heat release from water cause it to be
frozen.
So the ice cube and finger will stick
together due to the frozen of water
Further more finger have a rough surface
and it helps the ice stick to our finger

57 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

34. Apabila beberapa titik ether terkena tangan


seorang pelajar, tangannya merasa sejuk.
Terangkan bagaimana ini berlaku.
takat didih eter adalah rendah
suhu tangan lebih tinggi dari suhu eter
menyebabkan haba mengalir dari tangan
ke eter
eter meruap//membawa haba pendam
pengewapan
menyebabkan suhu tangan turun dan terasa
sejuk
35. Your body sweats when you are feeling
hot.How does sweating helps to cool down
your body?
When we do the activity using the
movement of our body a sweat will
poduce.
Acctually water evaporates from the skin
when we sweat.
In the process of evaporation the change of
phase of matter from liquid to steam occur.
The heat is needed to change this phase is
call the latent heat of vapourisation.
So we feel cool when evaporation occur
due to the release of heat in our body.
Factor influence the process: air velocity,
temperature and humidity.
36. We cannot use a cooling system of a
refrigerator to cool the hot room. Explain
why?

Cooling system of a refrigerator is smaller


Less cool air from refrigerator flow out
compare to the hot air flow in
Position of refrigerator is on the floor
The cool air does not flow upward

37. Why we put the fishes in the ice cube rather


than cold water?
Ice melts need heat known as latent heat of
fusion
Heat is absorb from the fish.
Fish will release it heat until the
temperature equal to 0
Cold water not experience a change of
phase
So just the process of thermal equilibrium
happen when they in thermal contact.
The lower temperature not to be 0 degree.

38. Cuaca yang paling sejuk dialami pada


penghujung musim sejuk, iaitu apabila salji
mulai melebur. Jelaskan kenapa?
salji perlukan haba untuk melebur
haba tersebut adalah haba pendam tentu
iaitu untuk menukarkan fasa pepejal
kepada cecair
lebih banyak haba diserap dari
persekitaran
39. Using kinetic theory of gasses, explain how
the pressure increase when the temperature
increase in the pressure cooker.

Molecules moving freely in random


motion
When temperature increase, kinetic
energy//velocity increase
Molecules strike the walls of pressure
cooker more frequently
The rate of change of momentum increase
Force exerted on the walls increase,
pressure (P = F/A) increase

The layers of air nearer the road warmer.


The density of air decrease nearer to the
road surface.
The light travel from denser to less dense
area.
The light refract away from the normal
When the angle of incidence exceed the
critical angle, total internal reflection
occurs

43. Diagram shows a ray of light directed


perpendicularly at a side of the semi circular
glass block. The ray passes through the glass
block to a point O before leaving the glass
block. The angle of incidence in the glass
block is 30 .

40. In the morning feel hot at the sea .Explain why


this phenomenon happens?

During the day,the land and the sea receive


the same amount of heat from the sun
Water has a higher specific capacity than
the land
The land is heated to a higher temperature
than the sea
The density of the air above the sea is
higher than the density of the air above the
land
The air above the land flows up and the air
above the sea flows towards the land

Explain how total internal reflection occurs in


diagram above?

CHAPTER 5
41. Tousrist at a beach observing the sunset.
Explain why the tourist can still able to see the
sun even though it has already set.

Refraction of light ray occurs


Light travels from less dense to a denser
medium
The light will bend towards the normal
In the observer eyes, the sun is
still not setting as they can still
see the image from refraction

42. While driving a car on a hot day, you may see


a mirage on the road. Explain how mirage
occurred.
58 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

Increase the angle of incidence,i, then


angle of refraction,r will also increase
Keep on increasing the angle of incidence
until angle of refraction is 90
The angle of incidence is called critical
angle
Increase the angle of of incidence more
than the critical angle, the ray will be
reflected.

44. Explain why a piece of paper burns when


placed under a convex lens aimed towards hot
sun rays.

The parallel rays of the sun will pass


through the a convex lens
After entering the lens, the light rays is
focused at the principal focus of the lens
At the principal focus, the light ray is
focused on one small area
Heat energy causes an increase in
temperature, the paper starts to burn

45. Explain how you would estimate the focal


length of a convex lens in your school
laboratory .

The convex lens is aimed/focused to a


distant object (infinity)
The screen is adjusted until a sharp image
is formed on the screen
The distance between the screen and the
lens is measuredl
Focal length = distance between the screen
and the lens

46. It is known that the sky is red during sunset


and the formation of rainbow on the sky
always appeared after raining. Explain these
phenomena.

Light consisting of seven colours.


Red has the longest wave length and the
last to refracted during sunset.
A droplet of water trap in the atmosphere
after raining acts a lens.
Light travel through this water droplet and
undergo the process of refraction ,total
internal reflection and dispersion of light
occurred.

47. The sound wave from the train(etc) can be


heard loudly and clearly at night. Why?

Air near the ground colder tha above air


Air layer the ground more denser
Sound travel slower in cold air/wavelength
decrease in cold air
Sound bend toward the observer/sound
bend away to normal
TINGKATAN 5

The depth of the water decreasing as it


travel towards the shore.
The velocity and wavelength is decreasing
due to the wave travel from the depth to
the shallow area.
The wave will bend and change their
direction(refraction occurs).
So, wave front of sea water will follow the
shape of the shore.
50. Explain why strong double-glazed glass is
used as walls of the observation tower in an
airport.
All particles in a material/matter/glass
vibrate at its natural frequency
The airplane engine produces noise which
cause the air to vibrate
Due to resonance, the glass vibrate at a
higher/maximum amplitude
Need strong glasses to withstand the effect
of resonance which vibrate with high
amplitude
so that it does not brek easily
51. How can when the oprah singer sing can make
the glass break.

CHAPTER 6

The singer sing with a certain frequency


and produce sound energy
The energy is transferred to the glass
Resonance occures when the forced
frequency made by the singer is the same
as the natural frequency of the glass
The glass will vibrate with maximum
amplitude
Increase in energy transferred may cause
the glass to break

48. Terangkan bagaimana kedalaman laut boleh


diukur.
kedalaman laut boleh diukur menggunakan
peralatan OSK dan hidrofon
hidrofon boleh mengesan gelombang
ultrasonik dalam air yang dipancarkan
OSK boleh menyukat masa pantulan
gelombang selepas dipancarkan dan
kembali semula kepada penerima.
Kedalaman boleh dihitung menggunakan
rumus v = (2d/t)
49. Can you explain why the wave front of sea
water will follow the shape of the shore when
it approaches the shore?

59 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

52. Descibe the movement of two similiar ships


that are located at A and B. Explain?

The ship at A will move up and down


Because constructive inteference happens
at point A
The ship will remain calm at location B
Because destructive inteference happens at
point B

CHAPTER 7
53.Explain the advantages of parallel circuit in a
house wiring system.

A parallel circuit can run several devices


using the full voltage of the supply.
If one device fails, the others will
continue running normally
If the device shorts, the other devices will
receive no voltage, preventing overload
damage.

A failure of one component does not lead to


the failure of the other components.
More components may be added in
parallel without the need for more voltage.
Each electrical appliance in the circuit
has it own switch

54. Explain why a three pin plug is more suitable


compared with a two pin plug.

Two pin plug has no earth wire while


three pin plug has earth wire
Using 2 pin plug, if there is leakage of
current it will also flow through the metal
body while using 3 pin plug if there is leakage
of current it will flow to the ground

The person who touches the metal body


will experiences electric shock while using
3 pin plug, the current will be earthed

Using 2 pin is not safe to the consumer


while using 3 pin plug is more safer to the
consumer

55. What happen to the candle flame when it place


between 2 metal plate supply with Extra High
Tension (EHT).

Candle flame spread into two


Heat from candle produced ion
Positive charge will attracted to negative
plate while negative charge will atracted to
positive plate
Candle flame spread wider to negative
plate because positive charge is more
haviear than negative charge

56. Pembakar roti T bertanda 240 V, 650 W dan


pembakar roti U bertanda 240 V, 840 W.
Tentukan pembakar roti yang manakah
mempunyai elemen pemanas dengan
rintangan yang lebih kecil.
pembakar roti U
60 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

kedua-dua pembakar roti mempunyai


voltan kerja yang sama
kuasa elemen pemanas = V2/R //kuasa
elemen pemanas berkadar songsang
dengan rintangan
pembakar roti dengan kuasa yang lebih
tinggi mempunyai elemen pemanas
dengan rintangan yang lebih kecil
57. Explain why the bulb connected to two dry
cells lights up brighter than one bulb
connected to one dry cell.
The two dry cells are connected in parallel
The effective e.m.f. remains the same
The effective internal resistance of the two
cells is smaller
A larger current will flow through the
bulb to make it brighter
58. Sebuah bateri yang terdiri daripada dua buah
sel kering berlabel 1.5 V disambungkan
kepada sebuah mentol 2.5V 0.3 A. Didapati
bahawa mentol itu menyala dengan kecerahan
normal apabila suis dihidupkan. Terangkan
mengapa mentol itu menyala dengan
kecerahan normal walaupun d.g.e bateri lebih
besar daripada voltan metol itu.
bateri mempunyai rintangan dalam
sebahagian daripada d.g.e bateri hilang di
dalam bateri/sebahagian digunakan untuk
mengatasi rintangan dalam
voltan//beza keupayaan yang dibekalkan
kepada mentol hampir sama dengan voltan
kerja mentol
CHAPTER 8
59. The acceleration of a magnet that drops
vertically into a solenoid is much smaller than
the gravitational acceleration. Explain the
statement.
Magnetic flux change in the solenoid
Induced current generates in the solenoid
Direction of induced current always flows
in the direction to generate magnetic pole
to oppose the pole of the falling magnet.
Therefore, acceleration is lower
60. Explain how the electromagnet crane can be
used to lift scrap metal.
Current flow through the solenoid,
magnetic field is produced
Soft iron core will be magnetized

The scrap metal attracted to the iron core


No current flow soft iron demagnetized or

metal scrap fall down


61. Most of our electric energy comes from
hydroelectric power stations and thermal
power station. These power station are
connected by cables to transmit electricity to
users in industries, offices, schools and
houses. This system is called the national grid
network.
Explain briefly the importance of the national
grid network system in distributing electric
energy to the users.

The electrical supply is continuous,


although there is faulty in one of the
power station
The electrical energy from other station is
directed to the the affected areas
The electrical energy from other area is
directed to the areas that need more energy
The overall cost of production of
electricity can be reduced

So the magnetic field will be stronger in


the middle.
63. Using the concept of the magnetic effect of an
electric current, explain with the aid of
diagrams how forces are produced on a wire
in the coil of direct current electric motor?

The (magnadur) magnets produce a


magnetic field / diagram
The current in the wire produces a
magnetic field / diagram
The two magnetic fields interact/combine
to form a resultant / catapult field /
diagram
The motor will rotate due to the
differences of force produce//turning
effect from this two forces
S

64. Explain how the generator works to produce


direct current.

62. Diagram shows the pattern of magnetic field


formed when current flows in a coil.
Explain why the magnetic field strength is
greater at the center compared to the edge.
The direction of the magnetic field on the
left coil is anti clockwise
The direction of the magnetic field on the
right coil is clockwise

rotate the coil in clock wise direction


the coil cut across the magnetic field
current is induced in the coil
the commutator change the direction in
the coil so that the direction of current in
external circuit always the same.

65. Explain the working principle of a


transformer.

When a.c. voltage is supplied to primary


coil, (alternating current will flow) and
the soft iron core is magnetized.
The magnet produced varies in magnitude
and direction.
This causes a changing magnetic flux pass
through the secondary coil.
An induced e.m.f. across the secondary
coil is produced

66. Explain the working principle of an electric


bell.

As the result the magnetic fields in the


middle of the coil are in the same
direction, ie upward.

61 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

When the bell is pressed, a current flows in


the coils of the electromagnet, causing the
electromagnet to be magnetized.

The magnetized electromagnet attracts the


soft-iron armature, causing the hammer to
strike the gong.
The movement of the armature breaks the
circuit and causes the electromagnet to
lose it magnetism.
The light spring pulls the armature back,
remaking the contact and completing the
circuit again.
The cycle is repeated so long as the bell
push is pressed and continuous ringing
occurs.
CHAPTER 9

67. Explain how the green shadow produced in


the CRO screen?
6V heater supply produced electron on it
surface
When 3 kV power supply are connected
Cathode rays/electron acceleratel in a
straight line.
Cathode rays carry kinetic energy and
converts to light energy when they hit the
screen .

Put the radioactive source opposite the


detector
Detector is connected to the thickness
indicator
Detector detect the reading of the changes
in counts
Thickness is measured with the thickness
indicator
If the reading of the detector is less than
the specified value, the thickness of the
paper
is too tick/ vice versa

70. Nuclear fission produces a chain reaction.


Describe how the chain reaction occurs in a
nuclear fission of an atom of Uranium- 235.

Neutron bombarded a uranium nucleus


and produced three neutral neutron
The new neutron bombarded a new
uranium nucleus
For every reaction, the neutrons produced
will generate a chain reaction
Diagram of chain reaction

71. Runut alfa yang diperhatikan di dalam kebuk


awan resapan adalah lurus dan tebal. Jelaskan
bagaimanakah runut alfa terbentuk dan
mengapakah runut itu tebal dan lurus.

68. Explain why the bulb light up at night

At night resistance LDR increases


VBE increases (higher than 0.7 V
for Si)
Ib increases and switch on transistor
Ic, increases and lights up bulb
CHAPTER 10

69. Radioisotope Strontium-90 is used to measure


the thickness of paper in a paper industry
Explain how Strontium-90 is used to measure
the thickness piece of paper?

Zarah mengionkan molekul-molekul


udara
Wap lampau tepu memeluwap pada ionion yang terbentuk
Runut tebal disebabkan kuasa pengionan
zarah alfa adalah tinggi//zarah alfa
menghasilkan banyak ion.
Runut lurus kerana zarah alfa mempunyai
jisim yang lebih tinggi
72.Explain how radioisotopes can be used to detect the
location of the leakage

Radioisotope is injected into the pipe


The water in the pipe flow with the
radioisotope
G-M tube as detector is used to find the
leakage across the pipe
Reading on detector increases when near a
leakage

LAMPIRAN 4
KNOWLEDGE/DEFINATION
BAB
1

ITEM
Derived quantity (Kuantiti

DEFINATION
A physical quantity derived from combinations of base quantities through

62 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

terbitan)

multiplication or division or both multiplication and division.

Error (Ralat)

Hypothesis (Hipotesis)

Inference (Inferens)
Physical quantity (Kuantiti
fizik)

The difference between the measured value and the actual value.
A statement of an expected outcome that usually states the relationship between
two or more variables intended to be given a direct experimental test.
An initial interpretation or explanation concerning the observation.

1
1
1
1
1

Prefix (Imbuhan)
Random error (Ralat
rawak)
Scalar quantity (Kuantiti
skalar)
Scientific
notation/Standard form
(Bentuk piawai)

A quantity that can be measured.


A word, letter or value used to simplify the description of the magnitude of a
physical quantity that either very big or very small.
Error due to mistakes made when making measurement either through incorrect
positioning of the eye or the instrument when making measurement.
A physical quantity that has magnitude only.
A way to write a numerical magnitude in the form A x 10", where 1 A < 10 and n is
an integer.

Sensitivity (Kepekaan)

The ability of a measuring instrument to detect a small change in the quantity to


be measured.

Systematic error (Ralat


sistematik)

An error which may be due to the error in the calibration of an instrument.

Variable (Pembolehubah)

A physical quantity that can be varied in an experiment. There are three types of
variables; manipulated variable, responding variable and fixed variable.

Vector quantity (Kuantiti


vektor)
Zero error (Ralat sifar)

Accuracy (Kejituan)

Base quantity (Kuantiti


asas)

Consistency (Kepersisan)

Displacement (Sesaran)

Distance (Jarak)

Efficiency (Kecekapan)
Elastic potential energy
(Tenaga keupayaan
kenyal)

2
2

Elasticity (Kekenyalan)

Energy (Tenaga)

Free fall (Jatuh bebas)

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

Gravitational acceleration
(Pecutan graviti)
Gravitational field (Medan
graviti)
Gravitational field
strength (Kekuatan
medan graviti)
Gravitational potential
energy (Tenaga
keupayaan graviti)
Hooke's law (Hukum
Hooke)
Impulse (Impuls)
Impulsive force (Daya
impuls)
Inertia (Inersia)
Kinetic energy (Tenaga
kinetik)
Mass (Jisim)
Momentum (Momentum)
Non-renewable energy
resource (Sumber tenaga
yang tidak boleh

A physical quantity that has magnitude and direction.


Error due to non-zero reading when the actual reading should be zero
Accuracy of a measurement is how close the measurement made is to the actual
value.
A physical quantity that cannot be defined in terms of other quantities.
Consistency of an instrument is the ability of the instrument to measure a quantity
with little or no deviation among measurements.
The length of the straight line connecting the two locations, in a specified
direction.
The total length of the path travelled from one location to another.
The percentage of the input energy that is transformed into useful energy.
The energy stored in an object when it is extended or compressed by a force.
A property of matter that enables an object to return to its original size and shape
when the force that was acting on it is removed.
The capacity of a system to enable it to do work.
The motion when an object is acted upon by a gravitational force in the
gravitational field.
The acceleration of an object due to the pull of the gravitational force.
A region in which an object experiences a force due to the gravitational attraction
towards the centre of the Earth.
The gravitational force acting on a mass of 1 kg placed at a point in the
gravitational field.
The energy of an object due to its higher position in the gravitational field.
The extension of a spring is directly proportional to the applied force provided the
elastic limit is not exceeded.
The quantity of impulsive force multiplied by time.
The rate of change of momentum.
The inertia of an object is the tendency of the object to remain at rest or, if
moving, to continue its uniform motion in a straight line.
The energy of an object due to its motion.
The amount of matter in an object.
The momentum of an object is defined as the product of its mass and its velocity.
An energy resource that cannot be replaced once it has been used.

63 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

2
2

diperbaharui)
Renewable energy
resource (Sumber tenaga
boleh diperbaharui)
Resultant force (Daya
paduan)

An energy resource that is continually replaced and will not run out.
A single force that represents the combined effect of two or more forces by taking
into account both the magnitude and the direction of the forces.
The distance travelled per unit time. It is also defined as the rate of change of
distance.
The speed in specified direction. The rate of change of displacement.

Speed (Laju)

Velocity (Halaju)

Weight (Berat)

Work (Kerja)

Acceleration (Pecutan)

The force of gravity acting on an object.


The product of an applied force and displacement of an object in the direction of
the applied force.
The rate of change of velocity.

Pascal's principle (Prinsip


Pascal)

Pressure applied to an enclosed liquid is transmitted uniformly to every part of the


liquid and to the walls of the container of the liquid.

Pressure (Tekanan)

3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4

4
4
4
4

Archimedes' principle
(Prinsip Archimedes)
Atmospheric pressure
(Tekanan atmosfera)
Bernoulli's principle
(Prinsip Bernoulli)
Buoyant force (Daya
apungan)
Heat capacity (Muatan
haba)
Latent heat (Haba
pendam)
Melting point (Takat lebur)
Pressure law (Hukum
tekanan)
Specific heat capacity
(Muatan haba tentu)
Specific latent heat of
fusion (Haba pendam
tentu pelakuran)
Specific latent heat of
vaporisation (Haba
pendam tentu
pengewapan)
Temperature (Suhu)
Thermal equilibrium
(Keseimbangan terma)
Thermometer
(Termometer)

The magnitude of the force acting perpendicular to a surface per unit area of the
surface.
For a body wholly or partially immersed in a fluid, the upward buoyant force acting
on the body is equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces.
The pressure exerted by the atmosphere on the surface of the Earth as well as all
objects on the Earth.
Where the speed of a fluid is high, the pressure is low, and where the speed is
low, the pressure is high.
An upward force, resulting from an object being wholly or partially immersed in a
fluid.
The amount of heat that must be supplied to a body to increase its temperature by
1C.
The heat absorbed or the heat released at constant temperature during a change
of phase.
The temperature at which a substance changes its state from a solid to a liquid.
For a fixed mass of gas, the pressure of the gas is directly proportional to its
absolute temperature when its volume is kept constant.
The amount of heat that must be supplied to increase the temperature by 1C for
a mass of 1 kg of the substance.
The amount of heat required to change 1 kg of a substance from the solid to liquid
phase without a change in temperature.
The amount of heat required to change 1 kg of a substance from the liquid to
gaseous phase without a change in temperature.
The measure of the degree of hotness of an object.
A condition where two objects in thermal contact have no net transfer of heat
energy between each other.
An instrument that measures temperature or the degree of hotness.

Charles' law (Hukum


Charles)
Focal length (Jarak fokus)

Focal point (Titik folcus)

Interference of waves
(Interferens gelombang)

The temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid to a gaseous state,


where the change occurs throughout the liquid.
For a fixed mass of gas, the pressure of the gas is inversely proportional to its
volume when the temperature is kept constant.
For a fixed mass of gas, the volume of the gas is directly proportional to its
absolute temperature when its pressure is kept constant.
The distance between the centre of a lens to its focal point.
A common point on a principle axis at which beams of light parallel to the axis
converge after passing through a convex lens or appear to diverge from it after
passing through a concave lens.
The result of the combination of two separate sets of waves with the same
frequency.

Longitudinal wave
(Gelombang membujur)

A wave in which the particles of the medium oscillate in the direction parallel to
the direction in which the wave moves.

Period (Tempoh)

The period of an oscillation is the time taken to complete one oscillation.

Real depth (Dalam nyata)

The distance of the real object, 0 from the surface of the water or medium.

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Real image (Imej nyata)


Refraction of light

An image that can be displayed on a screen.


The bending of a light ray at the boundary as it travels from one medium to

Boiling point (Takat didih)

Boyle's law (Hukum Boyle)

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(Pembiasan cahaya)
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Resonance (Resonans)

Total internal reflection


(Pantulan dalam penuh)

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Transverse wave
(Gelombang melintang)
Virtual image (Imej maya)
Angle of incidence (Sudut
tuju)
Angle of reflection (Sudut
pantulan)
Apparent depth (Dalam
ketara)
Concave lens (Kanta
cekung)
Convex lens (Kanta
cembung)
Critical angle (Sudut
genting)
Diffraction of waves
(Belauan gelombang)

Electromagnetic
spectrum (Spektrum
elektromagnet)

Frequency (Frekuensi)

Node (Nod)

Principle of superposition
(Prinsip superposisi)

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Reflection of waves
(Pantualan gelombang)
Refraction of waves
(Pembiasan gelombang)
Wave (Gelombang)
Wavefront (Muka
gelombang)
Wavelength (Panjang
gelombang)
Amplitude (Amplitud)
Angle of refraction (Sudut
pembiasan)
Antinode (Antinod)
Coherent waves
(Gelombang koheren)
Damping (Pelembapan)
Electric current (Arus
elektrik)
Electric field (Medan
elektrik)
Electric power (Kuasa
elektrik)
Electrical energy (Tenaga
elektrik)
Electromotive force
(Daya gerak elektrik)
Internal resistance
(Rintangan dalam)
National Grid Network
(Rangkaian Grid Nasional)
Parallel circuit (Litar selari)

another.
An oscillating system is said to be at resonance when it is driven at its natural
frequency by a periodic force. Maximum energy transfer to the system occurs and
it oscillates at large amplitude.
The condition where the angle of incidence, i is increased further so that it is
greater than the critical angle, c. The light is no longer refracted but is internally
reflected.
A wave in which the particles of the medium oscillate in the direction
perpendicular to the direction in which the wave moves.
An image that can be seen by the observer but not be displayed on a screen.
The angle between the incident ray and the normal.
The angle between the reflected ray and the normal.
The distance of the virtual image, I from the surface of the water.
A lens that is thinnest at its centre. It causes parallel rays of light to diverge after
passing through this lens.
A lens that is thickest at its centre. It causes parallel rays of light to converge after
passing through this lens.
The angle of incidence in the denser medium when the angle of refraction in the
less dense medium is equal to 90.
A phenomenon that refers to the spreading out of waves when they move through
a gap or round an obstacle.
A group of waves with similar natures. The members of the electromagnetic
spectrum arranged in increasing frequencies (decreasing wavelengths) are radio
waves, microwaves, infrared rays, visible light, ultraviolet rays, X-rays and gamma
rays.
The frequency of an oscillation is the number of complete oscillations made in one
second.
A point where a destructive interference occurs.
Principle of superposition states that at any time, the combined wave form of two
or more interfering waves is given by the sum of displacement of the individual
wave at each point of the medium.
Reflection of waves occurs when all or part of the waves are deflected after they
encounter an obstacle or reflector.
Refraction of waves occurs when there is change of direction of the propagation
of waves travelling from a medium to another medium due to a change of speed.
A travelling disturbance from a vibrating or oscillating source and carries energy
along with it in the direction of its propagation.
An imaginary line that joins all identical points on a wave.
The horizontal distance between two successive equivalent points on a wave.
The amplitude of an oscillation is the maximum displacement from the mean
position.
The angle between the refracted ray and the normal.
A point where a constructive interference occurs.
Waves having the same wavefront in which the coherent sources of waves
maintain a constant phase difference.
Damping in an oscillating system occurs when the system loses energy to the
surrounding, usually in the form of heat energy.
The rate of charge flow in a circuit.
A region in which an electric charge experiences an electric force.
The rate of electrical energy dissipated or transferred.
The energy carried by electrical charges which can be transformed to other forms
of energy by the operation of an electrical device or appliance.
The work done by a source in driving a unit charge around a complete circuit.
The resistance against the moving charge due to the electrolyte in the cell.
A network system of cables which connects all the power stations and substations
in the country to the consumers in a closed network to transmit electricity.
A circuit where all the electrical components are connected side by side and their
corresponding ends are joined together to a cell to form separate and parallel

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paths for a current to flow.


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Potential difference (Beza


keupayaan)
Power (Kuasa)
Resistance (Rintangan)
Reverse biased (Pincang
songsang)
Series circuit (Litar sesiri)
Alternating current (Arus
ulangalik)
Electromagnet
(Elektromagnet)
Electromagnetic
induction (Aruhan
electromagnet)
Faraday's law (Hukum
Faraday)

The work done in moving one coulomb of charge from one point to another.
The rate at which work is done.
The ratio of a potential difference to a current flowing through a conductor.
A state when a diode does not allow current to flow
A circuit where all the electrical components are connected one end after the
other to a cell to form a single pathway for a current to flow.
A current which flows to and fro in two opposite directions in a circuit. It changes
its direction periodically.
A magnet made by winding a coil of insulated wire round a soft iron core, so that a
magnetic field is produced when a current is passed through the coil.
The setting up of an electromotive force in a conductor due to a change in
magnetic flux caused by the relative motion of the conductor and a magnetic field.

Magnetic force (Daya


magnet)
Transformer (Transformer)

The magnitude of the induced e.m.f, is directly proportional to the rate of change
of the magnetic flux or the rate of cutting of the magnetic flux.
The direction of the induced current is such that the change producing it will be
opposed.
A force produced as a result of the combination of the magnetic field due to a
current and another magnetic field produced by a permanent magnet.
A device which steps up or steps down alternating current voltages.

Diode (Diod)

A device that allows current to flow in one direction only.

Direct current (Arus terus)

Doping (Pengedopan)

A current which flows steadily in one direction only in a circuit.


A process of adding a certain amount of specific impurities called dopants to
semiconductors to increase their conductivity.
The current that flows through the emitter terminal of a transistor. It is equal to the
sum of the base current and the collector current.

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Lenz's law (Hukum Lenz)

Emitter current (Arus


pengeluar)
Forward biased (Pincang
hadapan)
Full-wave rectification
(Rektfikasi gelombang
penuh)
Half-wave rectification
(Rektifikasi gelombang
separuh)
Logic gate (Get logik)
Maltese Cross tube (Tiub
palang Maltese)
Rectification (Rekfifikasi)
Semiconductor
(Semikonduktor)
Thermionic emission
(Pancaran termionik)

Transistor (Transistor)

Base current (Arus tapak)

Capacitor (Kapasitor)

Collector current (Arus


pengumpul)

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Gamma decay (Reputan


gama)
Gamma rays (Sinar gama)

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Genetic effect (Kesan


genetik)

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Half-life (Setengah hayat)

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Isotopes (Isotop)

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Nuclear energy (Tenaga


nuklear)
Nuclear fission
(Pembelahan nukleus)

A state when a diode allows current to flow.


A process where both halves of every cycle of an alternating current is made to
flow in the same direction.
A process where only one half of every cycle of an alternating current is
made to flow in one direction only.
Switching circuit that is applied in computers and other electronic devices.
A special cathode ray tube with a Maltese Cross in it which is used to investigate
the properties of cathode rays.
A process to convert an alternating current into a direct current by using a diode
or diodes.
A material which can conduct electricity better than insulator, but not as well as
conductor.
The emission of electrons from the surface of a heated metal.
An electronic device which has three terminals labelled as base, collector and
emitter.
The current that flows through the base terminal of a transistor.
A device used for storing charges and to smooth out output current in a rectifier
circuit.
The current that flows through the collector terminal of a transistor. It will only flow
when a suitable base current flows through the circuit.
A radioactive decay which emits a gamma ray photon.
Electromagnetic waves with very high frequency and short wavelength.
The effect of radiation that appears in the future generations of the exposed
person as a result of radiation damage to reproductive cells.
The time taken for the number of undecayed nuclei to be reduced to half of its
original number.
Atoms of an element which have the same proton number but different nucleon
numbers.
Energy released by a nuclear reaction as a result of a mass defect.
The splitting of a heavy nucleus into two lighter nuclei.

66 | M o d u l T e m b a k 3 2 - S A K T I

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Nuclear fusion (Pelakuran


nukleus)
Nucleon (Nukleon)
Nucleon number (Nombor
nukleon)

The combining of two lighter nuclei to form a heavier nucleus.


A subatomic particle found in the nucleus.
The total number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus.

10

Nucleus (Nukleus)

A very small core of an atom which contains most of the mass and all of the
positive charge of the atom.

10

Proton number (Nombor


proton)

The total number of protons in a nucleus.


The spontaneous disintegration of an unstable nucleus accompanied by the
emission of energetic particles or photons.
Unstable isotopes which decay and give out radioactive emissions.

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Radioactivity
(Keradioaktifan)
Radioisotope (Radioisotop)
Somatic effect (Kesan
somatik)
Alpha decay (Reputan alfa)

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Alpha particle (Zarah alfa)

Helium nucleus emitted by an unstable nucleus.

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Beta decay (Reputan beta)

A radioactive decay which emits a beta particle.

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Beta particle (Zarah beta)

High energy electron emitted by an unstable nucleus.

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Cathode rays (Sinar katod)


Cathode ray oscilloscope
(Osiloskop sinar katod)
Chain reaction (Tindak
balas berantai)

A beam of negatively charged electrons that move at high speeds.

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The effect of radiation that appears in a person exposed to radiation.


A radioactive decay which emits an alpha particle.

An instrument that converts electronic and electrical signals to a visual display.


A self-sustaining reaction in which the products of a reaction can initiate another
similar reaction.

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